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Full text of "China from a medical point of view in 1860 and 1861 : to which is added a chapter on Nagasaki as a sanitarium"

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CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 

COLLECTION 

CHINA AND THE CHINESE 



THE GIFT OF 

CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 

CLASS OF 1S76 

1918 



Cornell University Library 
RA 901.e66~ 



China from a medical point of view in 18 




3 1924 023 990 736 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023990736 



CHIN/.. 



CHINA 



A MEDICAL POINT OF VIEW 



IN 1860 AND 1861, 



TO WHICH IS ADDED A CHAPTER ON 



NAGASAKI AS A SANITARIUM. 



St 



CHARLES ALEXANDER GORDON, M.D., C.B., 

DEPUTY-INSPECTOR'GENERAL OF HOSPITALS, ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 




LONDON: 
JOHN CHURCHILL, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 

MDCCCLXIII. 



I.ONDON : 
MINTED BY J. E. ADLABD, BABTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



PREFACE. 



The late expedition to China has afforded opportunities not 
heretofore available to Englishmen of making observations, upon 
a tolerably extensive scale, in regard to the climate of several 
portions of that great but disorganized empire, of inquiring into 
the various productions of its soil, and of investigating the phe- 
nomena of disease, as well as its ravages among our troops em- 
ployed there. 

In the following pages I endeavour to give a faithful record 
of my observations in regard to these matters, introducing, from 
time to time, as I proceed, such remarks upon various other 
subjects as I think likely to interest the reader. 

If we may judge from the present aspect of affairs in China, 
further military operations there may confidently be looked for. 
Probably no expedition was ever more completely fitted out in 
all its departments, and certainly none could have been more 
successful, than the one sent out to avenge our disasters at the 
mouth of the Peiho. In the following pages may, it is hoped, 
be found hints that are calculated to show how, on a future 
occasion, the medical arrangements may be conducted in the 



vi PREFACE. 

event of hostilities continuing there ; and it is hoped that the 
plan adopted, of giving the medical statistics for each month 
separate] y, will form a guide as to the casualties that may for 
the future be expected, and for the probable amount of rein- 
forcements necessary to maintain the numerical strength of an 
army there. 

At the recommendation of the publisher, several statistical 
tables have been omitted, their results being embodied in the 
work itself. 

The meteorological observations will, it is hoped, be found 
not without value as a contribution to this branch of science. 

I regret it will not be in my power to examine the proofs as 
sent by the printer; this duty must be delegated to some 
person else, as I am about to proceed on foreign service. I 
therefore trust that, should typographical errors be discovered, 
the reader will be so good as to make some allowances on 
account of the circumstance mentioned. 

C. A. GORDON. 

Devonpobi; July, 1862. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTEODTTCTION. 

HISTORICAL NOTICES OF CHINA. 

PAGE 

Its name — Chee Wang — First Command with promise — Fuhi — Writing — 
Divisions of day — Marriages — Another Fuhi — History — Yu — Written 
characters — Chronological cycles— Principal dates — Yuen dynasty — 
Manchoos — " Chee Seang" — Silk — Tea — Compressing feet — " Tails" 
— Printing — Paper — Indian ink — Porcelaine — Gunpowder — Compass 
— Medicine — Epidemics — Theory of disease — Disposal of the dead — 
Wailers — Sacrifices to the dead — TJrns — Ancient trade of China — 
Incursion of the Persians — Intercourse with England — Misunderstand- 
ings and Wars . . . . . .1 

CHAPTER II. 

HONG KONG. 

The island as seen from the anchorage — Completeness of the expedition 
to the north — First impressions — The Chinese population — A patri- 
archal dinner party — Floating houses — Their female occupants — Early 
rising not practised, and why ? — Troops at Hong Kong — Available 
accommodation — The sanitarium at the Peak — Rapid rise of Hong 
Kong — A cause of sickness — Despatching invalids — Necessity for steam 
transport — French arrangements — A suggestion — Weather in August 
— Indications of storms — Rain and water supply — General climate — 
Medical history of Hong Kong and Southern China . . 24 



vni CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

CANTON. 

l'AOB 
The Pearl Eiver and its banks — Whampoa— Canton — The Chinese con- 
trasted with the Indians — • The British force in occupation — Chinese 
prisons — Honam — A tea manufactory — History of tea — Lacquer ware 
— An aquarium — Blind beggars — Superstitions — Sickness — Table of 
temperature . ... 66 

CHAPTER IV. 

HONG KONG TO PEIHO. 

Off Amoy — Weather in December — The Yang-tse Kiang — Woosung — 
Shanghaie — Misery — Tea gardens — Racecourse — Graves — Lynch law 
— Neighbourhood — Bubbling well — Game — Meatao island — Peiho . 81 

CHAPTER V. 

TEIN-TSIN. 

Tein-tsin— Treaty Joss-house — River — Pekin road — Means of transport — 
Canals — Settlement — Streets — Salt stacks — Fire engines — " Spirit " of 
fire — Rudeness of the lower classes — Crime and police — Female children 
— Infanticide — A Chinese dinner — Chinese new-year— Worshipping 
ancestors — Public baths — Houses of the Chinese — Crowds — Beggars 
— Blindness — Old guns — Physician —Conjurors — Enamel — Opium — 
Provision store — Temples — A Buddhist nunnery — A morgue — A found- 
ling hospital . . . . , .91 

CHAPTER VI. 

TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Topography of Tein-tsin, with some account of agriculture and gardening 
in the vicinity of that town — Succession of crops — Fruits — Vegetables 
— Preparation of oils, &c, &c. .... 115 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 

ZOOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

PAGE 

Remarks on some of the animals met with in and near Tein-tsin, and on 

the sources of furs . 205 

CHAPTER VIII. 

CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Winter cold — Periods of cold — Quarrying ice— Ice pits — Dryness of the at- 
mosphere — Causes of coldness — Regularity in the weather — Greatest 
cold — Returning warmth — A dust storm — Its effects upon the sick — 
Ice on the river breaks up — Vegetation appears — Hot winds — Elec- 
tricity — Hot season — Clearness of the atmosphere — Comet — Period of 
maximum heat — Temperature moderates — Rain — Rapid fall of tem- 
perature — Concluding remarks .... 230 

CHAPTER IX. 

HYGIENE OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Remarks upon the distribution of the troops in the city of Tein-tsin, and 

the hospital established for them .... 298 

CHAPTER X. 

MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

Statistics of Sickness and Mortality among the British and Native Indian 

Troops at Tein-tsin ..... 330 



x CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XI. 

PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES AT TEIN-TSIN. 

PAGE 
1. Febris c. c. — 2. Febris typhus — 3. Febris intermittens — 4. Rubeola 
maligna — 5. Variola — 6. Catarrh and bronchitis — 7. Pneumonia — 8. 
Phthisis pulmonalis — 9. Morbus cordis and aneurisma — 10. Intoxi- 
cation — 11. Delirium tremens — 12. Epilepsy — 13. Tetanus— 14. Apo- 
plexy — 15. Coma — 16. Insolatio — 17.,'jHepatitis — 18. Cholera — 19. 
Diarrhoea — 20. Dysenteria acuta — 21. Dysenteria chronica — 22. Chronic 
indigestion — 23. Phlegmon ..... 394 

CHAPTER XII. 

HOSPITALS IN CHINA. 

A hospital for sick Chinese — Some remarks on diseases — Hydrophobia — 
Tetanus — Our prisoners and those of the Chinese — Hospitals and 
Missions ....... 428 

CHAPTER XIII. 

NAGASAKI. 

Remarks on Nagasaki, in regard to its eligibility as a sanitarium for our 

troops employed in China ..... 440 



CHAPTER I. 
INTEODTTCTION. 

HISTORICAL NOTICES OP CHINA. 

Its name — Chee Wang — First Command with promise -^Fuhi — Writing — Divisions 
of day — Marriages — Another Fuhi — History — Yu — Written characters — 
Chronological cycles — Principal dates — Yuen dynasty — Manchoos — "Chee 
Seang " — Silk — Tea— Compressing feet — " Tails " — Printing — Paper — 
Indian ink — Porcelaine — Gunpowder — Compass — Medicine — Epidemics — 
Theory of disease — Disposal of the dead — Wailers — Sacrifices to the dead — 
Urns — Ancient trade of China — Incursion of the Persians — Intercourse with 
England — Misunderstandings and Wars. 

Whence comes the word China — the name of that great 
empire, to some peculiarities connected with which I desire to 
devote the following pages ? According to one author (Williams) 
it is said to he a corruption of Tsin, a family whose chief first 
obtained sway over all other feudal principalities about 250 b.c, 
and whose exploits rendered him famous in India, Persia, and 
other Asiatic states. 

The Malays, Hindoos, Persians, Arabians, and other nations 
of Asia, have known the country by no other names than Jin, 
Chin, Sin, Sinae, Tsinistse, or others similar ; and these names 
derive additional importance from the light they throw upon 
the prophecy contained in Isaiah, chapter xlix, verse 12, as 
indicating that by " the land of Sinim," the Chinese are the 
people pointed at as ultimately to be brought within the pale of 
the church. A doubt is, however, it must be confessed, thrown 
upon this interpretation if we refer to the chronology of the 

1 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

Bible. We there find that the prophecy referred to was uttered 
b.c. 712; namely, 462 years before the time when, according 
to the authority above stated, the distinctive name was given 
to the people to whom the prophecy is by some believed to 
refer. 

Chee Wang, prince of Tsin, although, like many conquerors 
of later times, a cruel man, was undoubtedly a great one ; not 
only did he subdue the entire empire, but he excavated many 
canals ; and, with a view of preventing the incursions of the 
Huns, he erected the great wall, or rather completed it by 
uniting the walls and towers that had been already built by the 
northern princes. 

By what name the country was known during the immense 
period that intervened between the time of Isaiah and that of 
the family of Tsin, cannot now, it seems, be ascertained with 
precision ; we know, however, that the Chinese, as a people, are 
among the most ancient of all regarding whom history informs 
us ; they have seen the rise and fall of many of the ancient 
nations, whose records still remain, they have, in fact, existed as 
a nation far longer than any other with whom we are acquainted ; 
their days have truly been long in their land, and the coinci- 
dence is, to say the least of it, remarkable, that the Chinese, 
as a people, rigidly carry out the injunctions of the first com- 
mandment with promise; with them, honour to their fathers 
and mothers is made the grand principle upon which all govern- 
ment is established, nor does this honour cease with life of the 
parents, the names of their ancestors are worshipped through 
many generations. 

It is not my intention to enter at length into the history of 
the country ; volumes upon volumes are available, written by 
the Jesuit missionaries, upon this subject. It is only necessary, 
with a view to carry out the plan I have laid down for myself 
in these brief remarks, to give a few of the great landmarks of 
that history as obtained from various authorities whom I have 
consulted upon the subject. 

The earliest personage mentioned in Chinese history would 
appear to be Fo, Puh, or Fuhi. He is held in high veneration 
still, for although, according to Meadows, the introduction of 
writing is referred to others, Fuhi seems to have introduced the 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

use of the symbolical characters still used there, although now 
much modified and altered. 

The period when this took place is said to have been about 
the year b.c. 3337, a date which approximates to that to which 
is assigned the birth of Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and these 
events, it may be mentioned, took place not later than 172 years 
before the scriptural deluge. From this circumstance, there- 
fore, taken in addition to others tending to the same conclusion, 
there are not a few who entertain the conjecture that Fuhi was 
none other than Noah. 

I shall only mention one or two other important changes 
which Fuhi introduced into China. He it was, we learn, who 
first introduced among the people the division of the day into 
periods of two hours each ; he also, it was, who introduced 
marriages and separate families among them — measures which 
certain " socialists," about five thousand years afterwards, and 
in a country which boasts of its civilization, would destroy if 
they could. 

As we shall see hereafter, under the subject of the religions of 
China, Fohi is often mentioned in connection with Buddhism, I 
will therefore only observe in this place, that we read of one 
" Foh," who was the son of a prince of India, that he was born 
about 1200 years before the Christian era ; that he was called 
Cheka or Xaca to the age of thirty, when he took the name of 
Foh ; and that " there appears to be little doubt that this Fohe 
is Vishnu in one of his pretended incarnations, namely, his 
ninth avatar." Unless, therefore, we suppose that two worthies 
of the name of Fohi are confounded together in Chinese history, 
we must, I fear, look upon Fohi as a myth. 

And yet there are authors who inform us that " Chinese 
mythological history ends with the appearance of Fohi. Ac- 
cording to Chinese annals, this took place about b.c. 2852, a 
period, be it observed, 475 years later than the one already 
given. Supposing that this date now given is the correct one, 
it represents a time eight years after the birth of Enos, 1152 
years after the creation, or, according to Ussher, 508 years before 
the Noachian deluge. These dates are given in this place as the 
result of inquiries among different authors ; how far they can 
be depended upon, must rest with individual readers ; one 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

thing, however, is incontestible in the history of China, namely, 
that at a vfery early period its people had attained a degree of 
civilization far above that of their contemporaries of other 
nations ; and in regard to their literature and laws, we learn 
from Meadows that " authentic records of ethical and political 
documents in China extend back to B.C. 2357." 

The period to which history traces back the existence of China 
as a nation, is usually referred to about the year 2206 B.C. at 
this time the first dynasty, namely, that of Yu the Great, or, as 
he is generally called, Hia, became established. It is usual to say 
that the people by whom this dynasty was established were the 
Elamites, who may be considered identical with tbe Persians, 
these being, it is almost needless to remark, descended from 
Elam, son of Shem, who was third son of Noah. 

I shall have frequent occasion, as I proceed with these notes, 
to allude to the evident affinity observable between ancient 
Egypt and China. I would, therefore, now invite the attention 
of the reader to the circumstance that the date assigned by 
Baron Bunsen (' Egypt/ vol. ii, p. 458), as that when Misraim, 
the son of Ham, began to reign in that country, was Anno 
Mundi 2776, that is, 1228 b.c 

Adverting once again to the origin of Chinese written cha- 
racters, the honour of this invention is not accorded to Fuhi by 
universal consent ; there are two other worthies who with him 
divide the opinion of the learned upon this point. By some 
the discovery is assigned to Hwangti, one of the primaeval 
monarchs, by others to Tsangkieh, a statesman of the same 
period, that is, according to Chinese chronology, of about 
2700 years b.c. He is said to have derived the first ideas which 
led to this important invention from careful observations of the 
varied forms in nature, which he endeavoured to imitate, in 
order to cultivate a better mode of recording facts than the 
knotted cord then in use. 

The description of writing first employed was ideographic, 
that is, expressing ideas by symbols, this being, in fact, the 
second class of Egyptian hieroglyphics (the first class being, it 
need hardly be observed, the representation of objects by 
symbols). In process of time, however, the greater part of the 
Chinese written characters have become simply phonetic. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

A cursory inspection of these characters will be sufficient to 
show their evident affinity to those of the ancient Assyrian, and 
more especially to the Hebrew characters ; the evident affinity 
of these to the Egyptian being again matter of remark by all 
sinologues ; thus, therefore, we trace in all indications of their 
Semitic origin ; we find, however, a coincidence more remarkable 
than this between China and Egypt, this being the method 
employed in both of dividing chronological periods into cycles 
of sixty years each. This remarkable system of dividing time 
is said to have been established in China by Hwangti, in the 
year b.c. 2637, that date corresponding to the year 518 after 
the Flood, 82 years after the death of Arphaxad, and about the 
same time before the confusion of tongues. 

We are informed that the hieroglyphic writing upon the 
Rosetta stone refers to the cycles of sixty years, and demi- 
cycles of thirty years, which were respectively recognised in the 
calculations of the Egyptians. A similar system may be traced 
through India to China, Thibet and Mongolia; and this cir- 
cumstance adds strength to the conjecture that China was, 
as already mentioned, brought under subjection from the west, 
if indeed it was not originally peopled in that way. 

Hue enters tolerably fully into a history of the sexagenary 
cycle as employed by the Chinese, Mongols, and most of the 
peoples in eastern Asia. He also gives the " roots " upon which 
the two smaller cycles are formed, namely, the denary or system 
of five elements, and the duodenary or that of twelve animals. 
It is no part of my intention to reproduce at length what has 
already been written upon this subject ; yet I believe an epitome 
of the system will not be uninteresting to the student of Chinese 
history. 

According to this author, the smaller, or denary cycle, is 
formed by a repetition of the name of each of the five elements, 
which are by the Chinese enumerated thus : : — 1, Wood ; 2, Fire ; 
3, Earth ; 4, Iron; 5, Water; and by the simple process of 
repeating these, we of course obtain double their original 
number, thus: — 1, Wood; 2, Wood; 3, Fire; 4, Fire, and 
so on. 

As regards the larger, or duodenary system, it is composed of 
the names of the following animals, namely : — 1 A Mouse; 2, Ox; 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

3, Tiger ; 4, Hare ; 5, Dragon ; 6, Serpent ; 7, Horse ; 8, Ram ; 
9, Monkey; 10, Fowl; 11, Dog; and 12, Pig. 

To form the full cycle of sixty years, these two are combined 
in the following order : namely, 1, Wooden Mouse; 2, Wooden 
Ox ; 3, Fire Tiger ; 4, Fire Hare, and so on, until the tenth 
double number is completed. The eleventh year of the cycle 
then commences with the first element and the eleventh animal 
thus: — 11, Wooden Dog; 12, Wooden Pig. The first enume- 
ration of the twelve "sacred" animals being thus completed, 
the thirteenth year obtains its distinctive name from a combi- 
nation of the next element in order after wood, and the first 
animal on the list; thus it is called Fire Mouse; and upon a 
similar plan are the names of the five elements, and the twelve 
animals, combined, until the sixty years constituting the cycle 
are completed. 

Before passing on to other subjects connected with China, 
which I propose to allude to, I would for a little enumerate a 
few of the particulars that seem to me most interesting as 
connected with the early history of this vast country. Some of 
these may most conveniently be given in chronological suc- 
cession, thus : 

B.C. 2852. The reign of Fuhi is said to have begun, and 
mythological history of China to have ended. 

— 2637. Hwangti establishes the sexagenary cycle. 

— 2293. An overflow of rivers in the north of China (the 

Yellow River) took place. The Noachian 
deluge, it must be remembered, occurred 
b.c. 3155, and that of Xisurthus b.c. 2297. 

— 2205. Shun, the seventh in succession after Fuhi, 

believed to have been the last of the Chinese 
travesties of the eight antediluvian patriarchs^ 
dies. 

— 2205. Yu, the Great, the first after the antediluvian 

patriarchs, and founder of the Hia dynasty, 
began to reign. 

— 1766. The Shang dynasty began, this being about 120 

years before the exodus of the Israelites from 
Egypt. 



— 246. 

— 202. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

b.c. 1198. Wtt Yih, the then emperor, began to worship 
images j this date corresponding to about 
four years after the death of Samson. 
1112. Duke Chan is reputed to have invented the 
compass. 

— 1122. The Chan dynasty began. 

— 249. The Chan dynasty ended. 
The Tsin dynasty ended. 
The after Tsin dynasty ended, and the empire 

was ruled by monarchs of the Han and 
eastern Han dynasty from b.c. 202, to a.d. 
221. 

Passing over the important events which form the history of 
China during what we may call the middle ages, it is only 
necessary for my present purpose to remark, that the Yuen 
dynasty was established by the descendants of Gengis Khan. 
They were expelled by the native or Ming dynasty in a.d. 1368, 
and it having, after a continuance of 276 years, become very 
unpopular, was overcome in 1644 by a Chinese rebel, named 
Letse Ching, who then entered Pekin, the emperor committing 
suicide. 

The Manchoos, after a struggle of seven years, reobtained 
power ; they then garrisoned Pekin and other cities with Tartar 
troops. High posts were given to Tartars, to the detriment of 
native born Chinese, and hence the unpopularity of this dynasty, 
of which Hien Fung, under whom the wars with England of 
1857-58-59 and 60 took place, was the seventh monarch. He 
began to reign in 1850, died in 1861, and was succeeded by his 
son (by a "handmaid^), a child of six years of age. This child 
assumed as his throne-name the title of Chee Seang, or " happy 
omen," thus giving an example of a custom which, according 
to Bunsen (vol. ii, p. 478), was in use among the ancient 
Egyptians. 

It is said that "this young monarch, on succeeding to the 
empire, had three years added to his life ; namely, one from 
heaven, one from earth, and one from his councillors or mi- 
nisters. It is inconceivable by what train of thought, other than 
a desire deliberately to impose upon the vulgar, the ministers 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

could have deliberately made such a declaration as this, carry- 
ing as it does so great an absurdity upon its very face. 

China, as is well known, is interesting on other accounts 
than mere antiquity. Some of the ornamental arts nourished 
there at a time when our British ancestors tattooed their bodies 
and dressed in skins of animals, and some of the customs esta- 
blished in what to us seem as the very early ages, are still most 
rigidly followed. 

Of the products peculiarly Chinese, silk at once presents itself 
as one of those that are most important. This material, it is 
almost needless to remind the reader, was used by the early 
Assyrians, having doubtless been conveyed overland to Nineveh 
and Babylon from China ; under the name of Meshi, it occurs 
in Scripture, namely, in Ezekiel xvi, 10. It is also men- 
tioned in Proverbs xxxi, 22 ; is enumerated in the .statutes of 
Menu (vol. 120, chap, xii, sec. 64) ; these having been written 
about the twelfth century before Christ. According to the 
Chinese themselves its invention is referred to the Empress 
Siling, or Yulu-fi, wife of the emperor Hwang- ti, b.c. 2602, and 
some authors assign to it an antiquity even greater than this. 
According to Williams, credible notices of the cultivation of 
the mulberry tree, and manufacture of silk in China, are found 
of a date as far back as B.C. 780. 

About a.t). 550, two Persian monks who had long resided in 
China, encouraged by the promises of the Emperor Justinian, 
succeeded in conveying the eggs of the silk moth to Constanti- 
nople, and thus added a new and important branch of industry 
in Europe. Equal in importance to the silk of China is the 
tea plant, which up till very lately was solely cultivated in that 
country. Erom what is now to be learnt regarding its history, 
a knowledge of it seems to be of comparatively recent date, 
even among the Chinese themselves, for it cannot be traced 
back to an earlier date than about a.d. 350, and its general 
introduction into use did not occur earlier than the year 800. 
This herb would appear not to have been known by the Greeks 
or Eomans, nor were our ancestors acquainted with it prior to 
the sixteenth or seventeenth century, for we learn that it was for 
the first time imported into Europe not long before the year 
1650, by the Dutch. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

One of the peculiar customs which time has in a manner 
consecrated in China, notwithstanding the great amount of per- 
sonal inconvenience occasioned by it, is that of compressing the 
feet of women. The origin of so strange and disagreeable a 
custom cannot now be traced with certainty. According to 
some accounts it arose from a desire " to pattern the club feet 
of a popular empress ; others state that it gradually came into 
use from the great degree of admiration shown to, and a desire 
to imitate delicate feet, while some authors assert that it was 
imposed by husbands in order to keep their wives from gadding." 
According to Dr. Lockhart, one account ascribes the custom to 
an empress named Tan-ke, b.c 1100, who, having club feet, 
prevailed upon the emperor to order that hers should be adopted 
as the model of beauty, and that children's feet should conform 
to the imperial pattern. According to the same author, another 
account states that the custom commenced under the Emperor 
Yang-te, of the Suy dynasty, who, in a.d. 695, ordered his con- 
cubine, Pwau, to bandage her feet, placing in the sole of her 
shoe the stamp of a lotus flower, so that at each step she took 
she left the impression of this sacred emblem ; hence the name 
given to compressed feet of lotus flower, and golden lily. 

From the date here given, a connection would seem to exist 
between the origin of this custom and the introduction into 
China of Buddhism ; the water-lily being held sacred among the 
followers of that religion. It may also have some connection 
with a custom which prevails in Ceylon at the present day. 
For instance, a pair of sandals, the property of the late King of 
Candy, which I lately had an opportunity of examining, were so 
formed that by means of a spring concealed in the support by 
means of which, as it passed between the great toe and the 
adjoining one, the figure of the water-lily flower was made to 
expand, as it were, upon the foot, each time a step was taken by 
this zealous Buddhist ; a corresponding idea may therefore have 
in China led to the prevailing custom of the golden lily there. 

One other account of the origin of compressing the feet must 
suffice : according to Dr. Parker, the custom was commenced 
by Li Yuh, a licentious prince of Keang Nan, whose court was 
at Nanking. He ruled from a.d. 961 to 971, and in a freak 
determined to improve the feet of a favourite concubine by 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

making them resemble the new moon ; and from this the prac- 
tice gradually spread. 

I have had opportunities of examining the contracted foot of 
a China-woman, and can vouch for its being a most unpleasant 
object to look at. That much disease arises both directly and 
indirectly from the custom is a point upon which I entertain no 
doubt. In delicate children, the requisite degree of pressure 
upon the foot, to produce the fashionable deformity, frequently 
induces disease of the soft bones which form the ankle and 
instep; and the inability to take exercise in the open air, 
caused by the practice, is a fertile source of much of the 
scrofula and diseased constitutions which afflict a large pro- 
portion of the natives of China. 

Rich and poor alike adopt this custom in the northern parts 
of the empire, where it is far more general than it is in the 
south. The extreme inconvenience of it is almost universally 
acknowledged, but yet, unless an imperial edict be published 
abolishing the custom, the force of fashion is so powerful that 
all hesitate to be the first to appear singular. Hopes have 
been expressed that with the commencement of a new reign 
the custom may be abolished, and there are many who look for 
this when the boy emperor becomes a little older than he is at 
present. It is almost needless to mention that the practice is 
not adopted by the Tartars ; it is peculiar to the Chinese. 

Another peculiar and apparently meaningless custom preva- 
lent in China is that of the men wearing long queues, or tails ; 
we may, indeed, wonder what was the cause of a similar custom 
among our own fathers and grandfathers, for men of middle age 
must perfectly remember the time when the pigtail worn by 
men was as much an institution in Britain as crinoline is now 
by the fair daughters of that sea-girt isle. The ancient Chinese, 
we learn, wore their hair long ; they bound it upon the top of 
their heads, and taking pride in its glossy, black colour, boast- 
fully called themselves the black-haired race. In 1627, how- 
ever, the Manchoos were in possession of the province of Lia- 
tung only. They then issued an order that all Chinese should 
adopt their coiffeur on penalty of death, as a sign of allegiance. 
The fashion which thus began by compulsion is now followed 
from choice. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

The date assigned to the invention of printing in China is 
the tenth century, that is, five hundred years before the dis- 
covery of this art in England. It is customary to bestow great 
praise and admiration upon the " celestials" for this anft some 
other discoveries, to the honour of which they are undoubtedly 
entitled ; we find in reality, however, that what printing then 
was in China so it has remained ; the characters to be conveyed 
to paper were carved upon wood in the form of blocks ; they 
are so still, and therefore it would amount to absurdity to com- 
pare this as an art with the state to which printing has now 
attained in this country. 

Nothing can better show the uncertainty in which the intro- 
duction of the art into China is obscured, than the very different 
dates assigned to the one under notice. Thus it is by another 
author stated, that the natives of this country probably caught 
the first idea of the art of printing from the impression of their 
seals, an art said to be known to them nine centuries before the 
Christian era. Here, then, we have a difference between the 
periods given of not less than eighteen centuries. 

" Paper is an article of which the Chinese claim the inven- 
tion j the first having been made from the bark of a tree 
(Morus papyrifera) , and old linen, by Tsai-lun, who flourished 
about a century and a half before Christ." ('Persia,' vol. ii, 
p. 299.) The best kind of paper seems to have been manu- 
factured in the Corea ; and it is said that here also was the pre- 
paration first made which is now known as Indian ink. It was 
not brought to perfection till the ninth century, and is prepared 
from soot deposited by the smoke of pines or oil, formed into a 
paste by a strong solution of isinglass, with a little musk, to 
correct the smell. Isinglass prepared from asses' skin and the 
soot of lamps, makes the best " ink." 

The eleventh and twelfth centuries are particularly famous in 
the history of China as connected with arts and sciences. 
Among other arts that owe their origin to this period is the 
manufacture of porcelain ware, now and for a long time known 
by the name of the country in which it took its rise. " In the 
department of Jan Chan, in Fan-liang-hien, east of the Poyang 
Lake, are the celebrated porcelain manufactures of King-teh- 
chin, named after an emperor of the Tifog dynasty, in whose 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

reign, a.d. 1004, they were established. This mart still sup- 
plies all the fine porcelain used in the country, and the small 
amount of fancy-ware now exported to Europe and America. 
Upwards of a million persons are said to be employed in this 
branch of manufacture." 

What has been stated in regard to printing is applicable to 
two other arts, which are believed to have been discovered in 
China about a.d. 1112, namely, the manufacture of gunpowder 
and the use of the mariner's compass. Both these are still in 
use in China, but, as has been well remarked by a recent 
writer, the one discovery has led to no result there beyond the 
explosion of crackers; the other, merely to the miserable junks 
we are accustomed to see on the coast ; whereas the adoption of 
the one by western nations has been the means of carrying 
their arts, sciences, and civilization to almost all corners of the 
world ; by the latter, commerce has united all nations in bonds 
of mutual self-interest. 

But these are not the only discoveries in China belonging to 
this period ; we find that in the twelfth century two other dis- 
coveries took place there that are not usually attributed to that 
country; namely, the invention of playing-cards in a.d. 1120, 
and the circulation of bank-notes by the Mongols in 1154. 

As regards the state of the science of medicine in China, 
comparatively little seems to be known with certainty. Dr. 
Pereira states that the medical code of that country was the 
production of Hoang-ti, b.c. 2000; according to the same 
author, all books on medicine in China prior to B.C. 1105 
treated of medicine without giving prescriptions, but at this 
time Chang-ka described this portion of the art. Such as 
medical science now is in China, we may safely infer that it is 
practised at the present day much as it was at these early 
times, for in no country, not excepting India, have ancient 
customs continued to be more rigidly observed than they have 
in China. 

There are in circulation numbers of native Chinese works 
not only upon medicine, but upon all branches of natural 
science. Much good is also being effected by the publication 
by missionaries of European works of this nature, translated 
into the native language, some of these having the additional 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

recommendation of being profusely illustrated. There are 
several native treatises upon epidemics to be met with at hook- 
stalls ; but, so far as I can ascertain, the accounts contained in 
them are very meagre indeed. 

Regarding the epidemics that have prevailed in that country 
in later times, plague is said to have existed in the southern 
part of the empire in the sixteenth century, but has not been 
observed more recently — a circumstance which is the more to 
be wondered at when we take into account the very filthy 
nature of all Chinese cities, whether situated in the south or the 
north cf the empire. 

Cholera has proved to be a great scourge in the country. It 
raged in Ningpo in May, 1820, and continued to do so till 
1823, carrying off in that city and province not fewer than ten 
thousand persons. At Hang Chow it raged in 1821 and 
following year, and in 1842 prevailed at Amoy and Chang 
Chan-fu. It has not occurred at Canton in an epidemic form, 
but deaths by sporadic attacks are by no means rare there ; so 
also in the north, although it does not appear ever to have 
occurred as an epidemic, several natives and foreigners lost 
their lives from this cause in 1861 ; and we were informed that, 
in like manner, there had during past years been an occasional 
death from it. 

Smallpox is a terrible scourge in China, the practice of 
inoculation, which is in general use, tending to propagate the 
malady among the people. Many die, and of those who recover 
large numbers bear upon their faces deep and horrible scars, 
the result of this loathsome disease; numbers more are par- 
tially or completely blind, in consequence of its ravages upon 
the eyes. In ] 820 Dr. Pearson introduced the practice of vac- 
cination into the south. At the time these notes were taken, 
however, this measure was but very little adopted there, and 
in the north not at all. Inoculation is performed either by 
introducing the virus of smallpox into a deep cut made into 
the arm, or by the still more filthy method of inserting into the 
nostril a pellet of cloth impregnated with the matter of the 
disease. 

The origin of all diseases is, by the masses, referred to what 
they call the Yin and the Yau, these, according to the doctrine 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

of the Taoists, as we shall see more particularly hereafter, the 
male and female principles of nature. " Fung," or wind, has 
also, according to their ideas, a powerful influence in inducing 
certain maladies, and the origin of others is attributed to " the 
dragon/' 

A brief notice must here suffice of their treatment of some 
diseases ; for instance, in cases of fever, the Chinese endeavour, 
by manipulation, to drive, bully, or frighten the affection from 
the system; they invoke the aid of the god of medicine ; if these 
measures are successful, good and well, if they are not, they 
prepare the patient for entering the unseen world. With this 
view they bedeck the dying person in his or her finest robes, 
place in the hand a piece of " paper" money, and having done 
so, the assembled friends patiently watch in the sick chamber 
until dissolution takes place. 

Here we find so great a similarity to the custom followed 
under similar circumstances by the natives of the Guinea coast 
of Africa, that I am tempted to make one remark in reference 
to the latter. There, as in China, when incantations and other 
means in common use have failed to check the approach of 
death, and dissolution appears to be imminent, the dying man is 
dressed in his finest clothes, his friends assemble around him, 
and priests endeavour to make smooth the way for him to 
another world. There is this difference, however, between the 
customs of the two countries, that whereas the dying China- 
man is laid out comfortably upon his bed, the unfortunate 
Guineaman is not allowed io die in a reclining posture; he is 
propped up in a standing or sitting posture, and with the din 
of drums and war-horns sounding in his ear, quits the scene of 
his earthly labours. 

In regard to the manner of disposal of the dead, and of the 
veneration shown to ancestors, we find that a greater similarity 
exists to what is found in Western countries than might at first 
sight be supposed. This would naturally lead us to the con- 
sideration of ancestral worship, and the honours paid to the 
remains of the deceased. These have, however, been so fully 
described in systematic works upon China, that a few brief 
remarks upon the subject are all that is required in this place. 
Unlike the custom generally adopted in the present day through- 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

out the world, of removing the dead as speedily as circumstances 
will permit, the Chinese, like some of the nations of antiquity, 
retain their dead as long as possible, and long after the bodies 
have mouldered to decay, retain as mementoes the tablets, before 
which, at stated intervals, they prostrate themselves and present 
offerings. 

It is seldom that the coffin which contains the body of a 
deceased relative is removed from the vicinity of the family 
house under a year from the time of death, and, in a great many 
instances, these ghastly objects are not removed at all, but per- 
mitted to accumulate at the very door until a great part of a 
generation are thus collected. When, at last, the coffin is 
removed for interment, tables, upon which offerings for the dead 
are placed, form a conspicuous part of the procession ; a melan- 
choly dirge is played, and wailers precede the corpse, much after 
the manner which is described in Scripture, and is at the present 
day practised by Mahomedans, Italians, and certain classes of 
the Irish. At intervals the procession is stopped for a short 
time, and the nearest relation or descendant of the deceased 
prostrates himself before the effigy which precedes the coffin. 
At the grave, if that be excavated as with us, certain ceremonies 
are said to be performed which remind us of what is observed in 
Western Africa ; but in the North of China, graves are for the 
most part not dug ; the coffin is placed upon the ground, and 
afterwards carefully covered over with a casing of mason-work, 
or less costly material, according to the degree of wealth of the 
family. The burial-grounds are carefully tended ; once a year 
they are repaired and properly cleaned, and at least this often 
the living worship at the tombs of the deceased. When decom- 
position has literally restored dust to dust, the bones are care- 
fully collected, placed in a jar or urn, and preserved in or near 
the dwelling houses of the descendants. 

This practice of sacrificing to the dead existed among the 
ancient Egyptians, by whom it was considered as constituting 
the tie between children and their parents, especially between 
sons and fathers. According to Bunsen ('Egypt,' vol. ii, 
pp. 467 — 472), a tablet at Karnak represents Tuthmosis in the 
act of performing this ceremony, and a similar representation 
is found at Gurnah. Let it further be remarked, that the 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

" sacrifices" most frequently offered to the dead in China, consist 
of cooked provisions, all of which are usually discussed by the 
worshippers ; and we may see the affinity of the custom to that 
alluded to in Psalm cvi, 28— "They joined themselves together 
at Baal-peor, and ate the sacrifices of the dead." As regards 
urns, these have been in use in different countries in all ages, for 
among some of the most ancient remains discovered at Korsabad, 
M. Pitta found, at the south-east extremity of that mound, a 
number of jars of terra cotta, placed upright in niches, and 
containing fragments of bones (' Assyria/ p. 527), while it need 
only be remarked that among the ancient Etruscans it was con- 
sidered a personal misfortune to be subjected to have the dead 
bodies of one's relatives taken from the house. In Egypt, Peru, 
and other countries, bodies were carefully embalmed and thus 
preserved, a process which would appear to be much used in 
America at the present time. And in some parts of Africa the 
dead continue to be buried under the floors of the houses in 
which they had lived. 

We may safely assume that a trade was carried on between 
China, Assyria, and Egypt, from a very early period in the 
history of these countries. This is shown to have been the case, 
in one respect at least, by the circumstance that the ladies of 
ancient Babylon wore dresses made of silk, as mentioned by 
Job. And upon the same belief we are able to explain the 
otherwise unaccountable circumstance that there have been dis- 
covered in the tombs at Thebes, small bottles precisely similar 
to those which we know are of Chinese manufacture. We 
may presume that at this early period the intercourse between 
these countries was by land ; indeed, we have reason to believe 
that among the great lines of thoroughfares that converged 
towards ancient Nineveh, was one by which traffic was conveyed 
from the far east by way of Persia. It further appears that 
regular communication with the Chinese was carried on by the 
Roman merchants, and it is added : — " Caravans from Thina? 
(supposed to be Tsinan in Shantung) came regularly by way of 
Bactria to Barygoza," which is supposed to be Broach, in 
Goozerat, and that this communication still exists. (' Modern 
Travel— India/ vol. i, p. 148.) 

Another route would seem to have extended from Patna, by 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

Hurdwar to Aspacara, in Thibet, and at a later period Buddhism 
was probably introduced into China partly by it. 

We, moreover, find that in process of time the communication, 
which at first had been of a peaceful nature, underwent an 
unfavorable change, armies being led by the roads along which 
merchants had for generations brought their wares from China ; 
thus, in the history of Arabia, we learn that Hareth ul Rayesh, 
the twenty-first monarch of that country in descent from 
Hamyar (the founder of the dynasty named after the latter 
monarch is believed to have been contemporary with Moses) . 
Of this dynasty, which is said to have lasted two thousand 
years, one monarch, namely, Abu Kurrub Tobbaa, is said to 
have combated with the Tartars ; and he, for the first time, for an 
Arab prince, heard of China. He afterwards, about b.c. 465, 
led an army to Thibet and China, through Bokhara ( f Modern 
Travel/ p. 25) . We become aware, from many sources, that 
about the commencement of the Christian era constant com- 
mercial intercourse was carried on between this country, India, 
and even Ceylon, We know that for a long time maritime 
trade with India was monopolised by Egypt, and thus the 
extension eastward of the emblems and beliefs of that country 
by this means is easily accounted for. 

Compared to the dates just given, the communication between 
this country and China is of to-day. We learn from an exami- 
nation of this intercourse, that misunderstandings, and blood- 
shed, hold a position in these annals, fully as prominent as do 
the records of the mercantile transactions. If we recount a 
few of the chief incidents connected with our intercourse with 
that country, we learn that in 1596 an unsuccessful attempt 
was made by Queen Elizabeth to open commerce with it, by 
despatching a letter addressed to the emperor. In 1605 Sir E. 
Michelbourne, who had a patent for trading to the eastern seas, 
not only seized the ships of any nation with which he met, but 
he also plundered several valuable Chinese junks. In 1637 an 
English vessel commanded by Captain Weddel, reached the 
Bocca Tigris, and being fired upon there by the Chinese, he 
demolished the forts guarding the passage of the river, landed 
a hundred men, and planted the English flag on the spot. 
Trade at Canton was for a short time opened after this. It was 



18 INTBODUCTION. 

soon stopped again, however, in consequence of the war against 
the English and Portuguese at Macao, so that it was not before 
1684 that our countrymen obtained an actual footing at Canton. 

For a century afterwards no material misunderstanding 
would appear to have occurred between the foreigners and the 
natives. In 1784, however, the English ship, the "Lady 
Hughes," lay at anchor off Whampoa, and while firing a royal 
salute, accidentally caused the death of a native. The Chinese 
demanded the person who had fired the fatal shot, and strange 
as it may now appear, the unfortunate fellow was surrendered 
to them. Shortly afterwards he was strangled by order of the 
emperor, and no further steps in regard to the matter appear to 
have been taken by the British. 

In 1794 the mission of Lord Macartney proceeded to Pekin, 
but although a gracious reception was accorded to the English 
ambassador, the objects of the expedition were not attained. 
In 1807 the East India Company's Ship " Neptune " being off 
Canton, a quarrel arose between some of her crew, who were on 
shore, and the Chinese. The officers of the vessel speedily 
quelled the riot, in so far as their own men were concerned, 
securing them for the time being in the factories there. The 
Chinese, however, continuing to throw stones during the day, 
not only at these buildings, but at all Europeans who happened 
to pass, the sailors after a time became exasperated, and rushing 
from the factories upon the mob, killed one of their assailants 
before their officers were able for the second time to enforce 
something like order. The Chinese demanded that the so-called 
murderer should be given up. Twelve sailors seem to have 
been engaged in the riot, and an inquiry failed to discover the 
actual perpetrator ; yet, in order that the Cantonese might be 
quieted, one of the number was actually given up to them. 
Fortunately for him the emperor dealt more leniently with him 
than he had done to the unfortunate sailor of the "Lady 
Hughes." He permitted him to redeem himself. 

To understand the next occasion of collision with the Chinese, 
it is necessary to observe that the Portuguese occupying Macao 
had pledged themselves to the imperial government not to admit 
the troops of any nation to that island without the consent of 
the native authorities. In 1808, the Portuguese expected an 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

attack by the French. At this time Admiral Drury landed a 
British marine force upon the plea of assisting them in the 
event of such an attack being made, although it would appear 
that this step was taken by him more in opposition to than in 
accordance with the wishes of the Portuguese governor. The 
hoppo or chief officer of customs at Canton protested against 
the measure. The admiral explained, the viceroy remonstrated, 
the local authorities threatened, the naval commander insisted. 
Both sides prepared for war, and having done so, the British 
troops were re-embarked, and the vessel sailed away for India. 

In 1816, the embassy of Lord Amherst returned unsuccessful 
from Pekin. The emperor had insisted upon the performance 
of the nine prostrations, or " Kow tow," to which his lordship 
very properly gave a most indignant refusal of compliance; 
nothing further arose out of this than that he and his party left 
the capital in a kind of disgrace by the " son of heaven," as the 
emperor calls himself, and is called by his people ; and after a 
tedious, but interesting journey along the imperial canal, arrived 
at Canton. 

In 1822 the ship of war "Topaze" lay off the island of 
Lintin, in the estuary of the Canton river : a boat had been 
despatched from the vessel to the island for the purpose of ob- 
taining fresh water, and to enable the sailors to wash their 
clothes. While on shore these men were attacked by an armed 
body of Chinese, by whom fourteen of their number were more 
or less severely injured. The ship opened fire, and two of the 
native assailants were killed. In the representations which 
arose out of this incident, the Chinese could not be made to 
understand that the "Topaze," not being a trader, was not 
under the jurisdiction of the committee of supercargoes, through 
whom, according to their notions, all communications from 
vessels, either to the " Hong " merchants or to native officials, 
ought to pass. Nor could they understand that the officer 
commanding a British ship of war could have a distinct and 
separate authority confided to him by his own government. 
When, therefore, a proposal was made by the mandarins that 
the injured sailors should be sent on shore in order that they 
might be examined by a native tribunal, and a refusal was given 
to this request, a summary stop was by them put to further 



20 INTBODTJCTION. 

trade. A further representation being made by the Chinese to 
the committee of merchants, the latter declared that they had 
no control over ships of war, and suggested that an officer 
should be sent on board to communicate with Captain Richardson 
who was in command of her. The Chinese persisted that 
they would receive no communication direct from Captain 
Richardson. The committee repeated that they had no authority 
over king's ships, and to make matters worse, it would appear 
that this officer declined to receive on board the persons who 
were at last delegated by the Chinese to investigate the affair. 
The committee, at this stage, threatened to quit the country; 
the Chinese informed them that they were perfectly welcome to 
do so. The knot was now cut, however, by the "Topaze" 
taking her departure, and the viceroy was informed that the 
" murderers," that is, those who actually discharged the shots 
against the assailants of our men, would be tried in England ; 
whether they were or not does not appear, but trade with the 
Chinese, which had been interdicted, was reopened. 

In 1831, the charter of the East India Company having ter- 
minated, the functions of the select committee at Canton ceased. 
Lord Napier was shortly afterwards sent out as chief superin- 
tendent of trade, and arrived there in 1834. The Chinese at 
once assumed towards him their usual tone of arrogance. Lu, 
the governor general of Canton, refused to receive from his 
lordship letters or communications unless superscribed " Pin," 
i. e., petition. To this Lord Napier very naturally objected, 
and the immediate consequence was suppression of the trade. 
Two men-of-war proceeded up the river as far as Whampoa, 
exchanging fire with the Bogue forts while passing; and, on 
coming to anchor, despatched a boat's crew of men to Canton 
for the protection of the factories. His lordship's health almost 
immediately gave way, and it became necessary that he should 
leave Canton; accordingly, on the 21st of September, he pro- 
ceeded towards Macao in a native boat which had been provided 
by the native authorities for his conveyance. In it he was 
detained five days, and so harshly treated by the Chinese that 
he died a fortnight after arriving at the Portuguese settlement. 
Trade was then resumed. 

During 1837 and 1838 the Chinese authorities became more and 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

more determined to suppress the importation into that country 
of opium. A brig, the " Fairy," having on board a quantity of 
this drug, was detained at Fuchan in the former of these years ; 
and in order to obtain her release it was necessary to send Her 
Majesty's Ship " Raleigh " from India. In 1838 the Canton 
authorities treated the letters of Captain Eliot as they had done 
those of Lord Napier. An English brig, while passing the 
Bogue forts, was fired upon by them ; and the governor of 
Canton, by way of intimidating the foreign merchants, sent an 
officer and fifteen men to execute in front of the factories a 
convicted native dealer in opium. The foreigners rushed out 
and forced the party to remove from the place ; a crowd speedily 
collecting, the foreigners were chased into the factories, and for 
three hours these buildings were pelted with stones and brick- 
bats by the mob, until at the end of that time the district 
magistrate having made his appearance, they were dispersed. 
Captain Eliot, with some seven boats, arrived the same evening 
from Whampoa, and, in accordance with his orders, all opium 
vessels quitted the river during the three following days. 

The following year, namely, in 1839, is that in which com- 
menced what has been called the Opium war. On the 26th 
of February in that year, Fung-a-Ngan, was, by order of the 
authorities, strangled in front of the foreign factories. As a 
consequence, the English, American, Dutch, and French flags 
were hauled down, and stoppage of trade threatened. On the 
18th of March, Lin arrived at Canton with special orders from 
the emperor, and this commissioner inaugurated his career by 
ordering that all the opium then in possession of the merchants, 
should, within three days, be given up by them under penalty 
of two of their number being immediately selected for execution. 
Captain Eliot once more proceeded to Canton, but was unable 
to prevent the order of Lin from being enforced ; under the 
instructions and authority of the British officer, therefore, opium 
to the value of nine millions of dollars, and filling 20,283 boxes, 
was given up. Nor was this sufficient to satisfy Lin, he pub- 
lished a second edict, rendering the import of opium a capital 
offence, and within a few days afterwards, Captain Eliot, 
together with all British and Americans, left Canton. 

War was by this country declared against China in 1840. It 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

is not deemed necessary to follow the military operations which, 
two years later, obtained a treaty, in which it was laid down 
that British, who had hitherto been prohibited from entering 
Canton, should be admitted within the walls of that city j a 
stipulation which was for several years evaded by the Chinese, 
and not enforced by England. On the restoration of peace the 
Bogue forts, which had been destroyed, were put into a state of 
repair by the Chinese ; and so early as 1843, so intense had again 
become the ill-feeling of that people towards Europeans, that at 
Canton the latter were personally attacked by them whenever a 
favorable opportunity occurred ; and not only were merchants 
who had returned refused admittance into the city, but they 
would not be granted additional ground whereon to erect their 
business establishments, or " hongs." Moreover, Europeans in 
all official communications with the Chinese, were by the latter 
studiously treated with want of respect. 

This state of affairs continuing to 1847, Sir John Davis, 
governor of Hong Kong, proceeded to Canton to quell the hos- 
tility of the people. He captured all the guns upon the now 
famous Bogue forts, and for the time being compelled the 
Chinese to observe the terms of their treaty. 

The old feeling, however, gradually manifested itself; matters 
slowly but steadily drifted back to what they had already been, 
when in 1856 the affair of the "Arrow," at Canton, brought 
them once more to a crisis. In 1857 a portion of the expe- 
dition which had been dispatched from England for the purpose 
of bringing to reason and justice the execrable "Yeh," was 
diverted to India, in consequence of the terrible events then 
occurring in that country ; and the recollection is yet fresh of 
the diabolical attempt made, it is universally believed at his 
instigation, to destroy at one swoop the foreign population of 
Hong Kong, by mixing arsenic in the bread baked for their 
use. In 1858 Canton was taken by a military and naval force, 
which in numbers was insignificant. Yeh was captured, and 
sent to Calcutta; and the same year a treaty of peace was 
signed at Tien-tsin. 

When, in 1859, our vessels reached Taku, having on board 
an ambassador whose duty it was to obtain the ratification of 
that treaty, he was, upon one pretence or another, opposed in 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

his desire to proceed inland by the regular navigable channel, 
namely, the River Peiho. He was repeatedly requested to pro- 
ceed by the Peh-tang river, which, as was afterwards ascer- 
tained, communicated with the former by means of only a 
narrow canal, joining it at some distance above the city at 
which the treaty had been signed. 

Then came the unsuccessful attempt to force the passage of 
the river at Taku, leading, as it did, to the expedition which in 
1860 resulted in the temporary occupation of Pekin by the 
armies of England and France, and the concession of the 
various points that had hitherto been in dispute. 

Already do we find hostilities once more in China. Now, 
however, it is not against the ruling power of that empire that 
our troops are engaged ; we now endeavour to support a 
government which has invariably treated us with that degree of 
indignity of which I have given a few examples, and which, we 
have reason to know, is very generally held in detestation by 
the vast population who have what they deem the misfortune to 
be subject to it. 



CHAPTER II. 

HONG KONG. 

The island as seen from the anchorage — Completeness of the expedition to the 
north — First impressions— The Chinese population — A patriarchal dinner 
party — Floating houses — Their female occupants — Early rising not practised, 
and why ? — Troops at Hong Kong — Available accommodation — The Sani- 
tarium at the Peak — Rapid rise of Hong Kong — A cause of sickness — 
Despatching invalids — Necessity for steam transport — French arrangements 
— A suggestion — Weather in August — Indications of storm — Rain and water 
supply — General climate — Medical history of Hong Kong and Southern 
China. 

Hong Kong is one of an extensive group of islands in the 
estuary of the Canton or Pearl River, to which the name of 
Ladrone or Pirates' Island was given by the Portuguese, from 
the circumstance that numerous hordes of freebooters formerly 
and even still lie concealed among them, ready to attack the 
weak and unprepared. 

As, on the 21st June, 1860, we approached the high, rocky, 
and inhospitable member of the group, which constituted 
England's only possession in China, a road, apparently cut 
from the face of the solid rock, was the first indication we ob- 
served of the island being inhabited by British, for where will 
they not make roads, if it is in the power of man, by excavating 
rocks, by filling ravines, or by bridging gorges and valleys to 
do so? 

Turning round by Green Island, first one or two houses 
built in the European style appeared, then their number, size, 
and architectural pretensions increased. The roadstead, dotted 
with numbers of vessels of all sizes, and surrounded, as it were 
upon all sides by mountain ridges as if it were a highland 
lake opened fully to our view. And now we are abreast of the 
principal part of Hong Kong; the engines slackened, the anchor 



HONG KONG. 25 

dropped, and the P. and O. Company had completed their con- 
tract ; we had been safely conveyed to our destination. 

Stretching along the beach, the quays and merchants' houses 
of business were thickly crowded together, and what gave to the 
latter a somewhat strange appearance was the numerous flags 
of different nations that waved from flagstaff's placed at short 
intervals, each indicating the official residence of the consul for 
the particular nation or country whose colours were thus some- 
what ostentatiously displayed. 

It was not difficult, among the numerous piles of buildings that 
rose before us, to distinguish some of those intended for public 
purposes ; for instance, the barracks, half concealed by bamboos 
and wild fig trees, were easily identified from their proximity to 
what was evidently the parade ground ; the church proclaimed 
its own character, and the union jack hoisted in the neighbour- 
hood of what appeared to be the largest and handsomest building 
of all that lay before us, indicated sufficiently that the place in 
question was Government house. 

The eye naturally followed this new scene to the summit of 
the island; a sharp, conical point, to which the name of Victoria 
Peak has been given. It is said to be 1700 feet high, a flag- 
staff has lately been erected upon it, and a signal station estab- 
ished for telegraphing to the merchants and officials in the 
town below the approach of ships. 

The expedition had started for the north of China before we 
arrived ; the crowds of shipping that had filled the harbour as it 
had never been filled before, was now almost entirely gone ; only 
a few ships laden with commissariat stores, or with horses that 
had arrived from Bombay, were now left. Ships of this descrip- 
tion, all legibly marked and numbered upon their bows and 
quarters, continued from time to time to arrive, to be taken up 
and fitted out on the spot, but their arrival and departure were 
scarcely noticed except by those whose particular province 
brought them in the way of learning their movements as a 
matter of duty. 

All were loud in praises of the completeness of the expedi- 
tion that had just started. On all sides we heard praise bestowed 
upon the various officers who were charged with fitting out its 
various departments, and while all were ready to admit the ex- 



26 HONG KONG. 

perimental nature which the expedition must necessarily assume, 
inasmuch as it was then in progress to act in a country regarding 
which there was very little positive information available ; all 
admitted the fact that, in the completeness of its various parts, it 
was the most likely to fulfil its objects of any expedition that 
had ever been fitted out by England. That much, if not all of 
this, was attributable to the enquiries that followed the Crimean 
war was generally admitted. One of the many good results 
that have followed upon these, is the greater discretion allowed 
to officers who are charged with the management of particular 
departments ; in breaking through " red tape," that is, in 
enabling them, when circumstances demand, to dispense with 
the restraints and routine which had crept into office — grown 
and matured during the forty years of peace that preceded 
the campaign against Russia. 

First impressions of a place are very frequently correct ; they 
are always more vivid and distinct than those that are subse- 
quently made. In many instances they may be corrected on 
further knowledge of the locality, but generally speaking they 
will be found to be very nearly correct. Mine, as regards the 
climate and some other particulars connected with Hong Kong, 
were noted by me at the time, and therefore I have but to 
transcribe the passages of my journal in which they are recorded 
to these pages. 

The period of the year in which I arrived at this colony was 
about the hottest. Towards the latter end of June, heavy 
torrents of rain fell at intervals. Between them the sun, unob- 
structed by a single cloud, poured down an oppressive, sickening 
heat, that rendered exposure to its rays or even exercise in the 
shade extremely disagreeable. 

The absolute range of the thermometer was very considerably 
below what it is in India during the corresponding season 
yet the sensations of a person at Hong Kong are in many re- 
spects similar to those felt on the plains of Bengal during the 
calm oppressive weather which there occurs in the month of 
September, when the rains have ceased, but the atmosphere yet 
remains so loaded with vapour as to render evaporation from 
the surface impossible. 

At Hong Kong the prevailing monsoon is completely shut 



HONG KONG. 27 

out by the very nature of the island, which rising high and 
precipitous to windward of the town of Victoria, completely 
'blocks out the south-west monsoon from it ; only admitting such 
irregular gusts as may find their way down the narrow gorges 
by which the island is in many places intersected. 

The houses of the residents are large and spacious, many of 
them fitted up with a degree of elegance that is not often seen 
at home. In those built upon the face of the hill the tem- 
perature is sufficiently moderate to render the use of punkahs 
unnecessary. Not so, however, in those situated in the town. 
In them the heat and sensation of oppression occasioned by a 
still damp atmosphere, are very great, yet except in the dining- 
rooms punkahs are never used ; people may indeed toss about 
in bed sleepless and uncomfortable, yet because nobody uses 
punkahs in their bedroom, they will not try to introduce 
them. Another reason, I believe, is, that they look upon 
these contrivances as indications of Indian luxuries, and 
that insisting as they do in foDowing English habits, although 
residing in a most un-English climate, they refuse to use 
them. 

The activity, the apparent energy, the appearance of compe- 
tency, if not affluence, presented by the Chinese population of 
Hong Kong, cannot do otherwise than make a favorable im- 
pression upon the visitor, who has only been accustomed to see 
the eastern Asiatic as represented by the sleek, black-skinned, 
sneaking, apathetic native of India. Compared to the native 
inhabitant of the maritime regions of Hindostan, we at once 
see that the native of the south of China is quite a superior kind 
of animal. 

In many respects the labouring classes at Hong Kong contrast 
favorably with the corresponding classes in Britain. In personal 
cleanliness they are certainly superior to the " great unwashed " 
of our towns, and even of the agricultural districts. In quiet 
industry they beat the Englishman hollow. In propriety of 
demeanqr, and in sobriety of habits, the contrast between the 
Chinaman and our own sailors and soldiers may be seen at 
Hong Kong at almost any hour of the day, and until a late 
hour at night ; nor do I believe that any native of the United 
Kingdom can look upon the contrast thus presented without 



28 HONG KONG. 

blushing for and feeling ashamed of the miserable picture pre- 
sented by his own countrymen. 

We may reasonably conclude that one powerful cause of the 
active and energetic character of the southern Chinaman as com- 
pared to the cold-blooded Hindoo, who inhabits a corresponding 
latitude, is to be found in the meat-eating propensities of the 
former, and the vegetarian diet of the latter. If, as is said, but 
a very small amount of animal food is required by the inhabi- 
tants of countries situated within the torrid zone, John China- 
man is guilty of a degree of extravagance, which, considering 
his very frugal habits generally, would not be attributed to him. 
It so happens, however, that the particular description of 
animal food, as also the manner of cooking it adopted at Hong 
Kong, render what are, no doubt, very savoury dishes in them- 
selves, most repulsive to look at. 

\ Pork, fat and coarse, roasted in large untidy masses, or often 
without being cut up at all, is a very favorite dainty. Ducks' 
and geese are also evidently held in high esteem, probably from 
the extraordinary tendency they have here to take on a huge 
layer of yellow oily fat, which completely turns the appetite of 
any person but a Chinaman against them, but which it is to be 
presumed renders them doubly palatable to and enjoyable by 
him. 

It is pleasant to see, even here, a few traces of the good old 
patriarchal system which formerly bound together families and 
their dependents. Seated comfortably on chairs or forms round 
a table, the male members of the entire establishment may be 
seen daily, about four o'clock, enjoying what it is to be presumed 
is their dinner, each nimbly securing by means of those most 
extraordinary of contrivances, chopsticks, the small portions 
into which some one or other of the above delicacies had been 
divided, or it may be morsels of fish or vegetables, for they are 
fond of variety in their bill of fare ; or shovelling into their 
mouths, from a small bowl held under the chin, heaps of rice 
that would make a Hindoo stare ! 

Shamshu, or native spirits, seem on these occasions to be 
sometimes drunk, but the general dinner drink is tea. The 
meal is soon over; the merry laugh in which from time to time 
all at table join, shows the perfect equality upon which all for 



HONG KONG. 29 

the time being feel themselves to he. Yet no long time is thus 
wasted in the luxury of the table ; both it and all traces of the 
repast are soon cleared away, and then the different members 
of the establishment return to their official situations. If it 
happen to belong to a blacksmith, the hammer is soon heard 
again, and the bright sparks flash from the anvil as if there 
had been no interruption; if a shoemaker's workshop, figures 
that but a few minutes before were gesticulating and laughing 
away right merrily, stoop over the last, and " stitch, stitch," it 
may be from then till midnight ; and so it is with all handi- 
crafts or trades, each individual pursues his particular part, 
hour after hour, and day after day, for they know not yet the 
blessing of the Sabbath's rest; and thus they go on until 
sickness or accident breaks in upon their daily routine. 

Many of the coolies and labourers who work on shore during 
the day, retire during the night to small frail things of boats, 
the upper parts of which are chiefly made of split bamboos, 
interlaced like so much matting — crank, and so top-heavy that 
they are liable to upset if suddenly caught in one of the gusts 
that sometimes, without a moment's warning, sweep down a 
mountain gully and across the harbour, including a surface of 
water not more than twenty or thirty yards in breadth. 

Immense numbers of these boats ply about the harbour during 
the day, some engaged in fishing, some in conveying chance 
passengers to or from vessels in the road, others variously 
engaged, but few indeed permitted to remain idle. These are 
entirely worked by women, the wives and daughters no doubt 
of some of the men whose patient industry on shore during the 
day has been the subject of our admiration. Seldom, indeed, do 
we see a male on board one of them; when we do, his old 
decrepit look shows plainly that his own part in the toil and 
bustle of life has been played out — that he is now dependent 
upon the care of his children, or it may be of his grandchildren. 

Among the female crew of the boats may be seen the repre- 
sentatives of two, and very often of three generations, the elders 
employed in some of the lighter kinds of work on board, as, 
for instance, cooking ; those of adult age steering the barque by 
means of a huge powerful " scull," which gives a command 
over it that can never be obtained by means of the small tiny 



30 HONG KONG. 

things used at home for the same purpose. It often happens 
that the woman who thus labours hard, and pushes her way in a 
most wonderful manner among the crowds of similar boats that 
surround a newly arrived steamer, carries upon her back an 
infant, the small thing strapped on by means of a square piece 
of cloth upon which some ornament is worked in thread, and 
from the corners of which straps extend, so as to be readily 
secured over the shoulder and round the waist of the woman. 
The child's head is allowed to project at the upper part of this 
sling, and thus the infant sleeps, while its head falls from side 
to side, or backwards, according to the attitude of the mother 
at the time, so long as she is engaged in her ordinary avocations. 
How it escapes collision against the sides of the roof of the boat, 
or against the crowds of other boats and women, each of whom 
looks only after her own individual interest, is a marvel. The 
mother seems to have forgotten that she is encumbered with 
such a treasure, and often leaps from boat to boat, and carries 
with her heavy packages in a manner that speaks much for the 
bodily strength and agility of the sex in southern China. Mean- 
time, other small pledges of affection, scarcely bigger than the 
one upon the mother's back, are crawling, and sprawling, and 
screaming upon the sort of half deck with which these boats 
are furnished. Yet no accident befals them. You would think 
that they must of necessity tumble heels over head into the 
water; yet such accidents are, I am told, extremely rare, and 
the majority grow up to manhood or womanhood with active 
frames and strong constitutions, to follow the same occupations 
that their fathers and mothers did, and so on, back through so 
many generations that their origin as a distinct class is lost in 
antiquity. 

A very few days' residence at Hong Kong convinced me that 
early rising is not practised here. In this respect the habits of 
the residents resemble that of the few white men who vegetate 
for a few years on the Coast of Guinea in western Africa, and 
probably from the operation of similar causes, to wit, the well- 
known fact that the morning air, before the sun has dispelled 
the noxious vapours that hang about, is extremely unhealthy, 
producing fevers in those who expose themselves to them. 

Among many other important facts of late years brought to 



HONG KONG. 31 

light during the investigations that have taken place into the 
probable causes of yellow fever, is one which appears to be 
applicable to Hong Kong, and whose operation forces the 
residents, without they themselves being aware of it, to accommo- 
date their habits accordingly. 

It has been ascertained that a temperature of 80° Fahr. 
destroys the power for evil of that morbific influence to which 
the name of malaria has been given, and hence the explanation 
of what at first sight appears paradoxical, that exposure to the 
heat of a tropical sun in a " malarious " and unhealthy district, 
is far less dangerous than exposure to the heavy mist and 
emanations that from sunset till sunrise envelope these places 
as with a cloud. 

There is therefore good reason why the residents of Hong 
Kong do not, during the hot season, get out of bed, and away 
scampering on horseback in the early morning, as is the custom 
in India. Unhealthy as I fear the island is at all times of the 
day, it is to be suspected that it is most so of all during the 
hours the sun is below the horizon. 

Although, however, for the very sufficient reason just given, 
the residents do not ride or drive out in the morning, except 
during the short " cold " season, they usually spend a couple 
of hours before breakfast in the large, spacious verandahs, with 
which their houses are in part surrounded. Tea, coffee, and 
cheroots are served, for, be it observed, ladies do not make 
their appearance ; the newspapers of the preceding mail are now 
read, for during office hours each is occupied by his own parti- 
cular business ; in the afternoon comes the drive, then dinner, 
and thus time is passed until the hour arrives when all retire 
for the night. 

In regard to the troops at Hong Kong, now that the 
expedition to the north had sailed, the force retained was not 
much larger than what on ordinary occasions were maintained 
there. The infirm, the sick, and the incapable, among both 
British and Asiatics had been detained on the departure of the 
various regiments for the north ; these were united into a pro- 
visional battalion, which, for the time being, formed a substi- 
tute for a regular regiment in Victoria :"*the latter were sent 
to a place called Stanley, situated on the south side of the 



32 HONG KONG. 

island, and at a distance of about nine miles from the town 
above named. These, a few artillery and engineers, and a 
regiment of Madras native infantry, constituted the entire 
force on the island. 

In addition to these two places, a small number of troops, 
British as well as native, occupied temporary huts that had been 
erected for the purpose on the peninsula of Kowloon, directly 
opposite Hong Kong. Since then, this valuable point of land 
has been ceded to our government, and will, it is to be hoped, 
be retained for naval and military purposes. It is directly ex- 
posed to the force of the monsoon, and will, there is every 
reason to believe, be advantageous as a station in a sanitary 
point of view. 

A large amount of hospital accommodation has been provided, 
and was held available to meet any influx of sick or wounded 
that might occur from the expeditionary force ; fortunately this 
was not required, for, as is well known, the objects of the expe- 
dition were gained at a very small cost of life and blood. Our 
general hospital was capable of containing nearly three hundred 
patients, space had been provided at Stanley for eighty ; more 
than the latter number could be accommodated in a range of 
barracks at Siwan, on the eastern side of the island; about the 
same number could be taken into some wooden huts erected 
for this purpose on Kowloon ; a small building intended as a 
sanitarium, erected at Victoria Peak, was capable of containing 
twenty-five men, and upwards of one hundred and eighty sick 
could easily have been accommodated with comfort on board 
two naval ships in harbour that were given over for hospital 
purposes. 

Although the sanitarium at the peak is so little removed 
from the town below that an active person can easily tra- 
verse the distance on foot in forty minutes, yet there is a very 
material difference in the temperature there as compared to 
that of the town, the thermometer at the peak standing 8° 
Fahr. lower than at the same period of the day in the town. 
There is, moreover, at the peak, a constant breeze during the 
prevalence of the south-west monsoon, and although; as we may 
have reason to remark hereafter, doubts may reasonably be 
entertained as to whether exposure to the force of this monsoon is 



HONG KONG. 33 

not destructive, rather than beneficial to health, one fact is 
certain, that exposure to it is at all events agreeable to the 
sensations. 

There is one obvious inconvenience to which invalids who 
may hereafter occupy this sanitarium must be subjected. This 
arises from the masses of cloud with which the island peak is 
more or less constantly enveloped during the rainy months, 
and the extreme dampness of the atmosphere which at the same 
time prevails. 

We know full well that some of the invalid stations in the 
Himalayas are, during several months of the year, subject to 
similar inconveniences f that at Simla — the most fashionable of 
these mountain resorts for officers on the Bengal side of India — 
clouds and fogs frequently envelope it during many hours a 
day, yet we know that evil results do not accrue, but on the 
contrary many a person, brought to the verge of the grave by 
continued residence in the plains, speedily finds his health im- 
proved if not completely restored by residence at that station, 
although the atmosphere there is so loaded with vapour that 
the annual fall of rain amounts to above three hundred inches, 
the annual fall at Hong Kong being under eighty inches. 

The building in question was not taken into occupation, 
but, had necessity arisen, arrangements could have been com- 
pleted in a temporary kind of way in a very few days, so that 
we reckoned upon it as available should an influx of sick or 
wounded from the north suddenly take place. 

It will be interesting to observe what degree of success shall 
attend this establishment : its objects are excellent ; it was one 
of the projects intended for the benefit of the soldier for which 
we are indebted to the late lamented Lord Herbert ; it is at 
present no more than in an experimental condition, but if suc- 
cessful, let us hope that its dimensions may, without unnecessary 
delay, be much enlarged. 

As regards the rapidity with which the island of Hong Kong 
has acquired its present degree of importance, its progress has 
not been exceeded by any of the towns that have of late 
sprung up even in the gold-yielding countries, Australia or 
California. 

I have on several occasions spoken to men who were on the 

3 



34 HONG KONG. 

China coast for a considerable time prior to the occurrence of 
the "opium war," and who remember the island of Hong 
Kong when the only buildings visible upon it were a few 
wretched huts of fishermen. To them, the change worked in 
its aspect in the twenty years that have since elapsed is so 
wonderful that they would fail to realise its extent did they not 
actually see it. 

Then, along the present site of Victoria, the island's only 
town, bare precipitous rocks, deep ledges, offshoots of the 
mountain, extended to the water's edge. There appeared then 
but little prospect of its being possible, however great might 
be the science, the energy, and the capital brought to bear upon 
it, to erect upon its rugged sides more than a very few houses at 
the utmost; yet now, what between blasting and excavating the 
rock, removing as it were bodily a hummock from one place to 
deposit it in a hollow somewhere else ; a range of wharfs — an ex- 
tent of street formed in the European portion of it by magnificent 
mansions, and a succession of terraces rising one above the 
other along the mountain face, have been brought into existence, 
and that, too, with a rapidity and to an extent which can be 
found in few other places, if indeed anywhere. The island of 
Hong Kong, which in 1841 was deemed by the sapient 
celestials so utterly barren and useless as to be of no service 
whatever to them, was accordingly ceded to the " barbarians," 
by whom, now in 1860, its northern face is covered with a 
beautiful, a busy, and a wealthy town ; and its harbour with 
shipping. 

It is said, however, that during the early years of our occu- 
pation of the island, one great cause of the fearful amount of 
sickness which then prevailed not only among the soldiers, but 
also, although in a less degree among the other foreign residents, 
was the circumstance of the extensive excavations and removal 
of soil then taking place for the purpose of forming sites for 
houses. These operations necessarily exposed a large amount 
of soil, then for the first time uncovered, and wherever this 
was the case, great sickness and mortality occurred in the 
neighbourhood, depending, no doubt, upon the terrestrial ema- 
nations that had been set free. This cause was not for some 
time suspected, but attention was naturally drawn to it by its 



HONG KONG. 35 

fearful effects. It is now a recognised fact in Hong Hong that 
newly turned up soil is most unhealthy; hence, residents 
neither go into new-built houses, nor, when they do occupy a 
building, do they sleep upon the ground floor. 

The despatch of invalid troops from Hong Kong is speedily 
found to be one of the principal and most important parts 
of the duty of a chief medical officer, and to this subject 
my attention was directed very soon after my arrival on the 
island. 

During the prevalence of the south-west monsoon, that is, from 
April till October, the weather to which ships proceeding towards 
the Cape or England from Hong Kong are exposed, is as unfavor- 
able for sick men as it possibly can be ; it is characterised by a 
succession of damp, hot, oppressive days, while calms or squalls 
alternate with one another ; thus forming a combination of cir- 
cumstances as unfavorable as possibly can be conceived for men 
suffering from bowel diseases, from liver diseases, or from the 
ordinary effects of severe fevers. In order to give men affected 
in either of these ways a fair chance of recovery, it is essential 
that they should be exposed as little as possible to such in- 
fluences as these, while crowded together, as they must neces- 
sarily be, on board ship ; and this of itself forms sufficient reason 
why, if invalids are henceforward to be sent direct from China 
to the Cape of Good Hope or England, shall be invariably con- 
veyed in steamers. 

Not only is it desirable that soldiers when prostrated by 
severe sickness in the more unhealthy parts of China, should 
know that government has provided for them the means of 
being quickly removed into a more genial climate, but it is 
sometimes a matter of life and death to the unhappy subject of 
climaterial disease whether he have the prospect of being within 
a few days, removed from the place in which he languishes, with 
the delightful feeling of home before him, or whether he must 
lie and suffer for weeks or months until sufficient numbers 
of his comrades fall into a state similar to his own, and it 
then becomes a matter of necessity to engage transports for 
the removal from the station of these wrecks of their former 
selves. 

Often .and often I have had occasion at Hong Kong to 



36 HONG KONG. 

observe the different effects upon men under such circumstances 
as I have alluded to, the different effects of the hope, or utter 
despair, as they learnt that they had the prospect of immediate 
removal, or were told that no ship was available. 

Tell one of them that in a very few days more he will be 
shipped for England, and watch how the sunken eye glistens with 
pleasure, and the pale haggard countenance becomes lighted 
up with a flush and a smile. Visit the same person the following 
morning, and observe the change that has taken place in him ; 
he looks and expresses himself as feeling a new man ; hope has 
taken the place of despair ; he is buoyed up by the prospect of 
once again seeing familiar fields, mountains, streams, and of 
clasping by the hand friends of bygone years; many and 
many a soldier is thus enabled to bear up against, and finally 
recover from, an illness that would, had such prospects been 
denied, have inevitably swept him away. 

Such, then, is but a faint view of the effects of hope upon 
the soldier ; that it is a correct one, those who have had oppor- 
tunities of forming an opinion will, I am certain, admit. 

Our French allies are said to have in operation during the 
present expedition a regular system of transport to Suez, by 
which the sick of their army and navy can be readily sent 
thither. At Alexandria, they are said to have a receiving-ship, 
where these men obtain what attention their individual cases 
require, and from which they are sent on to their native France. 
We might, I think, adopt an arrangement similar to this, and 
considering the large armies we must always maintain in both 
India and China— but especially the former — it is, I think, abso- 
lutely essential that some better means should be devised for dis- 
posing of invalids from these than the system at present in use 
affords. 

Why, for instance, should not one, or even two large steam- 
vessels, specially fitted up for hospital purposes, as the " Mau- 
ritius," or "Melbourne," be employed for the conveyance, 
at stated intervals, of sick and weakly men from the China 
station to Suez ; thence, like the French, to a receiving-ship in 
the harbour of Alexandria, where their requirements could be 
attended to, and whence, by a regularly established line of 
vessels of the same description, they should be conveyed in the 



HONG KONG. 37 

first instance to Nettley, or some other of our larger hospitals in 
England. 

In like manner, other vessels of the same description might 
be employed in the conveyance of invalids from Kurrachee, 
Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta ; or a rendezvous might easily be 
established at Ceylon, where men from these various places might 
be collected and cared for, while a steamer was being got in 
readiness to convey them up the Red Sea. In a sanitary point 
of view there is no doubt that the adoption of measures such as 
these would prove to be an immense boon to the soldier, and, 
even on the score of expense, that sad bugbear which always 
stares us in the face, I question much if it would cost more 
money than does the present plan of sending over men by 
trading vessels. 

Although I have incidentally extended to India the plan 
which I propose, of giving to invalids the benefit of a change of 
climate, my remarks are made chiefly with a reference to 
China, for we must bear in mind the fact that while there are 
in India various establishments situated in the most healthy 
localities it was possible to select, to which invalids iriay be 
readily sent, there are in China no places of the kind. 

Some of the Japan islands are, both on account of their 
climate and their geographical position, well adapted for a sana- 
tarium ; Kivu Siou is so in a remarkable degree, and has the 
additional advantage of an excellent harbour at Nagasaki ; it is 
therefore to be hoped that much time will not be lost before 
advantage is taken of our position there, and an establish- 
ment for invalid soldiers and sailors from the adjoining coast of 
China erected there. As, however, I shall have occasion 
hereafter to refer more particularly to this point, I will say no 
more in regard to it here. 

The wet and sickly season had now arrived ; the month of 
August was nearly a week old ; the sensations indicated a hot, 
and what is well understood as a muggy state of the atmo- 
sphere ; the nights were more oppressive than the days ; to walk 
even after sundown was most unpleasant ; the slightest bodily 
exertion caused an amount of perspiration sufficient to pre- 
vent most people from attempting exercise. These intervals 
of heat were frequently broken by the occurrence of severe 



38 HONG KONG. 

storms of wind or rain, or both : while they lasted, and for a 
short time afterwards, the air felt slightly cool and fresh, but 
this respite did not last long, nor was it attended by that 
benefit as regards health which similar changes are attended by 
generally in the tropics. On the contrary, as the comparatively 
cool breeze comes suddenly rushing down one of the gorges of 
the island mountain, and strikes in upon us through the 
open window, fortunate, indeed, may we consider ourselves to 
be, if a few hours afterwards we do not feel an attack of 
shivering, followed by fever, or by neuralgia; the baneful 
effects of what might for the moment have been a grateful 
breeze. 

This apprehension, however, is not sufficient to deter people 
from freely exposing themselves to the direct current of the 
wind, except when, as is sometimes the case, it rushes over the 
island with all the force of the typhoon ; bursting in doors and 
windows of houses, tearing off roofs, and scattering the shore 
with wrecks of boats and ships. These hurricanes are fortu- 
nately of rare occurrence, and, it is said, betokened by indi- 
cations that are well understood, and never neglected by the 
residents on the island. 

The smaller storms that may now and then interrupt the 
excessive heat and closeness of the climate are also preceded by 
unmistakable indications, sometimes for a day or two, some- 
times during only a few hours. No sooner do the clouds and 
the sky begin to assume the well-known threatening aspect, 
than the hundreds and hundreds of boats to which allusion has 
already been made, as avoiding the harbour, are turned head on 
towards some particular nook or corner on the shore, where, as 
their owners have learnt by tradition and experience, they may 
be secure from danger. Often, when to the inexperienced in 
local meteorology, the aspect of the firmament shows no change, 
the long line of these boats, all being rowed in one direction, 
warn us that their "fair" owners read its characters better 
than we, and as they scull their tiny vessels, each trying to get 
before the other, and most lustily maintaining the credit 
usually conceded to the sex for garrulity. The strange procession 
they form reminds one of the flight of crows towards a place of 
shelter, when their keen instinct tells them that a storm is 



HONG KONG. 39 

brewing ; a sight familiar to all who have lived in the country 
parts of " home." 

Throughout the long and trying rainy season at Hong Kong, 
the island presents a succession of recurrent waterfalls. In 
clefts of rocks, down steep precipices, and through deep narrow 
gorges scooped out by the wear and tear of, it may be, millions 
of rainy seasons, streams of water white with foam suddenly 
appear during a heavy fall of rain, and sparkle in the sunlight 
for some time after, becoming, however, smaller and smaller 
until they cease altogether, or again acquire their first dimen- 
sions by a recurrence of the rain-storms upon which their 
existence depends. 

I note in my journal that, on the 14th of September, a 
favorable change took place in the weather at Hong Kong ; 
however, that up to that date we had excessively close, moist 
weather, the atmosphere peculiarly heavy and enervating, the 
temperature within doors about 88° Fahr., but the sensations 
indicating a much higher range. The effects of this state of the 
atmosphere upon the health were evident ; people suffered from 
lassitude, and illness increased among the residents in the 
town. On the 14th, however, clouds rapidly sprang up in the 
north-west, a slight storm of wind and rain set in, this was 
succeeded by a grateful change in the temperature of both day 
and night, and, in fact, the north-west monsoon may then be 
said to have set in. 

A person who only saw Hong Kong during the period of the 
year when the island is festooned as it were with waterfalls, as 
has just been described, could scarcely believe that during 
several months there is actually a dearth of that element which 
now prevails in somewhat too great abundance. Yet so it is. 
So very precipitous is the island that water does not accumulate 
upon it, except in some places where artificial reservoirs have 
been formed • no sooner does rain fall upon the greater part of 
the island, than it is precipitated over ledges and precipices, as 
we have been endeavouring to describe. There are some 
natural springs at different parts along the ridge of the moun- 
tain summit, but they are inconsiderable in size, and a greater 
number discharge themselves down the southern face of the hill, 
or away from the town of Victoria than towards it. 



40 HONG KONG. 

I 

The result is that during the months of December, January, 
and February, water becomes an exceedingly scarce commodity 
at Hong Kong; there being, it is said, often scarcely enough 
to meet the ordinary requirements of the island, without taking 
into consideration the necessities of the large quantity of 
shipping with which the harbour is continually crowded. The 
subject of continuous water supply thus becomes of great im- 
portance to the residents on the island, and accordingly a 
scheme is now in execution, under the direction of the governor, 
with a view to the formation of aqueducts and reservoirs at 
different points; thus there is every prospect that the want, 
now so grievously felt, will soon cease. 

The climate of Hong Kong cannot be described as a very hot 
one. Its peculiarities are its excessive moisture throughout a 
great portion of the year. These two circumstances have no 
doubt a great influence upon the origin of the diseases that 
prevail upon the island, due regard being also had to those that 
are beyond all doubt resident in the substance of the island 
itself. A table of meteorological observations taken during the 
first nine months of 1861, having politely been given to me by 
Lieutenant Courtenay, of the Royal Engineers, is given as 
follows. By it we perceive that the actual fall of rain there 
shown had indeed been small. The climate is said to have been 
in all respects very favorable during this year, and to the mo- 
derate temperature, and general moderate nature of the season, 
is, no doubt, attributable, the very great degree of health, as 
compared with other years, that the soldiers enjoyed. 

It is matter of regret that a regular series of meteorological 
observations, taken at Hong Kong, are not available to the sci- 
entific public ; such a record, if taken in connection with the 
prevalence of particular diseases, would be of great value ; un- 
fortunately I have it in my power to add but little in this 
respect, yet the following table may be interesting. It exhibits 
the range of the thermometer during eleven months of 1858-9, 
and the monthly admissions into hospital out of a strength of 
750 men. (Extracted from a report by Dr. D. F. Rennie, 
31st Regiment.) 



HONG KONG. 



4] 





Admissions of 


Thekmoheteb. 


Month. 


a strength of 












750 men. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


November, 1858 . 


140 


74 


66 


70 


December, „ 






214 


70 


63 


66 


January, 1859 






121 


64 


55 


59 


February, „ 






89 


62 


51 


55 


March, „ 






68 


65 


56 


60 


April, „ 






65 


76 


67 


71 


May, 






113 


84 


77 


80 


June, „ 






137 


87 


81 


84 


July, „ 






201 


86 


79 


82 


August, „ 






220 


86 


80 


83 


September, „ 






135 


83 


79 


81 


Total 






1556 


— 


— 


— 



Of the above 1556 cases, 818 were of fever, and 160 of diar- 
rhoea and dysentery. The deaths, in all, amounted to 34 from 
all causes. 



When on my way home from China, I obtained from Lieu- 
tenant Courtenay, of the Royal Engineers, a register of meteoro- 
logical states during ten months of 1861. This year was a 
remarkably cool and healthy one, and although the observations 
of any one year cannot of themselves be considered to represent 
truly the climate of any particular place, I deem the following 
table sufficiently interesting to give it here. 



42 



HONG KONG. 



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-°1 03 



HONG KONG. 



43 



Hong Kong has obtained for itself a character for unhealthi 
ness only second in degree to our settlements on the West 
Coast of Africa. That this was in the earlier years of its con- 
nection with England fully deserved, there are, alas, too many 
proofs ; but if this is the case, there are also proofs that a vast 
improvement has taken place in this respect of late years ; an 
improvement which we may safely assume to have been brought 
about by a combination of circumstances, rather than any one 
in particular. Of these, the more important are the establish- 
ment of comparatively good barracks for the soldiers ; the greater 
care of late years bestowed upon the hygiene of the troops ; and 
also, no doubt, the local causes of disease have been diminished 
by the works necessary to transform the face of a barren island 
into the beautiful and busy town that Victoria now is. 

It will be remembered that the island of Hong Kong was 
ceded to the British crown in January, 1841; on the 21st of 
August following, Sir Hugh Gough proceeded with the expe- 
ditionary force, leaving General Burril to command the troops 
left behind. These troops were for the most part accommodated 
on board the " Mirza" and other ships, a few European details 
being located on shore, at Cowloon, and on the island itself. 
Of the sickness among the troops thus left behind, no record 
appears to exist prior to the month of August, but thenceforward, 
throughout the year, the ratio of sickness and death among them 
were as follow, namely : 





August. 
Strength. Sick. 


Died. 


Ratio of deaths 
per 100 strength 
per annum. 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 765 178 
. 714 251 

September. 


3 

15 


4-68 
25-20 


Europeans 

Natives . 


. 752 160 
. 710 162 

October. 


12 

8 


19-08 
1344 


Europeans 

Natives . 


. 671 83 
. 571 142 


1 

4 


1-68 
8-60 



44 





HONG KONG. 








NoVEMBE 


R. 




Ratio of deaths 




Strength. 


Sick. 


Died. 


per 100 strength 
per annum. 


Europeans 


. 1339 


95 





000 


Natives . 


. 615 


156 


G 


1164 




December. 






Europeans 


. 1241 


140 


3 


2-88 


Natives . 


. 592 


206 


11 


22-20 



In the month of August of this year, so great was the ratio of 
sickness among the 37th Madras Native Infantry, which oc- 
cupied temporary barracks on shore (386 being sick out of 631), 
that a committee was ordered to investigate the cause of the 
great unheal thiness. The majority suffered from fevers, but the 
prevailing character of the disease is said to have been debility. 
No satisfactory cause was discovered of the great sickness. 

The natives were afterwards moved across to Cowloon, where 
they occupied an old brick fort, from which a detachment of 
18th Royal Irish had to be removed in consequence of their 
almost universal sickness there. Here the sepoys rapidly re- 
covered, but then, it is noted that the latter had very little duty 
there. In about a month afterwards they were moved back to 
Victoria, where they had to perform heavy duties, and then their 
sick list ran up as before. 

At this time the troops had no other barracks than mat sheds, 
or thin wooden huts — the floors of which were, it is true, raised 
somewhat from the ground — yet to this bad accommodation 
much of the sickness was attributed. 

Another fertile source of sickness is said to have been heavy 
drill, caused by the anxiety of commanding officers to fit their 
men for field service. The mortality was at the same time great 
among the troops on board the transport ships in the harbour, 
but in their case the circumstance is believed to have been 
accounted for by their crowded condition. 

We have more particular records of what was the rate of 
sickness and mortality among the troops in 1842, and this in- 
formation is concisely given in the following table, namely : 



HONG KONG. 



45 



1842. 





January, 






Ratio of deaths 




Strength. 


Sick. 


Deaths. 


per 100 strength 
per annum. 


British . 


. 684 


59 


6 


10-44 


Native . 


. 665 


164 


20 


36-80 




February. 






British . 


. 683 


74 





0000 


Native . 


. 430 

March. 


72 


5 


13-92 


British . 


. 680 


93 


3 


5-28 


Native . 


37 
April. 


9 


1 


32-00 


British . 


. 674 


111 


8 


14-16 


Native . 


36 
May. 


8 





00-00 


Europeans 


. 668 


148 


8 


14-28 


Natives . 


. 510 
June. 


27 





00-00 


Europeans 


. 620 


128 


2 


3-84 


Natives . 


. 582 
July. 


55 





o-oo 


Europeans 


. 616 


290 


45 


87-60 


Natives . 


. 665 
August. 


62 


9 


16-08 


Europeans 


. 568 


186 


48 


101-40 


Natives . 


. 645 


90 


20 


37-20 




September. 






Europeans 


. 576 


168 


16 


33-36 


Natives . 


. 721 


304 


16 


26-52 



46 



» 


HONG KONG. 








October. 

Strength. Sick. 


Deaths. 


Ratio of deaths 

per 100 strength 

per annum. 


Europeans 

Natives . 


. 462 207 
. 551 74 

November. 


10 
23 


25-92 
50-04 


Europeans 
Natives . 


> No information. 






December. 






Europeans 
Natives . 


. 974 279 
. 554 96 


19 
3 


23-28 
6-48 



The report from which the above information is taken states 
that the mortality for the year was, among Europeans, 21 per 
cent., among the natives of India 15 per cent. 

The cause of this mortality is thus given in the report of a 
court of inquiry on the subject. 

The men, it appears, were located in inferior barracks, situated 
at West Point (said to be the most healthy part of the island) . 
The accommodation was so inadequate that the men's cots were 
placed with a space of not more than three inches between each, all 
along the side walls, and with a double row, touching one another, 
down the centre of each of the buildings. The sickness broke 
out in July (from its heat and dampness necessarily unhealthy), 
and on the medical officers becoming sick from severe duty, the 
men had scarcely any attendance, many dying under this neglect. 

We learn that while native troops remained on board ship, 
they continued healthy ; sickness, however, broke out among 
them so soon as they took the shore duties. Their chief diseases 
were remittent and intermittent fevers, and although the attack 
itself was said to have been usually less severe than it was in 
Europeans, the natives generally subsequently died from diar- 
rhoea and debility. 

An attempt was made at this time to charge the unhealthi- 
ness of the troops to excesses committed by them, and to 
exposure to the sun. A court of inquiry, however, established 



HONG KONG. 



47 



the facts that during the prevalence of the sickness the conduct 
of the troops had been especially correct, and that they had not 
exposed themselves to the extent stated. The same court also 
gave it as their opinion that the high rate of mortality at Hong 
Kong during 1841 and 1842, stamped the country as a second 
Sierra Leone. 

During this year a detachment had been stationed at Chuc Choo 
(Stanley), at the south side of the island, which is stated to 
have been decidedly more healthy than Victoria. No wonder, 
indeed, that our newly acquired colony received the character 
for sickness, which still clings to it, although in some measure 
undeservedly. Bad as had been the state of matters during the 
first two years of occupation, the mortality in 1843 far exceeded 
what had as yet occurred. We are informed that the European 
part of the troops, during a part of this year, occupied barracks 
at West Point, but these buildings became so unhealthy during 
the month of July that all the men had to be embarked. 
Others of them were at Stanley ; the native Indians occupying 
' ' lines " that had been built for them. 

The following table gives the. rate of sickness and mortality 
during this year, namely, — 





1843. 








January. 




Eatio of deaths 




Strength. Sick. 


Deaths. 


per 100 strength 
per annum. 


Europeans 


. 1054 224 


29 


31-80 


Natives . 


. 548 72 
February. 


6 


1308 


Europeans 


. 1032 166 


20 


23-16 


Natives . 


. 543 65 

March. 


5 


11-24 


Europeans 


.* 1015 159 


9 


11-76 


Natives . 


. 538 60 
April. 


3 


6-60 


Europeans 


. 1005 162 


3 


3-36 


Natives . 


. 533 54 


3 


6-72 



48 





HONG KONG. 






Europeans 
Natives . 


May. 

Strength. 

. 1005 
. 527 

June. 


Sick. 

246 

43 


Deaths. 
11 

2 


Ratio of deaths 

per 100 strength 

per annum. 

14-28 
4-44 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 955 

. 504 

July. 


223 

46 


27 
3 


33-84 
7-08 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 925 

. 498 

August, 


231 
55 


38 
4 


49-50 
9-60 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 869 
. 612 


265 
186 


41 
4 


56-64 
7-68 




September. 






Europeans 
Natives . 


. 822 
. 623 

OcTOBEB 


307 
202 


45 
4 


65-64 
7-68 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 860 
. 606 


262 

124 


59 
19 


82-32 
37-56 




November. 






Europeans 
Natives . 


. 805 
. 595 


231 
124 


51 

8 


75-84 
1608 




December. 






Europeans 
Natives . 


854 
. 573 


215 
91 


35 

4 


49-08 
8-28 



The death rate during some of the above months is appalling, 
as, for instance, that in October. From documents now avail- 
able, we learn that throughout the year the average strength 
of Europeans was 937, the total deaths 368, or upwards of 
39 per cent. The rates of death being different in the two 



HONG KONG. 49 

British regiments stationed here; thus the 55th lost 46 per 
cent, of its strength, the 98th only 22. 

We find that during the same period the average strength 
of native troops was 558, the deaths 64, or more than 11 per 
cent. 

For the first time we obtain some information as to the rate 
of mortality among officers. We learn that in the present 
year their strength amounted to 71, and that of this number 7 
died during the year, giving a death rate of 10 per cent. It 
would seem that there is always a desire among writers upon 
unhealthy stations to apologise, as it were, for the deaths that 
occur in the locality ; thus, in the present instance, we find it 
stated that of the seven officers who died, three died at West 
Point, and a fourth was employed in surveying the island. 

An inquiry took place into the probable causes which led to so 
high a rate of mortality during this year, beginning as it did 
in January, during the coldest and what might naturally have 
been expected to have been the healthiest period of the year. 

It was ascertained that the 98th Regiment, in which, up to a 
certain point, the rate of mortality seems to have been highest, 
had left England on the 11th of December, 1841, in the 
" Belleisle," and from that time until November, 1842, it had 
been, with few intervals, continuously on board that vessel, 
engaged in the operations then in progress along the coast of 
China. During this time, out of a strength of 770, it lost by 
death 253 men. The great outbreak of mortality, arising it was 
said, at Ching Keang Foo on the 21st of July ; and it deserves 
especial notice, that the causes which were then believed to have 
produced this sad state of matters continued in operation 
during the following year (1843) at Hong Kong, when it 
appears the men had little duty to perform, but revived with 
increased violence in 1844, when, we are informed, the duties 
became heavy. Some of the causes of the sickness are thus 
recorded : 

1. Crowded state of the ship "Belleisle," as also the heat and 
confined atmosphere of the orlop deck. 

2. The length of time (214 days) the regiment (98th) re- 
mained on board. 

3. Long continuance of salt rations. 



50 HONG KONG. 

This vessel was 1700 tons burthen, and the number of all 
persons on board, including other detachments and the ship's 
company, amounted to 1278 persons, in addition to which, the 
decks were said to have been much encumbered with provisions 
and baggage. The officers, who had sufficient space and su- 
perior food on board, remained healthy ; no deaths took place 
among them. 

During the latter part of May, and in June and July, of this 
year, a severe outbreak of remittent and continued fever 
occurred in a detachment of the 55th Eegiment at West Point. 
And it is remarked that the appearance of the men out of hos- 
pital is far from favorable ; they are pale, emaciated, and weak ; 
relapses are excessively frequent among them, convalescence 
tedious, and recovery imperfect. 

In seeking for a cause, the committee noted two deep ravines 
in the vicinity of the barracks, these containing more or less 
decaying vegetable matter, as also having several cultivated 
terraces on their sides. They candidly admit, however, that 
these seemed insufficient to account for the sickness, but add, at 
the same time, no other source of malaria was apparent. 

The barracks in which the men were, are described as of very 
faulty construction, and very much shut in from the south-east 
breezes ; and a more probable cause than either appears as stated 
in the fact of the men having a long march in a hot sun, when 
mounting and returning from guard at Victoria, as well as from 
being on duty every third night. They further state their 
belief, however, that some other cause is at work which cannot 
be detected. 

During the year 1844 we learn from records that, "the left 
wing of the 55th Regiment being now reduced to a state of the 
most deplorable inefficiency," it was resolved to send the corps 
back to England. It accordingly embarked for home in March, 
and a native Madras regiment (4th) arriving to relieve the 
41st Native Infantry that had been there, that corps returned 
to India in May. 

The 4th Native Infantry, which came on from Singapore, had, 
during the previous year, suffered severely there from sickness; 
they were accordingly no acquisition at Hong Kong, where their 
advent did not relieve the 98th from the heavy duty they had 



HONG KONG. 



51 



to perform. It followed that during the most sickly period of 
the year, the men of the 98th who were fit for duty, had seldom 
three nights in bed, and the sepoys scarcely two. 

Up till now, both barracks and hospital occupied by the 
troops would appear to have been only temporary buildings, of 
what precise nature does not appear; but it may be inferred 
that they were made of matting. In the present year the sites 
of the present Murray Barracks and General Hospital were 
given over to the military authorities, and these buildings 
commenced upon them. . 

The following summary represents the rate of sickness and 
mortality among^the troops during the present year : 



1844. 





January 

Strength. 


Sick. 


Deaths. 


Ratio of deaths 

per 100 strength 

per annum. 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 1122 

. 527 


186 
35 


17 
6 


18-12 
13-56 




February. 






Europeans 
Natives . 


. 1736 
. 522 

March. 


151 
69 


14 
3 


11-44 
6-84 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 1342 
. 509 

April. 


98 
10 


2 

4 


1-68 
936 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 1043 

. 704 

May. 


96 
16 


8 



9-36 
000 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 1035 
. 637 

June. 


115 

58 


12 
5 


13-80 
9-36 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 1007 
. 630 


234 
31 


23 
11 


27-36 
20-88 



52 





HONG KONG. 








July. 

Strength. Sick. 


Deaths. 


Ratio of deaths 

per 100 strength 

per annum. 


Europeans 
Natives . 


938 139 
. 672 43 

August. 


26 
21 


3324 
37-44 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 866 219 
708 110 

September. 


21 
30 


28-92 
50-64 


Europeans 

Natives . 


839 144 
660 110 

October. 


16 

24 


22-56 
43-56 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 826 177 
. 651 60 

November. 


23 
34 


33-36 
62-64 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 848 150 
. 643 51 

December. 


31 
13 


43-80 
24-24 


Europeans 
Natives . 


. 1088 113 
. 461 29 


18 
3 


19-80 
780 



The records inform us that the average strength of European 
troops during this year had been 1057 ; total deaths 211, that 
is, nearly 20 per cent, of the whole. The average strength 
of native Indians was 610; the deaths among them 154, or 
about 25 per cent., so that they suffered greater loss than did 
even the British. 

We also obtain some information as to the rate of mortality 
among the officers during the present year. The strength of 
British was 74, of which number 7 deaths took place, being 
in the ratio of about 91 per cent. They had to live in 
bad houses, and were by the nature of their duties much 
exposed to the sun ; and these circumstances are noted as 
accounting for the higher rate of mortality among them than 
among the civilians of the colony in the same period. We 



HONG KONG. 53 

moreover hear that sixteen officers had to leave the colony on 
sick certificate during the year; some appear to have con- 
tracted their illness in other portions of China, and this circum- 
stance is, in the official reports, paraded with a degree of triumph, 
as indicating that they were not all prostrated by disease in 
Hong Kong. 

Throughout the preceding reports, much stress is laid upon 
insufficient accommodation as a cause of disease among the 
troops. In the remarks from which we now quote, this is again 
and again brought forward. A table is thus given representing the 
"strength" of the Europeans, connected with the various firms 
here, and the rate of mortality among them during the present 
year, from which we learn that of 95 persons of this class, the 
deaths only amounted to 2, that is, 2 - 10 per cent. A general 
rate at the foot of the return from which we quote deserves 
notice — it states that one of these two fatal cases took place 
"from hard living." 

In the present year the site of what are now called the 
"Murray" barracks was selected, not because it was the most 
eligible in the island, but because it was the only spot upon 
which a range of buildings of the description required could 
be erected. 

An inquiry being instituted as to the rate of admissions to 
strength of the troops occupying upper and lower floors in the 
barracks at Victoria, a table is given showing this for the 
month of August, 1844. From it we learn that of 155 British 
soldiers occupying the upper floor, 38, or 24-51 per cent., were 
admitted into hospital in this one month ; and of 185 who 
occupied the lower floor, 86, or 46 - 66 per cent., were admitted 
during the same period — that is, nearly double the proportion 
of that from the upper. 

It is, moreover, interesting to learn what were the particular 
diseases that occasioned this material difference in the rate of 
admissions. That there was a marked increase in all, is 
evident from the table ; but what most strikes us is the fact, 
that whereas among the men on the upper floor the admissions 
from fever were 16, or 10-32 per cent., and 15 of diarrhoea, 
or 9-67 per cent., the cases of the first-named disease from 
among the men on the ground-floor were 51, or 27-02 per cent., 



54 HONG KONG. 

and from diarrhosa, 21, or 11-35 per cent. No cases of dysen- 
tery are recorded among the admissions. 

Nothing could so plainly show as do these brief statistics, 
the danger of keeping soldiers upon the lower story in Hong 
Kong. The only circumstance which occasions surprise is, 
that bowel complaints, under such circumstances, are not more 
prevalent than they are. 

At this time it would seem that the greater number of resi- 
dences of civilians were bungalows, built after the Indian style. 
Experience soon indicated, that however convenient they might 
be in that country, they were not so for Hong Kong ; they were 
accordingly given up, and so rapidly have all traces of their 
existence been obliterated, that a gentleman who had known 
the colony since 1841 informed me in October, 1860, that in 
more than one spot where he has known bungalows to have 
stood, and their proprietor to have died in them, no trace 
whatever now remains either of the building or of the orna- 
mental grounds by which it had been surrounded. 

With hardly an exception, the dwelling-houses of Europeans 
now consist of at least two storeys ; the ground-floor being used 
for stores or offices ; all the apartments intended for continuous 
occupation being on the upper. 

The records in the principal medical officer's office give for 
this year a report of a detachment of 129 men of the 18th 
Regiment, stationed at Stanley from April till August. From 
it we learn that during the first thirty-two days of the 
residence of the detachment there, a ratio of 28 per cent, 
of strength had been under treatment on account of inter- 
mittent fever alone. The detachment was, during the hot 
season, strengthened from time to time by fresh arrivals, but 
the same high rate of sickness continued among them; and 
from a table we learn that the ratio of fever cases to strength, 
at particular ages was— of those under nineteen years of age, 8 
per cent. ; twenty to twenty-four, 3 per cent. • twenty-five to 
twenty-nine, 2 per cent. 

It is further shown that had the whole detachment above 
referred to been equally unhealthy, every man in it would 
have been three times in hospital, and have had two attacks of 
fever in seven months, the time they were stationed there. 



HONG KONG. 55 

The report, moreover, goes on to say that the men who were 
long at Stanley could be detected in the ranks by their 
remarkably pale, sallow appearance ; and the same remark may 
hold good now, in 1860. 

So reduced was the detachment at Stanley in November, 
1845, by sickness, and so alarming the mortality, as was stated 
by Dr. Kerins, in consequence of the already debilitated state 
of the men, that he recommended that a large detachment 
should be sent to sea for a month, and to be relieved by men 
from Victoria. 

In the course of a report on the state of health of the troops 
in the command for the year from 1st April, 1844, to 31st 
March, 1845, we learn that the whole strength of British troops 
(exclusive of officers) was 1867 ; of which number the admis- 
sions into hospital were 5887, and the deaths in hospital 
241 ; that is, at the rate of 128 per 1000. This mortality was 
principally occasioned by fevers and bowel-complaint, but after 
these, and excluding surgical diseases, it is said that the parts 
most liable to disease were in the order of susceptibility — 
lungs, eyes, brain, and liver. It is worthy of remark, however, 
that diseases of the stomach and bowels were oftener more fatal 
than fevers, in the proportion of 120 to 105, but that the rate 
of amount of fever cases among the troops was higher than 
that of diseases of the stomach and bowels, in the ratio of 462 
to 222 per 1000 of mean strength. 

We learn from the same report that remittent fever in 
Hong Kong assumed a very malignant type, often ran its 
course rapidly, the patient in such cases being delirious or coma- 
tose, no doubt from inflammatory action within the cranium. 

In the intermittent fever, quinine is said to have caused only 
temporary cessation of the paroxysms ; but the malarious influ- 
ence remaining, the attacks recurred once or twice a month, 
until the men's strength became worn out. The patients then 
died exhausted, or from bowel affection. 

The cases of liver disease admitted were few in number; 
thus, 28 attributable to this head were all that were admitted 
in the total number given above of 5887. It appears, however, 
that cases of fatal bowel disease were in several instances com- 
plicated with hepatitis; but even then, this class of diseases 



56 HONG KONG. 

would seem to be far less prevalent in Hong Kong than in 
India, and so they were observed to be on the coast of Guinea. 
It would be an unprofitable task, and also a gloomy one, to 
detail the amount of sickness and death by which our troops 
were much more than decimated during the early period of our 
occupation of Hong Kong. These have considerably moderated 
of late ; yet it is to be feared the unenviable notoriety must 
still be accorded to the island that particular years are still 
characterised by more than ordinarily severe outbreaks of disease 
and mortality. Much is, indeed, being done to remove, as far 
as circumstances will permit, all apparent causes of disease ; 
much success has attended the measures already taken, and 
hopeful anticipations are entertained in regard to the good 
effects to health from the establishment of barracks on the 
promontory of Cowloon; I must express my personal fears, 
however, that Hong Kong will never become other than a very 
unhealthy station. 

These remarks are sufficient to show us what Hong Kong 
once was. Let us see what it has been as regards salubrity 
more lately, in as far as this can be deduced from medical sta- 
tistics of a military force. 

The table which follows has been compiled from the statistics 
of sickness and mortality among all the troops in southern 
China during the official year of 1860-61. It includes the 
portions of the force stationed at Canton, as well as at different 
parts of Hong Kong ; so that the statistics are thus made to 
embrace soldiers well located in barracks as well as those in • 
huts, and those occupying some of the native buildings at 
Canton, in a manner similar to what the force at Tein-tsin did 
there. 

It may be assumed that the average strength of the men 
whose statistics are thus given was — of British, 3280; of 
natives, 3150. Thus, the annual rate of mortality may be 
taken as 3'68 per cent, among the former, and 2-34 among the 
latter. The year is reported to have been a remarkably healthy 
one, and certainly the rates of mortality contrast favorably with 
what occurs at not one only, but many of our stations in India. 
From the table now given we gather that the degree of 
healthiness of particular months of the year in this part of 



HONG KONG. 



57 



China is in the following order : the most salubrious heading 
the list, and the degree diminishing as we descend, namely : 



February .... 

March and April equal, in each 

November 

December 

January . 

May 

September 

October . 

June 

August 

July 



Deaths. 

2 

5 

9 
12 
14 
16 
18 
22 
23 
24 
45 



The period of residence in the command was so similar in 
all, that no conclusion could be drawn from this circumstance. 
It may, indeed, be mentioned, that the troops, British and 
Asiatic, were all less than two years in the command ; a system 
of frequent reliefs having, it is believed, been just begun. 

It may be worth while, from the meagre data at my disposal, 
if I note in succession the order in which mortality is occa- 
sioned by those diseases that have occurred other than in a 
solitary, or what may therefore be looked upon as an acci- 
dental case. I note them accordingly among British and 
natives respectively, placing the most fatal at the top of the list 
in regard to each class, and so on downwards, namely : 



British. 


Deaths. 


Indians. 


Deaths. 


Fevers 


. 55 


Fevers . 


25 


Bowel affections 


. 38 


Bowel affections 


22 


f Phthisis . 
L Apoplexy 


. 6 


Bronchitis 


4 


. 6 


[ Debilitas 


4 






Pneumonia 


3 


Hepatitis 


3 


[ Rheumatism ? 


3 






' Phthisis 


2 






1 Morbus Cordis 


2 






I Phagedena 


2 



It thus becomes evident that during the year under notice 
natives of India are liable to be destroyed by a larger number 



58 HONG KONG. 

of diseases than the British, and that the order of liability to 
death of these two classes does not coincide with each other. 

Taking these diseases in the above order, as they attack the 
British, we find in the south of China fevers of all the ordi- 
narily described types ; namely, continued, intermittent, and 
remittent. It is beyond doubt, however, that in all these cer- 
tain peculiarities are observable, which owe their rise to local 
causes ; thus, although as regards continued fevers many of the 
attacks are precisely similar to, and amenable to means that 
are successful in the disease elsewhere, this is not the type that 
is here deemed of most importance. Cases are often admitted, 
in which the patient may be described as labouring under 
febrile cachexia. His surface is hot and dry, he is weak, does 
not complain of local pain, nor does there seem to be present 
any local determination. There are no accessions in the severity 
of his symptoms, neither, on the other hand, are there remis- 
sions ; a peculiar paleness pervades his surface, lips, and gums ; 
the colouring matter of the blood decreases in amount ; he has 
no desire for food ; sometimes diarrhoea, at others irritability of 
the stomach to a great degree ; and thus he goes on from day 
to day, progressing from bad to worse, until, if nothing be done 
for him, he dies. 

Intermittent fever, as that disease affects the troops here, has 
its peculiarities also. Its attacks are most erratic, and very 
frequently having no regular period of recurrence. It differs 
from the corresponding disease met with in India, inasmuch as 
enlargement of the spleen, as a complication, is here compa- 
ratively rare, while there, in protracted cases, it is the rule. 
Another peculiarity of the disease is the remarkable obstinacy 
with which it resists treatment ; in fact, the manner in which 
"China ague" clings to its subjects, even after they have left 
the country, is too well known by many of them.* 

* The following extract from the works of Sir Ronald Martin, K.C.B., is so 
apposite to the present diseases, that I cannot resist transcribing it. He says — 

" It is not so much from the high rate of temperature we Europeans suffer, as 
from the excessive humidity that is conjoined to it for so many months in the 
year, and both which, commingled with the terrestrial emanations, tend gradually 
through their united influence by inducing what may be termed a cachexia liver, 
to undermine the best aud most robust of constitutions." 

The above paragraph was penned by its author with especial reference to India ; 
it is equally applicable to other hot climates, and particularly so to the west coast 



HONG KONG. 59 

Remittent fever, as observed by me, was of a less virulent type 
at Hong Kong than at Canton. At the former place the attacks 
of this form of disease were low and asthenic in their nature ; 
but at the latter, where the men of the 87th Regiment were 
their subjects, they were of such a degree of intensity, that if 
the patients were not swept away at once by them, convalescence 
was imperfect, requiring a removal home, and in many instances, 
with more or less destruction of the cerebral functions. As in 
India, remittent fever seemed often so closely allied to coup-de- 
soleil, that it was difficult to draw the distinction between them ; 
but there was this difference, that the amount of destruction 
afterwards left in the cerebral functions, was greater here than 
in that country. 

Dysentery and Diarrhoea. — These two diseases manifest 
certain local peculiarities. The former would seem, in the great 
majority of instances, to come on in the hemorrhagic or scor- 
butic form, the odour of decomposition being perceptible from 
the patient even when first brought to hospital. There is a 
great liability to death ; blood literally pours from the bowel, 
intermixed with only a few shreds of what seems to be mem- 
brane. Although the depraved and dissipated are undoubtedly 
more subject to this form of disease than the steady and abste- 
mious, the latter are sometimes carried away by it in a very 
short period of illness during the more unhealthy months. 

It is not the object of these pages to enter into the details of 
medical treatment of disease in China. This, as a matter of 
course, must be conducted according to the grand principles 
that hold good elsewhere. I would remark, however, that in 
many cases of persons affected with one or other of those just 
alluded to, and which, we may fairly conclude to owe their 
origin to the existence of powerful morbific influences of a local 
nature ; the fact ought never to be lost sight of, that on the 
first check being given by remedies to the progress of the disease, 
it becomes then matter of consideration whether or not perfect 
recovery is likely to take place unless he be speedily removed 
beyond the sphere of those influences. I believe, in fact, that 

of Africa and Hong Kong, at both of which places the peculiarity of the cachexia 
established by long residence, is no doubt produced by the peculiar emanations 
that arise from the soil there, as contradistinguished from those produced from 
the soft alluvion of Bengal. 



60 HONG KONG. 

few persons who have suffered from a severe attack of endemic 
disease in the south of China recover until after they have left 
the country for a time. 

Hepatitis. — Diseases coming under this head are decidedly 
of less frequency in their rate of occurrence in an independent 
form than they are in India ; as complications, however, in cases 
of dysentery, they would seem to be fully as common, if, indeed, 
not more so, than in that country, although I regret I have no 
statistics available showing the precise rate of occurrence of 
them in the south of China. 

Phthisis. — This affection, in its confirmed form, and in its 
earlier stages, or those of tuberculosis, is far more frequent in 
its occurrence here than would be expected by those who still 
believe that a warm climate is favorable to persons who have a 
tendency to pulmonary consumption, or suffer from the disease 
in an advanced form. These remarks are no less applicable to 
civilians than to soldiers. Many young men, predisposed to 
phthisical disorders, take situations here and elsewhere in the 
tropics in the hope of arresting the tendency to disease, and in 
some instances their hopes are realised; they gain strength, 
health becomes re-established, and they return home after a 
greater or less length of time robust and strong. In the ma- 
jority of cases, however, more especially among soldiers, the 
original tendency to the disease becomes aggravated, and active 
phthisis becomes developed, a result which is doubtless attri- 
butable to the combination of circumstances attending military 
life. 

A few of these circumstances may be mentioned, as they affect 
soldiers especially, and are not applicable to civilians. 

1. Soldiers are crowded together in barracks to a degree 
unknown among civilians. 

2. When in a damp and warm climate, like that of the south 
of China, they are thrown into a state of perspiration from any 
cause; they have not the means, on returning to their quarters,* 
to change their clothes and make themselves comfortable, as 
civilians have ; they must remain as they are, in their moist 
clothes, and with the cutaneous secretion still in contact with 
their bodies. 

3. Military duties, although not in themselves actually severe, 
are of so constant a nature as thus to effect a depressing in- 



HONG KONG. 61 

fluence upon the men, and this influence is still further increased 
by the night duties of sentries and picquets, on which they must 
necessarily proceed. 

4. Barrack rooms being far less comfortable than private 
dwelling-houses, the soldier has thus no inducement to remain 
at home, he therefore seeks excitement of various kinds abroad. 

These and other circumstances tend, in an especial manner, 
to lower the general powers of a soldier in the south of China, 
and thus to render him more liable than might have been sup- 
posed to affections such as this. 

Apoplexy. — Whether we include under this name the disease 
ordinarily so called only, or that known also as coup-de-soleil, 
we find that the number of cases that arise are comparatively 
few here. In this respect the endemic affections of the south 
of China differ, as they do in many others, from those of India. 

In regard to the native Indian troops, the diseases that 
prevail among them have a very apparent and remarkable con- 
nection with the peculiar habits of these men. They are, in part 
by the prejudices of caste, in part by the power of early habit, 
prohibited from indulging in the use of stimulating, or, indeed, 
of nourishing food. Few eat meat, and they who do, consume 
it in small quantity. Then again, as regards dress, the state of 
half nudity in which, according to the customs of their native 
country, they walk about, is not only indelicate to our eyes 
and those of the Chinese themselves, but unquestionably renders 
them liable to diseases to which they would not otherwise be 
nearly so subject. 

As a result of the first peculiarity, diseases of debility are all 
very fatal among them ; and as a consequence of the second, 
they manifest a great liability to inflammatory diseases of the 
chest, to rheumatism, and to diseases of the heart. It is, indeed, 
a frequent occurrence to see natives of India prostrated from 
what seems to be mere prostration of the vital powers ; no local 
disease can be detected, no definite symptoms are present — the 
person is merely weak ; and in not a few instances this weakness 
increases, despite of treatment, until at last life fails. 

In bringing this part of my observations to a close, I beg to 
append the following tabular view, which, in a statistical point, 
will not, I trust, be deemed valueless. 



62 



HONG KONG. 



to 

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a 

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to 
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rH 


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nhhio :::::::::::: :rn ::::::: 


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(nh I:;;::;::::::::::::::: : 


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W 

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[0 

s 




Dysentery, acute and chron 

Phthisis pulmonalis . 

Pneumonia 

Fevers 

Cholera, spasmodic 

Peritonitis 

Coup-de-soleil 

Apoplexy . 

Intussusceptio . 

Rheumatism and chorea 

Syphilis 

Diarrhoea . 

Caries 

Bronchitis 

Carditis and morbus cordis 

Debility . 

Hepatitis . 

Accidents . 

Grangrene . 

Dyspepsia . 

Erysipelas . 

Delirium tremens 

Nephritis . 

Paralysis . 

Icterus 



■& 



HONG KONG. 63 

On many occasions I have been struck with the similarity in 
character of some diseases, more especially fevers as they affected 
British at Hong Kong, and what some years ago I have seen at 
Cape Coast Castle. Here, as on that part of the African coast, 
many persons seem to suffer from a febrile cachexia, with great 
decrease in the red particles of the blood ; medicine in such 
instances has little or no effect ; the system appears to be 
under the influence of some local poison, from which it is 
necessary that the person be removed without delay, if it be 
intended that he should have an ordinary chance of re- 
covering. 

In the preceding notes, some circumstances have been men- 
tioned which support the belief that the local peculiarity of 
disease on the island of Hong Kong is occasioned by peculiar 
influences in operation there. That some of these influences 
are, in all probability, of meteorological origin, would appear, 
from the fact often observed, that a distinction can almost 
always be observed between the phenomena of attacks of fever 
occurring at Victoria itself, where the atmosphere is for the 
most part still, very warm, and moist, and those that occur 
among the troops stationed at " Stanley," on the south side of 
the island, where the regular monsoon wind blows uninter- 
ruptedly. There are many circumstances, however, that show 
unmistakeably that the local peculiarity of disease on the island 
arises from causes of a terrestrial origin. Some of these have 
been alluded to in the present chapter ; as a further explanation, 
however, of the circumstance, as well as of the similarity which 
exists between the phenomena of some forms of disease here, 
and on the coast of Guinea, I venture to add a few extracts 
from notes bearing upon this matter which I took several years 



Adverting to the coast of Africa, from Cape Palmas to the 
River Volla, Mr. Montgomery Martin remarks that "the clumps 
of hills which are to be met with in every direction, are com- 
posed principally of gneiss and granite; mica slate is found to 
enter into the composition of some at no great distance from 
Cape Coast Castle. These rocks, from containing large pro- 
portions of felspar and mica, are rapidly passing into decom- 
position, more especially such as are exposed to the influence 



64 HONG KONG. 

of air and water; the result of decomposition is a clayey or 
argillaceous soil." 

The same author, adverting to Hong Kong, writes thus : — 
" The structure (of the island) may be briefly described as con- 
sisting of decomposed coarse granite, intermixed with strata of 
a red disintegrating sandstone crumbling into a stiff ferru- 
ginous clay." " Gneiss and felspar are found in fragments." 
" That the granite is rotten, and passing like dead animal and 
vegetable substances into a putrescent state, is evinced from the 
crumbling of the apparently solid rock beneath the touch, and 
from the noxious vapour, carbonic acid gas, or nitrogen, which 
it yields when the sun strikes fiercely upon it after rain." 

Having related thus correctly the nature of the soil upon 
which the town of Victoria is built, the author continues, " The 
strata appeared like a richly prepared compost, emitting a 
fetid odour of the most sickening nature, and which at night 
must prove a deadly poison. This strata quickly absorbs any 
quantity of rain, which it returns to the surface in the nature 
of a pestiferous gas." . . " This position of the town of Victoria, 
which may be likened to the bottom of a crater with a lake, 
prevents the dissipation of this gas, while the geological forma- 
tion favours the retention of the morbific poison on the surface, 
to be occasionally called into deadly activity." 

It will be interesting to consider one or two other points 
brought forward by this author, as not only being calculated to 
throw considerable light upon the subject now in hand, but upon 
fever elsewhere as modified by geological formation. According 
to him, "Dr. Heyne observes that the ordinarily received opinion 
as to vegetable or marshy origin of fevers will not hold in the 
south of India, for the hills are not more woody than in other 
healthy places." . . "Now, if it be found that fever exists 
constantly and invariably among certain descriptions of hills, 
while others of a different composition are as constantly free 
from the same, would it not become reasonable to suppose that 
the nature or composition of the rock itself must furnish the 
cause of the calamity." We are further informed that in 
southern India, " the hills where (fever) is found to prevail, 
appear at first sight to be quite harmless, as they are granite." . 
. . " They contain, however, besides quartz, felspar and mica, 



HONG KONG. 65 

a great proportion of ferruginous hornblende, which, by its 
disintegration or separation from the rock, becomes highly 
magnetic, and in which I suppose the cause resides which pro- 
duces this fever, besides a great train of other disorders." 

Prom these quotations it is plain that the dependence of par- 
ticular types of disease upon certain local conditions, has been 
suspected by writers on these subjects. And the circumstance 
assumes much scientific interest when we thus discover that not 
only is there a great similitude between the type of disease at 
Hong Kong and at Cape Coast Castle, but that a similarity also 
exists between the geological formations of these two interesting 
but not very salubrious localities. 



CHAPTER III. 

CANTON. 

The Pearl Kiver and its banks — Whampoa— Canton — The Chinese contrasted 
with the Indians — The British force in occupation — Chinese prisons — 
Honam — A tea manufactory — History of tea — Lacquer ware — An aquarium 
—Blind beggars — Superstitions — Sickness — Table of temperature. 

I had not been long at Hong Kong before I had occasion to 
visit tbe city of Canton. To do this two American steamers 
give the opportunity daily. 

Starting punctually at 8 a.m., the " White Cloud/' for such 
was the pretty name of the vessel, shot away as it were from 
her anchorage, scattering far and wide the numerous native 
boats or sanpans that up to the last moment had clung to her, 
for no sooner did the huge spider-like arms of the piston, which 
was on the high pressure principle, begin to move high above 
the deck, than the owners of the small craft let go their hold, 
and paddled away as fast as oars and sculls could take them. 

And now the " White Cloud " was free. Away she went at 
a rate of not less than fifteen knots per hour. A group of pas- 
sengers were on deck; binoculars and telescopes were in 
constant requisition as they looked first at the town that now 
lay behind us, then at the shipping that lay chiefly to our right, 
but also less thickly around us. Soon we turn a sharp point 
of land, and Hong-Kong is shut out from the view ; we are in 
the Canton or Pearl River, which here is a broad estuary, dotted 
with high peaked islands of various sizes. The channel through 
which we are dashing against the stream is bounded on one side 
by one of these islands ; on the other the banks are rocky, 



CANTON. 67 

precipitous, and irregular ; granitic boulders lie about in heaps ; 
red gravel extends between. Projecting spurs of hills are 
separated by green fertile valleys, through which a rippling 
stream is seen to run ; and an apparently neat, clean, and com- 
fortable looking village is built at the most sheltered part ; its 
aspect leading us to believe that the inhabitants are far removed 
from want. 

The estuary of the river, at first so broad that one side is not 
visible from the other, continued gradually to narrow as we 
advanced. The hills on our right became less high and less 
rugged ; . and at about midway between Hong Kong and 
Canton we reached the narrowest part of it, where it rushes 
between the two projecting hills, and past an island upon which 
once stood the well known Bogue Forts, which first were cap- 
tured by the British on the 25th of February, 1842. 

From this point the banks upon both sides of the river 
became flat and fertile ; large plains, green with vegetation, and 
rich with growing crops, extended far and wide ; the country is 
interspersed with hamlets and villages, all of which looked from 
the distance comfortable and in good repair, far superior to the 
huts of the Scotch or Irish labouring classes. Amidst all the 
luxuriance and richness, however, there were two or three cir- 
cumstances that I could not help observing at the time. There 
were no pasture fields, neither were there any cattle grazing ; 
there were scarcely any birds to be seen, and it is remarkable 
how the comparative absence of the feathered tribes gave to a 
person a feeling of desolation, even in the midst of so much 
human and such profuse vegetable life as we saw around us. 
Again, we saw large numbers of plantain or banana bushes 
planted in gardens and in fields past which the " White Cloud " 
cleft her way. We saw also rice field after rice field, deeply 
irrigated, beautifully green, and extending, as it seemed to us, 
for miles uninterruptedly. Yet the landscape had in reality 
nothing tropical in it. How different was the character of 
vegetation here, for instance, from what it is along the banks of 
the Hooghly, as we approach Calcutta, situated in much about 
the same latitude as Canton. Yet the difference is at once 
accounted for when we remember that the climate of Canton is 
an extreme one, for while in summer rising so as to equal in 



68 CANTON. 

temperature Bengal, the thermometer in the winter months 
often sinks to freezing. This is a peculiarity more or less of 
the eastern shore of all continents, and is one reason why 
plants, elsewhere found in high latitudes, are in China found 
growing among others that we look for only in the tropics ; for 
instance, at Hong Kong the pine and the plantain grow side 
by side. 

About an hour before arriving at the termination of our 
journey, we reach Whampoa, a mean looking place in itself, the 
greater part of its houses built actually over the river by means 
of stakes, upon which the lower floor is placed. Our vessel 
stopped here but for a few minutes to put out and take in pas- 
sengers ; and now we had another opportunity of observing and 
admiring the wonderful dexterity with which women and girls 
managed to " hook on " their boats or sanpans to the steamer, 
and with what agility they rushed about in search of " fares." 

The river is here crowded with vessels of different nations ; 
many of the ships of very large size. The few European 
residents live on board " chops," or hulls of junks and other 
vessels anchored in the middle of the stream. It seemed 
strange to us to see signs upon these, one for instance inti- 
mating that the " chop " in question was the post office, 
another, that there was the dispensary, two very useful, 
institutions in their way. 

It is more than probable that the residents in these floating 
houses do not consider the state of affairs sufficiently settled to 
justify them in dwelling on shore. Notwithstanding all the 
disturbances, however, by which the south of China has for 
many, and more especially of late years, been distracted, 
Whampoa is rapidly becoming a place of great trade and im- 
portance, it being the port of Canton, much as Blackwall is as 
regards London. 

Docks have of late been formed here, which, although some- 
what rude in construction, are capable of admitting the largest- 
sized vessel that comes up the river; there are the usual 
number of store-ships, marine stores, sail-makers, &c., that are 
found at home in the vicinity of shipping; all, it is said, 
driving a flourishing trade. This place is also somewhat famous 
upon another account ; the Chinese, generally speaking, have a 



CANTON. 69 

great dislike to killing bullocks, looking upon them as too 
valuable to be eaten. Our shipping, however, has for so many 
years remained off Whampoa, and English sailors have so long 
had beef supplied to them here, that the rearing of cattle for 
slaughter has long since become a regular item of business at 
Whampoa; and now the greater quantity required for the 
rations of our troops, both at Hong Kong and Canton, is 
obtained from that place. 

Arrived at Canton, I landed by one of the boats, thousands 
upon thousands of which line either bank, and crowd the face 
of the river; their jolly, smiling, and generally good-looking 
female crew sculling and pulling, or standing talking together 
and laughing, as if there was no such thing as care in this 
world — at all events as if they felt it not. 

Sing-sing, or "flower-boats," gorgeously painted and deco- 
rated, towered high above the humble "sanpan," or ordinary 
river-boat. It was yet day, however, and therefore not the 
proper time to see the interior magnificence of these floating 
theatres. They must be lighted up at night to show the 
stranger all their beauties; and, unfortunately, for night we 
cannot wait. Meantime, our fair rowers have run us ashore 
somewhere — it is evidently not the regular landing place, for 
we look in vain for any person to take our baggage, which is 
speedily landed upon the shore by our " Tankia"* boat-women. 
Here there are evidently no idlers nor hangers-on waiting for a 
job, all are busy attending to the business they have actually in 
hand ; there accordingly we stood for some time, slightly bewil- 
dered, until one of our party assumed the management of 
affairs, and started off to reconnoitre; soon he returned, 
bringing with him some of the European police, established by 
order of the mixed commission ; coolies and chairs were speedily 
procured, and away we started towards the city, borne upon the 
shoulders of three sturdy chairmen — two in front and one 
behind — the strong muscles of the two leaders throwing them- 

* Another class of people somewhat similar to the Tankias of Canton, exist at 
Ningpo, where they are known as the " To-nim." This degraded people are sup- 
posed to be the descendants of the Kin, who held Northern China in a.d. 1100, 
or of native traitors who aided the Japanese, in 1555 — 1563, in their descent 
upon Cheh Kiang. -- ■ * 



70 CANTON. 

selves into lines in bold relief upon their naked bodies and 
limbs at every step they took with us ; and rapid was the pace 
at which they carried us along. 

Entering what is called the Tartar quarter, we were carried 
for what seemed a very long distance through narrow, tortuous 
streets, all of which were paved with granite flags ; at intervals 
we crossed small canals, by means of bridges consisting of a 
series of steps made of similar flags to what paved the street, 
and reminding us in some measure of those represented upon 
the well-known willow pattern plate. The houses were all of 
one story ; indeed we learn that throughout China very few of 
the houses are taller than this, even when they belong to the 
better classes, as the natives have a dislike to one man raising 
his " castle" higher than those of his neighbours ; the narrow 
streets are covered in by a bamboo trellis-work, which stretched 
between the roofs of the houses at either side ; this, again, was 
covered here and there by patches of cloth, so that while the 
violent rays of the sun were excluded, so also was free circulation 
of air, and the result was perhaps even beyond our expectations. 

The odours that assailed us were not only different in nature 
from all other stenches we had ever previously perceived, but 
they were no less extraordinary by reason of their variety — all 
different from each other, and from all others; they were, in 
fact, purely and thoroughly Chinese, for do not the celestials 
differ from all outer barbarians in everything else ? Why, then, 
should the effluvia of their cities and large towns not be also 
peculiar to themselves ? Of course they ought. 

As yet we were in the poorer part of Canton; this was 
evident in many ways. Our bearers had considerable difficulty 
in threading their way through the crowds of passengers and 
coolies that were in like manner endeavouring to thread their 
way past us. Here everybody seemed to jostle against every- 
body else; chair came in contact with chair in passing; one 
<:oolie, as he carried his load at either end of a long bamboo, 
the centre of which rested upon his shoulder, came frequently 
in collision with other coolies similarly equipped, especially at 
the corners of streets, where the turnings are so sharp that it is 
quite impossible to see " round the corner." With the excep- 
tion of a few members of the European police force and a 



CANTON. 71 

Roman Catholic priest, we met no white man. These were 
riding small ponies ; in fact, from the dense crowds and the 
amount of traffic in the narrow streets, it would be utterly im- 
possible for either of these important functionaries to make 
their way along the thoroughfare otherwise than on horseback, 
or being carried in a chair. 

The shops as yet presented nothing particularly attractive ; 
the principal part of the merchandize seemed to consist of raw 
and cooked meat, chiefly duck3 and pork, both excessively fat 
and uninviting; quantities of salted and fresh fish were simi- 
larly exposed ; the former piled up in heaps, the latter kept 
alive and fresh, in tubs for the purpose. They consisted of 
various kinds ; but what seemed to be the great favourite was a 
fresh-water mullet, some of which were a couple of feet long 
and at least six inches in diameter. It was an unpleasant and 
cruel sight to see the dealers in these sometimes clutch one, 
and with his heavy knife commence to cut it up while yet alive ; 
sometimes, indeed, he would first chop off its head, but gene- 
rally seemed to look upon this operation as unnecessary. The 
split-up pieces were never cleared from their blood ; the only 
point that appeared necessary to prove that the operation of 
cutting up had been done artistically, was to retain the air- 
bladder of the fish uninjured, and to distend it with breath, so 
that its white, glistening," rounded surface stood in bold relief 
out of a red and bloody groundwork. 

Birds of various descriptions were exposed for sale at stalls 
and in shops : pigeons, fowls, and ducks, in baskets; and larks, 
thrushes, and canaries, in cages. Stalls of fruit were common ; 
so also were others upon which vegetables were sold ; and as we 
passed rapidly along we could, after a time, see that some of the 
shops were for the sale of porcelain, fans, hats, clothes, boots, 
curiosities, and so on. 

Hitherto our progress had been only through the suburbs of 
the Chinese city. Arriving at the southern gate, we found it 
protected, not by a body of "braves," but by plain, unmis- 
takeable British infantry, while a few more, who acted as city 
police, stood about ; making the place for the time-being their 
head-quarters. 

Verily there has been a break-down here, at all events, to 



72 CANTON. 

the exclusiveness with which the Cantonese authorities have 
hitherto shielded themselves against the outer barbarians, as 
they, in their ignorant self-conceit, pretend to call the people 
of nations not Chinese. 

Once fairly in the Chinese quarter of the city, we imme- 
diately observed an improvement in the style of shops, and in 
the description of articles exposed for sale ; in other respects, 
however, there was nothing to distinguish it from the portion 
of the suburbs through which we had just passed. It was in 
some respects interesting to observe the great superiority the 
people here possess over those of India in almost every respect 
in which they can be compared, and yet the latter, like the 
former, look upon themselves as a very superior race of 
people, and far advanced in the mechanical arts. This 
difference makes itself apparent at every step. It had, indeed, 
done so to us even before landing, for we could not help con- 
trasting the intelligence, smartness, and activity, as well as the 
untiring industry of the " Tankia" boat population, although 
only consisting of women, with that painful amount of clumsi- 
ness, laziness, and helpless apathy which debase the boatmen 
on the rivers of lower India. This, however, was not the only 
respect in which a difference between the two races was at once 
apparent. In India the lower orders go about their daily 
labours, if labours they can be called, in a state approaching to 
nudity ; certainly so close to it, that it is only habit, and habit 
alone, which after a time makes us forget its actual indecency. 
The Chinese, on the contrary, are always clothed, and, in most 
instances, clothed well ; not even the poorest being in this 
respect otherwise than modestly covered, as they pursue their 
toils with an energy that in many instances would put our own 
British workmen to the blush. 

Inside the shops are counters, precisely as at home, and 
behind these the inmates sit or stand as they wait for cus- 
tomers ; some smoking the small paper cheroots in general use 
in the south of China, some joking and laughing together, and 
others more usefully employed in writing, M'ith their hair 
pencils, an account of the sales already made, at the same time 
running the fingers of one hand rapidly over the abacus which 
to them is a calculating machine they are never without. 



CANTON. 73 

Magnificent ornamental work in stoneware, lacquer, wood, 
and ivory exposed for sale; silk of all colours and patterns, 
evidently rich in quality, and tempting to those who had a wife 
and children in the happy island far away in the western ocean. 

Still pursuing our journey along the tortuous streets, we 
passed the shop of a native watchmaker, in which several long- 
tailed celestial watchmakers were at work,- glass in eye, as at 
home — that is, in England. Then came shops whose only 
wares seemed to be strange-looking umbrellas, and lanterns 
stranger still in shape and in the strange devices with which 
they were ornamented; then we passed jewellers 3 shops, to 
which we determined at no distant period to pay a visit ; then 
old curiosity shops, on the counters and shelves of which all 
kinds of grotesque monsters in bronze stood; and so, after 
passing several repetitions of these various emporiums, we 
found that we had reached the opposite side of the city. 
"The heights" were before us, with their green grass — their 
wooded slope. " Yeh's" yamun, the tents of the infantry regi- 
ment stationed there, and the five-storied pagoda, from the 
summit of which floated the tricolor, for it was the head- 
quarters of the French troops, who, as our allies, have joint 
occupation of Canton. 

The British portion of this force amounts in all to upwards 
of three thousand men ; consisting of the 87th Royal Irish 
Fusileers, some Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers, a small 
body of Marines, a few European police, and three black 
regiments from India. 

The City of Canton, as viewed from the "heights" imme- 
diately behind it, does not give to a stranger an impression of 
the great wealth and extent of this, the southern capital of 
China. All that he sees is one succession of unpretending 
buildings, crowded irregularly together. At rare intervals, tall, 
pillar-like pagodas, fast going to decay, rise to a considerable 
height, and at their summit give growth to one or more trees 
of no mean dimensions, which must speedily be the means of 
completely destroying the edifice that now gives them support. 
In other parts of the city there are what to us at this distance 
seem groves of trees ; these indicate the different " Yamuns," 
or official residences of the mandarins, as also the position of 



7-1 CANTON. 

some of the temples, around which there are always high 
walls, and inside these gardens and ornamental grounds, upon 
some of which deer and antelopes graze ; thus these enclosures 
are of a size to which there is nothing similar in the western 
cities. 

We have no difficulty in following with the eye the course of 
the wall which encircles this city. Each of its four gates is 
ornamented, and at the same time rendered better capable of 
defence by a tower built over it, of course very Chinese in its 
style of architecture. At a distance of probably three miles 
from where we stand, the river glides along its tortuous bed, its 
surface glittering in the sun. Masts of innumerable junks are 
seen projecting high above the level house-tops. And in the 
early morning one of the American passage-boats that ply 
between this city and Hong Kong, may be seen starting on its 
downward journey. 

The traffic, crowd, and bustle in the narrow streets of Canton 
are so great, that a stranger, when visiting the city, ought 
not to trust himself on foot. The heat and closeness of the 
atmosphere there render it dangerous for a person to walk in 
the purlieus of the city during the summer months. Indeed, 
more than one officer have already fallen victims to fever caught 
while walking along these very streets in search of curiosities, or 
simply " curios," as they have come to be called in the local 
phraseology of southern China. 

Of the two modes of travelling here procurable, namely, a 
" chair " and a pony, the latter is decidedly the preferable ; 
you can carry an umbrella above your head, your rate of pro- 
gression rests between you and your pony, and you can make it 
understand, by means of the bridle and the heel ; but with a set 
of chair coolies you are next to helpless. When, therefore, you 
go lion hunting in Canton, I recommend you to go on pony- 
back. 

One of the first of the public buildings to which we paid a visit 
was a common prison. Entering a rickety building, quite 
unlike what our ideas of a prison had led us to expect, we found 
ourselves at once in close proximity to the wretched inmates. 
Several of them were lying upon the bare, damp, mud floor, a 
large collar or cong around the neck, and so broad as to prevent 



CANTON. 75 

the possibility of the wretched man feeding himself. We were 
informed that many of these, unless they have friends to come 
and feed them, actually die of starvation ; but we were also told, 
upon the authority of another informant, that they often attain 
a remarkable aptitude in tilting rice up and catching it in their 
mouths. At all events, this punishment is one of as cruel a 
nature as is practised even in China, the prisoners having to bear 
this heavy collar constantly on them for months in succession. 
In another building, similar to this one, on the opposite side of 
the street, we were guided from the door by which we entered, 
along a very long, damp, dark passage, at the further end of 
which we entered a loathsome, square cell, partitioned off and 
rendered secure by perpendicular beams of wood, extending 
from the floor to the ceiling. In this cell the inmates were 
huddled together like so many animals ; some lay at full length 
upon the damp, mud floor, others were sitting up, few of them 
had on more than a few rags of clothing ; the majority were in 
a state of perfect nudity, their bodies besmeared with filth and 
crawling with vermin. Some of those nearest the palisades 
that divided off their cell, showed us through these, bare limbs, 
emaciated, filthy, and affected with sores of the most horrible 
appearance, from the effects of neglect. 

Many of these unhappy beings were subjected to their 
present sufferings, not from any crime committed by themselves, 
but because a relative of theirs may have been in the ranks of 
the Taiping rebel party ; others were no doubt falsely accused 
of crimes ; and some there were, we may fairly presume, who 
were thus expiating crimes committed by their own hand, and 
who were doomed never more to see the light of heaven, except 
during the brief period of their passage to the eastern gate, 
where, on what is said to be a potter's field, their heads will roll 
in the clay, struck off by the blow of the executioner. It may 
be asked, how comes it that such things exist ? 

Crossing the river we land upon the island of Honam, upon 
which, since the destruction of the foreign " factories," the chief 
part of the export trade is carried on, and all the most important 
native houses of business established. I visited a number of the 
latter, but could see no other way in which they differed from 
the branches of the said houses we had already seen in the 



70 CANTON. 

streets of Canton, than that th» assortment of goods exposed in 
them was somewhat more extensive and, it was said, the indi- 
vidual articles a little cheaper than in the latter. 

One of the largest establishments on the island, visited by us, 
was a building specially devoted to the cleaning and assorting of 
teas for the market : within the building was a large and spacious 
hall ; at tables, placed at convenient intervals in it, sat a number 
of men and women, at a rough estimate exceeding a hundred in 
all. Each had a basket before them containing tea, and from 
it they picked whatever was objectionable. In another part of 
the building stood a couple of small winnowing machines, or 
" fanners," as their larger representatives are called in Scotland. 
These were both at work, the tea being passed through them so 
as to separate the finer portions of -it from the coarser; and 
piled up on the floor were heaps of what we may presume were 
different qualities of the herb, prepared for the market, and ready 
to be packed in boxes. The apartment was ornamented with 
flowers and shrubs in pots. A delicious odour of tea pervaded 
the air we breathed ; everything around was scrupulously neat 
and clean; the people employed in the establishment were in their 
persons also clean, were well clothed, evidently well-fed, unless 
appearances belied them sadly ; and if smiles and good humour 
indicate personal happiness and contentment, these inestimable 
gifts must have been theirs also. It is some consolation to know 
that one article, at least, of western luxury is prepared by people 
who, while they minister to the enjoyment of others, themselves 
are able to participate in some of the pleasures and enjoyments 
of life. I would that this much could be said of many nearer 
home, who in furnishing articles of luxury, and often of needless 
extravagance, are themselves unable, by their work, to supply 
the merest necessaries of life. Take, for instance, the dress- 
makers. It were well, indeed, did they, living in a Christian 
land, find their occupation as profitable as the tea-pickers of 
heathen China find theirs to be to them. 

Before taking leave of this very attractive establishment, I 
would observe that, according to Mr. Williams, the knowledge 
of the tea plant among the Chinese cannot be traced farther back 
than a.d. 350; but its general introduction does .not date prior 
to a.d. 800, at which time it was called " tu." The character 



CANTON. 77 

soon afterwards underwent a slight change, and obtained its 
present name of " cha ;" the name by which, I may observe, it 
is also known in India ; having no doubt been introduced into 
the latter country with the herb itself, via Thibet. 

Here also are some of the manufactories of lacquer ware, for 
which both China and Japan are famous ; but the latter more 
so even than the former. As we walked through some of these 
establishments we could not withhold our admiration of the ex- 
quisite patterns and finish of the numerous tables, cabinets, 
chairs, screens, fans, &c, that were shown to us. 

As it is not generally known of what, or how this lacquer is 
prepared, I may here mention that the beautiful polish is, 
according to the author already quoted, produced by a com- 
position of lamp-black and the clarified juice obtained from a 
species of sumach, the Rhus vemix or Vernica. Wood oils are 
obtained from other plants of the same family, and the different 
qualities of lacquer ware are owing to the use of these inferior 
ingredients. A common substitute for the varnish is obtained 
from the dryandra, jatiopa, croton, and other members of the 
Euphorbiaceae. 

Taking an excursion along the city streets, we came upon an 
aquarium of a very primitive description, which was evidently 
intended by its owner to serve" the purposes of pecuniary profit 
rather than mere pleasure. It was sufficiently simple. In a 
vessel partially filled with clear water, a number of dark-coloured 
carp, probably the young of gold-fish, swam about, their tails 
presenting that monstrosity which we subsequently found to be 
so common in China; namely, the terminal fin being divided 
and enlarged in such a manner as to give the impression that 
there are four tails. The water was evidently maintained in a 
proper state for its finny inhabitants, by a few branches of 
ordinary pond weeds that flourished in it. Of course I naturally 
asked myself, are aquaria not original inventions in Europe 
after all ? 

It is not possible for a stranger to walk or be carried along 
the streets of Canton and not be struck with astonishment at 
the vast number of blind beggars whom he meets. These 
consist of people of both sexes, each of whom is armed with a 
couple of small pieces of bamboo, and by knocking these together 



78 CANTON. 

warn the passengers of their presence, or incite charity from the 
more compassionate. These beggars, it is said, enjoy a peculiar 
privilege ; they are entitled by law to demand relief in whatever 
house they choose to enter. The smallest coin is sufficient, 
namely, a " cash," of which 1000 or 1200 have only the 
value of a dollar ; but once having entered a shop or a house, 
they most determinedly demand their " rights," beating their 
bamboos most energetically, and perhaps adding to the din they 
thus make by singing in the loudest and most discordant key 
that it is possible even for a Chinaman to do. Business or con- 
versation is, as a matter of course, effectually stopped for the 
time ; at last the " cash " is thrown to him or her, for men and 
women adopt the same tactics, and for a little time there is 
quiet, until another enters, as pertinacious with his castanets 
and his vocal music as his predecessor had been. 

It is even said that in consequence of the privileges enjoyed 
by the blind, and the profitable speculation they find the 
" infliction " to be, sight is by no means unfrequently destroyed 
on purpose. That such is the case to some extent there is 
every reason to believe, but it also appears probable that in the 
vast majority blindness is the result of ophthalmia, which disease 
is very prevalent among the people. 

Throughout China there is a great respect entertained by the 
younger people towards the aged, and we learned that in Canton 
there is an asylum for the especial benefit of those who, on 
account of age, are unable to work for themselves ; unfortu- 
nately, however, time did not permit us to pay a visit to it. 
We were also informed that an excellent institution exists 
among the working classes here, precisely similar to " benefit 
societies" in England, their object being to afford the members 
pecuniary aid during sickness and in old age. 

The custom, prevalent in Ireland and in the highlands of 
Scotland, of nailing a horse's shoe above the door of a house, 
and the supposed proof thereby communicated to the house- 
hold against all the spells of witchcraft, is a matter of notoriety. 
In both these countries the people believe that a similar 
virtue exists in one of the nails that has been used in 
securing the shoe upon the foot, and therefore this substitute 
for the more cumberous "charm" is frequently used where 



CANTON. 79 

the other would be inconvenient, as, for instance, upon the 
wooden utensils which some years ago were, if they are not 
still, used in highland kitchens. 

An approximation to this superstition exists in Canton; 
there, however, the people seem unaware of mysterious power 
which, in the west, is supposed to be communicated by a 
horse's foot to these implements, but, strangely enough, ascribe 
to the foot itself the same virtue that there is believed to reside 
in the shoe, or the nail that has been worn, and accordingly 
protect themselves from black arts and satanic influences by 
the simple operation of suspending a horse's hoof upon the 
door of their houses. 

There is a point in connection with the healthiness, or rather 
the unhealthiness of the British portion of the troops stationed 
at Canton, which becomes of very great importance if it be 
determined to retain a force there. Hitherto the soldiers who 
occupy buildings and huts situated upon the " heights," and, as 
might be supposed, thereby removed from the malarious 
influences of the lower ground, have suffered very severely in 
health, and many have died from various diseases, especially 
from a very malignant form of remittent fever. At the same 
time the native Indian troops, whose barracks are situated 
upon the low ground, and in the instance of one, surrounded on 
all sides by swamps and tanks, which are used as nurseries for 
frogs for the market, there has been no unusual prevalence of 
sickness. It may indeed be considered, that this comparison 
between Sepoys and British soldiers proves nothing. Very 
probably it does not, and I will even admit that to compare 
the one with tbe other in any way is reprehensible upon my 
part. There are, however, and have been, a considerable 
number of soldiers stationed in the centre of the city, and 
surely there can be no reason why their condition should not 
be compared with that of their comrades on the heights. 
While there the latter were suffering from severe sickness, and 
were losing individuals of their number almost daily ; those in 
the city were by no means unusually unhealthy.* 

* In the ' Indian Annals of Medical Science,' for January, 1859, p. 254, we 
read that "according to Dr. Pickfbrd (a writer on 'Hygiene'), warm winds not 



80 



CANTON. 



In endeavouring to assign a cause for this unexpected cir- 
cumstance, I find myself altogether at a loss. It is indeed 
useless, with our present very limited experience of Canton as 
a military station, to speculate regarding it. Yet the circum- 
stance deserves to be borne in mind by those who may hereafter 
have more extensive opportunities than have yet been afforded 
of extending inquiries regarding this and allied subjects. 

As regards the climate of Canton, our information is unfor- 
tunately very meagre. The most reliable series of observations 
are those which I transcribe below, and with which I conclude 
my remarks upon the southern capital of China. 

TJie following Table [copied from the Work of Sir J. Davis, on 
' China ') is the result of Meteorological Observations made 
during a series of years at Canton. 



Months. 


Thermometer. 


O . 
bOU 

'§ 3 

rS O 

= 3 


O m 

a. s 
&.S 


Mean 
maximum. 


Mean 
minimum. 


Mean tem- 
perature. 


Range. 


From, 


To. 


January . 
February . 
March 
April 
May . 
June 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December . 


57 
58 
71 
76 
78 
84 
88 
86 
84 
76 
68 
63 


45 
45 
60 
69 
73 
79 
84 
83 
79 
70 
61 
52 


51- 

51-5 

65-5 

72-5 

75-5 

81-5 

86- 

84-5 

81-5 

73- 

64-5 

57-5 


65 
68 
79 
84 
86 
89 
94 
90 
88 
85 
79 
69 


29 
33 
45 
59 
69 
74 
81 
79 
75 
60 
48 
40 


30-23 
30-12 
30-17 
30-04 
29-89 
29-87 
29-84 
29-86 
29-90 
30-04 
30-14 
30-25 


0-675 

1-700 

2-150 

5-675 

11-850 

11-100 

7-750 

9-900 

10-925 

5-500 

2-425 

0-975 


Annual mean . 


74-1 


66-7 


70-4 


81-3 


57-6 


30-03 


70-625 


Total rain, 70-625 inches. 



only assist in producing, but readily waft upwards among the hills the malaria of 
the emanating districts. 

" May the circumstance so stated, be one which in some measure explains the 
greater prevalence of zymotic diseases among the troops occupying the heights of 
Canton, than those situated in the city ?" 



CHAPTER IV. 

HONG KONG TO PEIHO. 

Off Amoy — Weather in December — The Yang-tse Kiang — Woosung — Shanghaie 
— Misery — Tea gardens — Racecourse — Graves — Lynch law — Neighbourhood 
— Bubbling well — Game — Meatao island — Peiho. 

Having sailed from Hong Kong for the north of China on 
the 28th of November, 1860, our vessel, one of the steam fleet 
of the " Peninsular and Oriental " Company, was off the island 
of Amoy on the 30th. The coast along which we had passed 
during the previous day was bold and rocky, the rocks them- 
selves irregular in shape, red in colour, and extremely barren. 
High conical hills, rising one above the other, occupied the 
back ground, while along the coast high angry waves broke 
into foam against its precipitous and inhospitable-looking sides. 
The atmosphere was clear ; a tolerably strong breeze prevailed, 
and the air felt most invigorating after the sickly closeness on 
the island we had so recently left. 

Now, however, the character of the coast had already begun 
to change. High hills were no longer in the interior; the 
coast line was less high and less precipitous. A few villages 
began to appear, yet no traces of cultivation. On the contrary, 
tracts of what even would otherwise have been bare and barren 
rock, were covered with sand. The first building that met our 
vision was a small Chinese pagoda, near to which we passed 
about noon. It was built upon an elevation, was terraced in 
the manner familiar to all who have taken the trouble to look 
at pictures of these characteristic towers; and to give it a 
still more characteristic look, each of the eight angles of its 

6 



82 HONG KONG 

different terraces had the peculiar bend upwards, of which the 
architecture of China is so profuse. 

The temperature was pleasant, the day fine, the weather like 
a day at home in early autumn. An improvement was soon 
apparent in the appetites of all of us. By the 2nd of December 
we were able to enjoy a walk on deck without awnings. The 
temperature in the saloon in the early morning had descended 
to 56°, and our voyage was thus far a pleasant yachting excursion. 
The line of coast was still rocky, irregular, and barren as 
before; islands of different sizes seemed to rise in great 
numbers to seaward of us. The line of coast looked bare and 
uninviting as before ; it seemed utterly deserted by birds, as 
were the banks of the Canton river ; and never, until my present 
visit to China, had I any idea of the impression of solitude 
given to a landscape, otherwise striking and picturesque, by the 
scarcity of the feathered tribes. 

On the 3rd of December we found ourselves approaching the 
lightship at the mouth of the Yang-tse Kang. The muddy 
water of the estuary of that gigantic stream, the dull thick haze 
that hung over us, and the wide expanse of water around us, 
land not being visible, reminded me of the entrance to the 
Hooghly, although the latter is very much inferior in size to 
that into which we were now about to enter. 

The morning air was chill, yet bracing : as we advanced, the 
fog cleared off, giving us a view towards our left of low lying 
banks dotted with trees, and covered with vegetation. An occa- 
sional island, or rather sand-bank, every here and there rose 
from the yellow muddy waters. Ducks and wild geese crowded 
these islands, or swam in great flocks in their neighbourhood. 
A few gulls now began to fly about our vessel, but beyond these 
three species not a single bird was visible. 

Turning sharp to the left, or " port side," from this estuary, 
we were in the Hoosing, or Shanghaie river. Its breadth 
seemed about equal to that of the Hooghly below Garden Reach ; 
the banks were flat; villages appeared at intervals, and from 
their general looks seemed to indicate that their inhabitants 
were in the enjoyment of an average amount of personal 
comfort. Fields, from which the crops appeared as if only 
lately removed, extended to the horizon, small bulwarks being 



TO PEIIIO. 83 

raised between them for the purpose of more ready irrigation 
and division of them according to the nature of the crops to be 
raised upon them. 

The long line of fortifications at this place, taken by Sir 
Hugh Gough in 1842, extends along the left bank of the river; 
they are said to have mounted 364 guns, and, although now 
dismantled, are still in a good state of repair. 

The part of the river in which we anchored off Shanghaie 
faced directly the French settlement. There was no difficulty 
in recognising the quarter occupied by our allies. The barracks, 
then in progress of being built for the imperial troops, were of 
dimensions that looked out of proportion large considering the 
amount of French interests that needed to be protected ; a 
large open space surrounded them where but a very short time 
ago densely peopled suburbs of the city had stood ; and in the 
midst of the scene of devastation stands a huge urn, the only 
remaining remnant of a Joss-house that perished in the general 
conflagration. 

The river was here crowded with shipping, rafts of timber, 
and native boats of various shapes and sizes. The " bund " or 
esplanade that separated the town from the river bank was 
equally crowded by coolies busy landing, shipping, and carrying 
to or from warehouses bales of merchandise of different kinds. 
These bales were carried by them suspended from the centre of 
an elastic pole, either end of which rested upon the shoulder 
of the two men engaged in carrying the load ; and thus they 
ambled along in couples, keeping time as they went to a mono- 
tonous chant of " eh, oh, eh, oh," which being uttered in 
different tones by some hundreds of them, had really a peculiar 
and by no means a disagreeable effect. 

Shanghaie and Calcutta are in almost every particular very 
dissimilar, and yet there was in the general look of the former 
something which reminded me forcibly of the latter; more 
especially the business portion, called the Strand. There is the 
slow, muddy river in both places; there is the same dense 
shipping, the same bustle; but at Shanghaie there are no 
gharries. Here the only wheeled conveyance we see in use 
among the natives consists of a half wheelbarrow, half-Irish 
car— a most extraordinary contrivance, being, like the former, 



8-1. HONG KONG 

inasmuch as it is pushed before a person by means of its two 
shafts, like it ; has one wheel, although that, instead of being at 
the end, aud small, is of a size sufficient to project to half its 
diameter- through the centre of the wheelbarrow, or what would 
be the well, and giving rise to the appearance of an Irish car, 
inasmuch as on either side of it is a projecting shelf, or " seat," 
upon which the load is secured. 

On one of these which passed, a Chinawoman and child 
occupied either side of the projecting " well." And thus they 
were rolled along towards their destination, or to the point to 
which their fare had been paid; for, as I learnt, this is in 
reality the only kind of public conveyance by land in this part 
of China. 

Along, or rather across some of the streets, barrier-gates still 
remained at intervals, where, a few months previous, they had 
been erected when the city was threatened by the Taeping 
rebels. At the time of my visit these rebels were reported to 
be within a distance of a few miles ; it was said that they were 
appropriating the whole of the revenues of the district, but an 
attack by them was not then anticipated. 

The native city is said to contain a population of two hun- 
dred and seventy thousand persons. It is surrounded by a wall 
and fosse ; and so very similar are its narrow streets and low- 
built houses to those of Canton, that it would not be easy for a 
person to discern any difference between them. Here we had 
the same dirty streets, the same naiTOw, filthy canals, crossed 
at intervals by bridges precisely after the manner represented 
on the famous " willow-pattern plates," and similar to what we 
had seen at Canton. Here also were the same filthy stenches 
that had made themselves unpleasantly familiar in that city, 
and here also was the same succession of cookshops, eating- 
houses, and vegetable stalls that we had previously seen in the 
south. 

In the city itself we found at intervals a few shops of the 
better description, but they were the rare exceptions, the vast 
majority being for the sale of articles of the most ordinary 
quality. Passing into one portion of the suburbs, we came 
upon a painful scene of misery. Adjoining one of the streets 
close to one of the city gateways, stood a wretched shed, the 



TO PEIHO. 85 

damp, earthen floor of which was partially covered with straw, 
and partly by refuse of a filthy nature. Here lay three dead 
bodies of people, partly covered up by pieces of matting and 
straw ; one of the number being to all appearance only just 
dead. A woman, almost devoid of clothes, and wasted to a 
skeleton by want, was wailing over the remains of this starved 
creature, for it was evident that want of food had been the 
cause of death, and in a corner of the same miserable place 
lay, apparently in the pangs of death, a fourth victim of starva- 
tion. This one still breathed, but was in other respects dead 
to all around him. It was evident, indeed, that this was a 
place to which the miserably poor resorted to die, when by 
starvation they had been brought so low as to be unable to con- 
tinue their walks along the streets any longer ; and here, we 
were informed, several daily end their wretched life. 

The inelosure containing the once ornamental lakes, rocks, 
bridges, temples, and other buildings, at one time graced with 
trees, flowers, creepers, and standing shrubs, to all of which the 
name of "tea-gardens" had been applicable, was visited by us, 
as it was within the precincts of the city. Alas ! alas ! It was 
now occupied by our allies, who had converted its ornamental 
buildings into casernes, had uprooted the ornamental plants, 
and thrown down and otherwise damaged the rock-work, and 
filled the artificial lakes with rubbish. Well, indeed, may the 
native Chinese have a horror of Europeans ; and perhaps it is 
not without some show of reason that they look upon them as 
barbarians ! 

Beyond the city is an open space of considerable extent, 
called the racecourse. Here, although certainly not favoured 
with very balmy breezes, the foreign residents take their 
evening ride or drive, or walk; this and the bund being the 
only two places where they can take exercise. This large and 
open space was purchased from the Chinese government for its 
present purpose. In levelling it, a large number of native 
graves became more or less exposed, and have been left in that 
state. Some of these now appear as heaps of earth, and others 
as short and low archways of brick, from under which the 
coffins containing the dead had been removed. 

It would seem as if miles of country around this city were 



86 HONG KONG 

crowded with graves. In one space of ground, for it was in no 
way inclosed, several long ranges of low ridges extended ; these 
being divided by depressions between them, and at one end of 
each of the ridges stood a short, upright stone, of granite, upon 
which was an inscription in Chinese. This was the pauper 
burial-ground, the ridges were formed by the coffins placed 
upon, and not in the ground ; the depressions being occasioned 
by the removal of the earth necessary to cover the latter up. 
In some places, however, the huge coffins used in this part of 
the country rested above ground, perfectly uncovered by any- 
thing. 

In one place, as we walked along, it was evident that what 
was now a kitchen-garden had at no distant time been a 
Tartar burial-ground. Here, among vegetables and pot-herbs, 
the sites of what had once been graves were indicated by effigies 
in stone, of horses; in others by effigies, in granite, of men, 
these being eight or ten feet in height. Of the latter effigies, 
two were placed facing each other, their looks were directed 
downwards, their hands crossed upon the breast, as if sorrow- 
fully contemplating the spot in which rested some friend or 
parent. While we continued our walk through this vast city of 
the dead, we met upon the road, or pathway, three coolies. 
Each of these carried, suspended from either end of a pole upon 
his shoulder, a large jar containing mouldering human bones. 
The men were no doubt thus carefully conveying to some 
dutiful son the mortal remnant of what Mr. Meadows calls, 
somewhat irreverently, " potted ancestors." 

Returning near the outskirts of the city, we had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the measures by which theft is punished in 
this part of China. A man, who had evidently been taken in 
the act of thieving, was now undergoing one of the milder pro- 
cesses after the manner recommended by Judge Lynch. He 
was securely tied to a tree by means of a good thick cord; the 
"injured individual" was himself appealing to his feelings by 
repeated, and by no means slight blows of a heavy stick ; and 
after belabouring until he was tired, he undid the wretch, and 
threw him, neck and crop, into a canal, where he must have 
got a most sound ducking before extricating himself. 

Having resolved to take a long walk, a friend and I started 



TO PELHO. 87 

early one afternoon, with the determination to explore as much 
of the neighbourhood as a few hours of daylight would permit 
us to do. Water-courses and canals everywhere intersect the 
country, and along the raised banks of these are the only 
pathways for pedestrians. For miles, graves of various shapes 
and sizes thickly cover the surface, taking up much space that 
might have beeu more profitably occupied by cultivation. A few 
strips of wood appeared in the distance that looked like forest ; 
the villages by which we passed were fenced by a hedge of privet 
among which was artistically interwoven a network of reeds, 
but in such a manner as to allow the growing twigs of the 
former to shoot through the top, as well as laterally, so that 
during the summer the hedges thus formed must be extremely 
pretty. Rows of trees were at intervals planted close to the 
canal ; these forming one side of the pathway, and the hedges 
just described the other, must, indeed, have formed lanes through 
which it would have been extremely pleasant for young couples 
to walk as the shades of evening closed in ; even supposing that 
the young couples were Confucianists and not Christians. 

The whole country around is as flat' as it is possible to be ; the 
soil is rich and loamy, but it must be confessed that a walk is, 
in one respect, not agreeable. The manure used by the people 
is not only extremely objectionable to our ideas, but is equally 
offensive to our olfactories. 

About three miles from the city is what is called the Bubbling 
Well. This natural object evolves a continuous succession of 
bubbles of gas ; the precise nature of which I had, at the time, 
no means of testing, but which Dr. Lockhart* asserts, is car- 
buretted hydrogen. The locality in which it is situated consists 
of the same rich alluvial soil that extends for miles around ; the 
level of the well is probably six feet below the surface, and 
the whole is inclosed in a casing of mason work. It was 
remarked that no insects flitted over the surface, which was 
somewhat hazy, and by no means inviting ; but a few aquatic 
plants hung pendant from the sides over it. Its water is not 
used for any purpose, but the presence of a " Joss-house " in its 
immediate vicinity showed that there were some superstitious 
associations connected with the locality. 

* The Medical Missionary in China'. 



88 HONG KONG 

The crops had all been removed some time before this, vege- 
tation seemed scanty ; yet among the plants similar to those met 
with at home, I remarked the aquatic dock, the common dan- 
delion, and the ivy-leaved veronica. 

There was a scarcity of birds upon the fields ; yet even among 
the feathered tribes there were some that reminded us of our 
far west home. Thus we met here with the magpie, the jack- 
daw, the common English gray wagtail, and the sandpiper. 

The market appeared to be well supplied with game. Phea- 
sants are there abundant, although in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Shanghaie the bird is by no means common in the 
fields. During a long walk I only saw a couple. Quail, wood- 
cock, hare, and wild duck are brought plentifully for sale ; 
partridges, although less common, are sometimes met with. 
Snipe are said to be abundant; and I was informed that the 
capercailzie is at times met with. Flocks of wild geese pass, 
backwards and forwards at the changes of season, so that the 
neighbourhood must be allowed to be well adapted to the 
sportsman. 

An opportunity of continuing my journey northward having 
occurred, I took my departure from Shanghaie. Proceeding 
onwards, the vessel on board of which I was a passenger was off 
Shantung promontory on the 14th of December. I note that 
during that and the two previous days the weather was most 
propitious, the sky clear, breeze moderate, and the sea extremely 
smooth. The temperature on deck varied from 48° Fahr., in 
the early morning, to 44° in the evening. Before leaving 
Shanghaie, I had been led to believe that before now we should 
have been in the midst of frost and snow ; in fact, that imme- 
diately we rounded the promontory off which we now were, we 
should find an almost arctic climate, nothing of the kind hap- 
pened however; the air was bracing, yet not approaching in 
degree of coldness what we had been led to expect. 

On the 15th we had reached " Hope Sound," which is more 
or less surrounded by the Meatao Islands ; now, for the first 
time, a slight fall of snow took place, although the temperature 
on deck remained at 42° at the time. A rather high wind had 
set in ; the coast along which we had passed, and the islands 
among which we now were, looked inhospitable and barren; the 



TO PEIHO. 89 

few villages that occurred here and there close down to the 
water's edge adding, by their wretchedly poor appearance, to the 
uninviting character of the scene. 

The islands consisted of what appeared to be red and grayish 
sandstone, the stratification of which was very apparent from the 
deck of the ship. So friable was the rock, that portions of it 
were here and there detached and water-worn, reminding us 
somewhat of the " Needles," in the different forms it assumed. 
One fragment had been worn down in such a manner as that its 
lower part looked like a stem and its upper portion like the 
top of a mushroom. The surface of the islands had in its general 
aspect the character of sandstone formations. The sloping parts 
of their sides presented some few patches of cultivation, but 
their general look was black and barren. 

Some natives came off to us in boats ; rough looking fellows 
they were, too ; browner in hue, and with a more Tartar look 
than that of the southerners. Their clothing consisted of wadded 
cotton and plenty of fur ; thus showing the nature of the climate 
they were prepared for. The articles they brought for sale 
consisted of bread, that is, loaves of bread, not by any means 
unlike small rolls, such as are used in England; carrots of 
excellent quality, apples, a kind of cabbage, and eggs. 

One kind of bird only was seen ; this was what seemed, from 
the distance at which we had to look at it, to be the common 
large gray gull of the English channel; and, like our old 
acquaintance, our present visitor flitted over, skimmed the 
surface of the sea, or rested gracefully upon the wavelets that 
rippled it. On the 16th December we anchored off the Peiho 



CHAPTER V. 

TEIN-TSIN. 

Tein-tsin — Treaty Joss-house — River — Pekin road — Means of transport — Canals 
— Settlement — Streets — Salt stacks— Fire engines — " Spirit " of fire — Rude- 
ness of the lower classes — Crime and police — Female children — Infanticide — 
A Chinese dinner — Chinese new-year — Worshipping ancestors — Public baths 
— Houses of the Chinese — Crowds — Beggars — Blindness — Old guns — Phy- 
sician — Conjurors — Enamel — Opium — Provision store— Temples — A Buddhist 
nunnery — A morgue — A foundling hospital. 

Tein-tsin is evidently a city of vast commercial importance; 
it and its ramifications occupy a space around and including 
the point of junction between the imperial canal and the 
Peiho. The houses and streets are low, dilapidated, and filthy ; 
its general look not calculated to impress a person with an 
idea of the great wealth it is said to contain. In general 
length it is not under four to five miles, and perhaps, including 
its entire extent, not less than three in breadth. 

It is difficult to form a correct estimate of the number of its 
inhabitants, but they have been put down as about 800,000, 
As this place is a kind of depot for articles of merchandise to 
and from the Corea and southern coast of China, as well as 
for what is brought down by the imperial canal from the 
Yellow River and the Yang-tsi, the greater number of this 
extensive population earn their livelihood by some occupation 
bearing upon the transport of imports and exports. 

Only a comparatively small portion of the city is inclosed by 
walls, namely that upon the southern bank of the Peiho and 
grand canal. Here the walls enclose a space in the form of 
an oblong square, the longest sides of which are exactly a mile 



TEIN-TSIN. 91 

in extent, and the shorter ones about three quarters. At each 
of the four faces, and directed to the cardinal points, is a large 
gate, and dividing the city between these gates are four prin- 
cipal thoroughfares, which meet in the centre, where a high 
archway over their junction forms a kind of landmark. These 
walls are dilapidated, although not more than about 250 
years old. In some places large masses of the brick-work of 
which they consist have fallen down. At each corner is a 
buttress, and at intervals along their length similar defences, 
from which a partial flanking fire might be kept up, were 
it not for the certainty of the concussion bringing the whole 
fabric bodily down. Over each gateway a kind of watch-tower 
is raised, its upturned eaves marking the Chinese character of 
its architecture. There are now no guns upon this wall, but 
instead, of being used for this purpose, its top seems to have 
been converted into a public latrine. At intervals along its 
base, heaps of compost pollute the air; and extending around 
its exterior, at a distance of a few yards, is a fosse in which 
refuse, offal, and every kind of abomination is thrown, while at 
each angle interiorly, a space seems to have been left vacant for 
the purposes of public convenience. 

The general aspect of the surrounding country will be more 
particularly described in another place ; suffice it now to observe, 
that extending round the city, making in all a circle of upwards 
of fifteen miles, is an intrenchment known as San-ko-lin-sin's 
wall, which was erected between 1858 and 1860, with the vain 
object in view of keeping out the "barbarians." 

The space between this wall and that immediately around 
the city, is in a great measure filled with graves of Chinese, 
these being of various sizes, and somewhat dissimilar in shape. 
At a few places, fields of cultivation occur within this outer 
wall, and, as a matter of course, it includes the whole of the 
suburbs. Immediately within its southern aspect is a joss- 
house dedicated to oceanic influences, and in which the treaty of 
1858 was signed; hence the building is now generally called 
" the Treaty Joss-house." A great number of its "josses " have 
been removed or destroyed, yet a good many still remain; 
some of these being of clay simply painted over, others more 
or less expensively gilded. Within the " sanctum " were the 



92 TEIN-TSIN. 

Confucian tablet, and a representation of Buddha, the apart- 
ment being obscured by a dim, if not a very religious light, 
for as the windows were small, and instead of glass, contained 
panes of paper, it was no easy matter for sunlight to penetrate 
through that preparation of old rags. 

The river, as it passes through the suburbs of the city, is not 
only more muddy than the Thames, but contains filth in such 
quantities, and of so very objectionable a nature, that I may be 
excused if, with others similarly situated, I looked forward with 
horror to having to use the abominable liquid during the period 
of my residence here. Wells were all so brackish as to be 
unfit for use ; and the only thing that seemed practicable, was 
careful filtering of, and the addition of alum to the filthy water 
of the Peiho. 

Across the stream, and the grand canal, several bridges of 
boats extend. Numerous boats were being tracked along, 
although at the time ice had begun to extend from its banks, 
but with the single exception of a Kussian gun-boat, which 
was evidently fixed in its position for the winter, no foreign 
vessel was visible at this time. A very few days afterwards, 
however, a schooner belonging to Mr. Dent arrived — the first 
under the treaty — but became frozen in, and thus was " an 
institution " during the ensuing winter. 

Extending from Tein-tsin in a north-western direction, along 
either side of the river Peiho, are two roads which connect this 
city with Pekin. That which stretches along the right bank is 
the one by which the greatest amount of traffic takes place. It 
consists of an embankment formed by earth excavated from a 
continuous trench upon each side, after the manner of similar 
embankments raised in England and elsewhere, for the support 
of rails. During the rainy season these trenches serve to carry 
away the water which would otherwise overflow the vicinity. 
In consequence, however, of the very destructible nature of the 
roadway, the heavy rains make extensive gaps in it. At 
intervals temporary wooden bridges have been erected in its 
course, and these having become severely injured, are almost 
impassable, even for the small country carts that are used in 
this part of China, and completely so for conveyances of heavier 
description. During nearly a whole year that I remained at 



TEIN-TSIN. 93 

Tein-tsin, no attempt was made to repair either roads or 
bridges, thus both were daily going from bad to worse. Pro- 
bably no funds were available for the purpose, for many cir- 
cumstances tend to indicate that as the government of the 
country is in a state of disorganization, so are its finances in a 
state of bankruptcy. 

In consequence of the frequency of canals, which seem to 
intersect the country in all directions, and are covered with 
boats, the actual amount of traffic which takes place by the 
roads in this part of China is comparatively small. Strings of 
travellers may indeed at all times be met upon them ; some on 
foot, with their goods and chattels secured in the form of a 
" burthen " upon their backs ; some in country carts, such as 
have been already described ; some on the backs of Tartar 
ponies, and others upon mules, donkeys, and even bullocks, for 
the latter animals are sometimes used for this purpose. Mer- 
chandise is also conveyed from place to place by these animals ; 
man being as often, perhaps, as any of the lower animals used 
as a "beast of burthen." 

The canals, when not closed up by ice, are crowded with 
boats of a long, narrow form, of shallow draught, and some- 
times jointed together by their sterns being joined two and two, 
so as the more readily to be moved along the narrow and 
tortuous water- courses. In the early part of the season the 
commodities usually conveyed by these boats consist chiefly 
of grain and straw, the first for food or seed, the latter for 
fodder ; afterwards vegetables of different kinds are brought to 
market, then fruit in great abundance, and, during autumn, 
corn and grain of different kinds for winter consumption; 
merchandise that has been exported, and various local manu- 
factures, being conveyed by them inland on their return trips. 

On the eastward, and at a little distance from the suburbs of 
the city, is the portion of ground allotted, under the late treaty, 
as a settlement for English and French. The public road forms 
its boundary at the back, and its front rests upon the right bank 
of the river Peiho ; at the time of my residence at Tein-tsin, the 
space was almost completely occupied by graves ; a few small 
and wretched villages occupying sites upon it towards the river 
bank. During the summer, crops of different kinds covered the 



94 TEIN-TSIN. 

small spots of cultivation surrounding the graves, and exposed 
coffins of defunct Chinamen ; and from the extremely low 
position of the entire space, it became, during the continuance 
of the rainy season, a receptacle for stagnant pools. From these 
particulars it follows that much expense must be incurred in 
closing and filling up the hollows here before it becomes fit for 
the purposes of building. 

The general appearance of the streets of Tein-tsin afforded us 
a never ending source of interest and amusement. The manners 
of the people, their dress, their aspect, were all so very different 
to what we had previously been accustomed ; there was in the 
midst of all these peculiarities an occasional point that recalled 
some home usage to our mind, and yet so associated with what 
seemed to us grotesque and odd that, for a considerable time 
after arriving here, a walk through the purlieus of the city, 
dusty and crowded as it wa3, was nevertheless a source of gra- 
tification. The crowds of people by which they were usually 
blocked up were more dense than anything we are accustomed 
to see, even in London ; I shall allude more particularly to them 
by and bye. I now note that in these crowded streets were one 
or two peculiarities that reminded us of home. Thus, there 
were men carrying what seemed to be advertising boards upon 
their backs and chests, as we might see at home. Others were 
calling out what they had to sell. Some shops were evidently 
closed, and upon the shutters were placed obliquely, and in 
other positions, what we may presume were notices of removal. 
In some of the shops by which we passed were Chinese drawings 
of different kinds; those that represented native subjects were 
by no means bad ; but those that were intended to represent 
foreigners were caricatures of the very worst description. 

In the market, fish, hard and completely frozen, was exposed 
for sale so early as the 20th of December. On visiting the shop 
of a native confectioner, who, by the way, was a Mahometan, 
he at once placed before us sponge cakes of most excellent 
quality, although, perhaps, with a leetle flavour that showed them 
not to be English. Candied fruits of various kinds, many of 
them strange to us, but others, evidently apricots and quinces, 
were offered to us, and were all most excellent. 

On the left hand bank of the river Peiho, and extending to a 



TEIN-TSIN. 95 

distance eastward of upwards of a mile from, the town, are a 
number of objects that look like so many huge haystacks. 
These are stacks of salt, this being a great mart for that article. 
Towards Taku there are extensive salt-pans, where its manu- 
facture is carried on upon a large scale ; and the greater part is 
brought up here to be stacked, and also taxed. 

In the account of Lord Macartney's mission to Pekin, a 
description is given of the great extent of the salt heaps here ; 
and that description is apparently as applicable to them now as 
it was when first written. It seems somewhat strange that the 
allies, during their late advance, did not take possession of these ; 
their intrinsic value is very great, and would have gone far to 
have obtained the indemnity money, if, indeed, they would not 
have been worth more than the entire sum. Besides this, 
cutting off the supply of this material would, next to stopping 
that of grain, have been a very effectual means of bringing the 
government to terms. 

A very few days after my arrival, I had an opportunity of 
seeing the proceedings of the fire-brigade. While walking along 
the street, a man rushed rapidly past me, raising as he ran, the 
alarm of fire. He was distinguished by a badge, consisting of 
Chinese characters upon a white ground, and this was placed 
upon the front and back of the loose coat he wore. While he 
ran he shook above his head a kind of rattle, which consisted of 
an instrument formed of a succession of small drums, secured 
transversely upon a long handle ; this was rapidly moved 
backwards and forwards by a succession of turns of the wrist, 
and the motion thus given, acting upon a number of " tongues" 
or clappers, which then beat upon either end of each of 
these drums, created a noise that might be heard at a great 
distance. A few seconds afterwards a large body of men began 
to pass rapidly along, these were all dressed in a particular kind 
of uniform; many of them had flags in their hands, some, 
lanterns suspended from long poles; and, indeed, from what 
was seen, not only now, but upon numerous other occasions of 
fires, it would seem as if waving flags, and carrying lanterns of 
different coloured lights, formed matters of no little consequence 
in the proceedings of Chinamen when believing themselves to 
be extinguishing a fire. Four men carried upon their shoulders. 



96 TEIN-TSIN. 

by means of a pole, what we were informed was the fire-engine 
itself. It was both neat and portable; was said to have been 
borrowed in idea from some English engines at Canton, although 
this fact the Chinese themselves resolutely denied ; and although 
when in use, very inferior to our home engines, is, nevertheless 
a very great acquisition in a city where, as here, the houses, 
consisting chiefly of wood, matting, paper, and reeds, are par- 
ticularly liable to catch fire. The natives themselves call this 
kind of engine the water dragon, a name by no means inap- 
propriate, expressing, as it is probably intended to do, the 
embodiment of the property possessed by that element to destroy 
the destructive element of fire. 

A few minutes brought us to the seat of conflagration. Four 
engines were speedily in full play, sending their jets- upon the 
flames ; but we then observed that the engine itself had to be 
supplied by means of buckets, so that sometimes, notwithstanding 
the vicinity of the river, there is much difficulty experienced in 
maintaining adequately this supply. 

When left to themselves, the natives are at a great loss as to 
how to proceed at a fire ; their exertions consisting chiefly of 
rattling their alarms, beating gongs, waving flags, rushing about 
with their many coloured lanterns, and loudly vociferating. 
Now, however, that they are guided and directed by the esta- 
blishment of the British provost-marshal, they prove themselves 
both active and energetic. 

The people here have a very peculiar superstition regarding 
what they consider to be " the spirit of fire." It having been 
deemed advisable to make an opening through the city wall for 
the purpose of enabling one of the regiments to reach a parade 
ground more readily, and a few days after this was done a 
destructive fire having occurred in the city, a deputation forth- 
with waited upon the commandant to lay before him a grievous 
complaint. According to them, the spirit of fire invariably came 
from the south ; they pointed out, what was indeed a fact, that 
none of the doors of their own houses opened towards that 
direction as, if they had, this destructive spirit would unques- 
tionably have long ago devoured them. They pointed out what 
was no less true, that even the outer opening of the southern 
gateway was made, by means of an external wall, to open to the 



TEIN-TSIN. 97 

westward ; but now, said they, of what use are all these pre- 
cautions ? the spirit has obtained an entrance through the gap you 
have made in the wall. You yourself see that a fire has 
already occurred, and unless you shut that up again, the entire 
city will be consumed. But the gap was not filled up ; the city 
had not been consumed at the time I took my departure there- 
from. Probably some of the troops destined to continue in 
occupation of it would not have much regretted had the pre- 
diction been realised. 

In taking some long walks in the neighbourhood, we often 
made a point of walking into the houses of the Chinese. In no 
one instance were we received otherwise than with the greatest 
politeness. The owner or occupant of the house invariably 
returned our salutation of " tsin tsin," inviting us to sit down, 
and immediately pouring out for us the weak infusion of tea, 
without sugar or milk, that, is to them what beer is to the 
native Saxon. If we enter a shop we are often invited to 
partake of tea in like manner; but in private houses, always, 
small cakes of different kinds being also placed before us. 

Unfortunately for myself, I knew nothing of the native lan- 
guage. When visiting the houses of Chinese, however, I always 
went in company with some person who was more accomplished 
than myself, and was told second-hand by them what the nature 
of the conversation had been. We were invariably questioned 
as to our " honorable name," our honorable age, and how 
many children had the honour of calling us father ; the number 
of the said children being supposed to include only sons, for in 
this very civilised land daughters, poor things, go for nothing ! 

The natives of China in their intercourse with each other are 
polite in a degree unknown among the common orders in Eng- 
land when they address each other; and, as already observed, 
the better classes of the Chinese are remarkably polite in their 
communication with foreigners. The remark, however, does 
not apply to any of lower social rank than the shopkeepers and 
better classes of artizans. The masses, consisting of labourers, 
the lower orders of tradesmen, are probably more than equal 
to the corresponding classes in England in their want of 
respect for their superiors, or of anything approaching polite- 
ness towards each other. As a rule, the manner of these 

7 



98 TEIN-TS1N. 

towards English and other Europeans indicates a degree of 
insolence to which, in any other country than China, occidentals 
are totally unaccustomed. A Chinaman will, for instance, not 
hesitate, without the slightest provocation being offered, to 
knock against an European whom he may meet in the street. 
In wet weather he will, as a rule, monopolise the narrow' side 
pavement or pathway that exists in some of the streets, and 
passively resist any other means of passing, by the foreigner, 
than what is afforded by the dirtiest and most slushy portion of 
the thoroughfare — that is, if the latter individual is sufficiently 
amiable to take it. When engaged in carrying bundles, loads, or 
in conveying water, they unhesitatingly come against a foreigner. 
" Chair " carriers will, if permitted, come direct at an European 
if he is walking in the "street, and there be abundance of space 
by which the chair might pass. Natives on horseback will, in 
riding along the street, if they happen to be behind an European 
on foot, make the horse go at a swift rate past the latter, so 
that by a sudden collision against his shoulder, he may con- 
sider himself lucky if he escapes being made a "spread eagle" of. 
These are matters of notoriety to almost all officers and men 
who were stationed at Tein-tsin during the first year of our 
occupation of that city. It is true that one or two of our 
countrymen whom I have met have failed to see anything in 
the conduct of the lower orders towards them but what was 
indicative of the greatest possible amount of politeness, even 
although they had met in their own persons with the behaviour 
I have briefly alluded to. 

It is right, however, that credit be given where credit is due. 
Among the people themselves crime would appear to be com- 
paratively rare, and altercations between people in the street 
are seldom seen. But few police are usually to be met with 
during the day, except a few British soldiers who have been 
converted into constables for the time being, and organised as 
such under the orders of a provost marshal. 

The rarity of crime among the Chinese would seem to be in 
a great measure attributable to the habitual deference which 
they, as a people, are taught to pay to constituted authority, 
rather than to the efficiency of their establishments for the 
repression and punishment of offences. One of the doctrines 



TEIN-TSIN. 99 

inculcated by Confucius, their sage and lawgiver, is the necessity 
of obedience to authority, whether that be exercised by a 
parent, by a magistrate, or by the emperor. This is taught to 
children with their earliest lessons, and as they grow up, forms 
the rule of their conduct towards each other and towards 
society. We must, therefore, allow that there is something 
good even in Confucianism. Not that the native magistrates 
do not punish severely when they have the opportunity : — we 
have good reason to believe that among them minor punish- 
ments consist in beating the supposed or real culprit upon the 
face with an implement made for the purpose, until the injuries 
and contusions inflicted are so severe as to completely obliterate 
the features, and even to endanger life. Then there is the bas- 
tinado, or beating upon the soles of the feet by means of a 
bamboo, and flogging with an instrument similar to, but in its 
punishment much more severe than, the ordinary " cat." For 
crimes of more serious nature, mutilation and death, with or 
without torture, are the ordinary punishments ; but it is notorious 
that so much bribery and so general a corruption exists among 
all classes in this country, that the severity or lightness of 
punishment inflicted depend more upon the social connexions 
and pecuniary circumstances of the accused than upon the 
degree of the crime of which he is declared guilty ; while his 
conviction or acquittal are no less dependent upon his ability or 
otherwise to bring an influence to bear upon the worthy judge 
himself. 

Throughout China generally, as well as at Tein-tsin in par- 
ticular, the police take a very effectual method of giving to evil 
doers warning of their approach. Each policeman as he 
mounts guard for the night is furnished with a hollow piece of 
wood of particular shape, upon which, by means of a stick in 
the other hand, he keeps up a continual " tap, tap," until the 
following morning " when daylight doth appear." The police 
never halt or rest during the long tedious hours that they are 
on duty. From night till morning, in hot weather and in cold, 
in fair and in rainy, they steadily walk backwards and forwards 
along their "beat," and by their continuous tap, tap, fulfilling 
the double purpose of keeping themselves awake, and intimating 
to thieves and vagabonds their approach. It is said that the 



100 TEIN-TSIN. 

initiated in such matters can tell from the manner in which 
these taps by policemen are varied what is the particular hour 
of the night, but to foreigners this fine distinction is not 
evident. The fact deserves also to be mentioned that the 
Russian police at Sebastopol are said to have a contrivance 
similar to that just described for giving to thieves and other 
suspicious characters timely notice of their approach ; and we 
may presume that the success of the plan is equal to what it is 
in China. 

Entering the city on one occasion, the attention of myself and 
companion was drawn to a young girl whom we met as she 
staggered along the opposite way, upon contracted satyr-like 
feet — an old woman of any number of years old, shrivelled, 
wrinkled, and very dirty, being in charge of her. The little 
girl was to all appearance no more than eight or ten years of 
age, of a clear red and white colour, very unlike the sickly pale 
hue of the Cashmerian beauties ; eyes, lashes, and hair were 
dark ; only a very little powder besprinkled the face, so that 
the complexion w.as tolerably well seen through it, and just 
enough to show that the child, notwithstanding the slightly 
oblique eyes, was decidedly pretty. 

On many an occasion afterwards I remarked how very plain, 
nay, how very repulsive was the appearance of the few women 
whom we met staggering along the streets. True, we only see 
the very lowest classes, yet in Great Britain and in Ireland 
there are many by no means ill-looking women, but very much 
the contrary among the corresponding classes. This, however, 
does not seem to be the case here. 

It was also remarked that a very small number of girls in 
proportion to male children are met with playing along the 
streets, and these facts are by some supposed to prove the pre- 
valence in the district of infanticide. That children when 
seized with illness are little cared for, and that their sufferings 
are sometimes made the subject of jest even by their mothers, 
I have myself seen ; but I must confess my inability to state 
positively my convictions that female children are destroyed 
here, although I can readily believe that no great consideration 
is bestowed upon them during their earlier years by their 
parents. 



TEIN-TSIN. 101 

A graphic account of the manner in which sick children were 
abandoned by their mothers in his day is given in Father Bipas' 
account of his residence at Pekin. He says that, "when mothers 
are poor, and have large families, or observe any defect upon 
the body of an infant, or any indication of an illness likely to 
become troublesome and expensive, they cast away the little 
creatures without remorse. This cruel custom is also generally 
practised by unmarried women who have children, and especially 
by a sect called Necoo, who pretend to live in spotless chastity/' 
He adds, " Not far from the walls of Pekin I myself saw one 
infant under the paws of a dog, and another between the teeth 
of a hog." 

Children thus abandoned were carefully looked for in the 
time of the Father by himself and brother Jesuits. They were 
preserved — given out to nurse ; and their numbers were so great 
that he informs us that " in this manner not less than three 
thousand children are baptized every year ;" for, of course, they 
are reared as Roman Catholics. 

Passing from this unpleasant subject, I must observe that 
Chinese children — and there are heaps of them in every hole 
and corner of streets and villages — are a jovial rollicking set of 
urchins as can be — noisy and mischievous, like the rising gene- 
ration and " hopes of the family " in our own country. Their 
amusements are also in some respects very similar to those of 
our own children, but in others strangely different. For 
instance, children in China, as well as those in England, are 
much given to the pastime of kite flying. Yet they fly them in 
different ways. An English boy is satisfied if he succeed in 
getting his awkward-looking one, with its cumbrous " tail," to 
become balanced high up in the air ; a Chinese urchin loves to 
fly kites of many strange forms and in many different ways. 
Perhaps the greatest favorite with him is one made in the form 
of the bird from which it takes its name ; as he flies it, how 
exquisitely does he manage it ! At one time the thing hovers 
almost motionless above his head, then suddenly it is made to 
dart downwards, as it were, upon its prey. The next instant 
it soars upwards against the wind as if it were a living bird, and 
then descending more gradually than before, it seems to rest 
lightly on or flit along the roofs and eaves of houses, and 



102 TEIN-TSIN. 

thence as if suddenly alarmed, seems to start away upwards in 
the air : — all these movements being executed by the dexterity 
of the hand that holds the string by which the kite is managed. 

These toys, if toys they can be called — for full-grown men as 
well as boys often spend hours in amusement with them — do 
not always represent birds ; sometimes they are in the form of 
a fish, at others of a dragon; in the latter case, it must be 
confessed, that, although everybody knows that the thing consists 
of no other matter than cotton cloth and slips of bamboo, yet 
its appearance is by no means agreeable, as the hideous thing 
hovers above one's head, its long wavy folds quivering in the 
breeze. One most elegant form of kite sometimes used by 
boys, and also by " boys of an older growth/' represents a ship 
in full sail. I have seen some of these heaving and rolling and 
pitching, as it were, in the clear blue sky, far over head, the 
white cloth of which they were made showing well the form 
and rig of the craft represented in the cloudless atmosphere of 
a cold November day. 

A favorite game among Chinese children is that of spinning 
tops; but the one that strikes an Englishman with greatest 
astonishment as played by them, is battledore and shuttlecock. 
They use no battledores, but the dexterity is astonishing with 
which they keep the " cock " in the air by means of their feet 
alone, as almost with unerring precision they strike it with the 
sole. It is most laughable to watch them while engaged in this 
evidently favorite game, and to observe the extraordinary 
readiness with which they manage to turn their feet into the 
proper position, whether they have to strike the object as it is 
falling in front, on either side, or behind them. What, how- 
ever, is no doubt stranger still than that boys should play it is, 
what I have been positively informed, although I have not been 
so fortunate myself as to see it, is, that the game is frequently 
played by young girls, notwithstanding the horrible and un- 
natural contraction of the feet to which they are subjected. 

Our New Year's Day having arrived, a native Chinese who 
was employed as a teacher by some of the officers, wishing no 
doubt to offer us " all the compliments of the season," called 
for this purpose at so very early an hour in the morning, that I 
was not prepared for his reception ; he therefore politely left 



TEIN-TSIN. 103 

his card, a strip of red-coloured paper, that being emblematical 
of rejoicing ; and on it in these most wonderful written cha- 
racters, what no doubt was his name, titles, and honours at full 
length, only I did not understand them. A few days afterwards 
I received what I had often expressed a wish to receive, namely, 
an invitation to a Chinese dinner. In a huge red envelope, 
open at one end, was a scarcely less huge red slip of paper ; 
upon it were the mystic characters conveying the request of 
the hospitably- inclined celestial that I would partake of his 
dainties. The esteemed document having been translated for 
me by a gentleman who deemed himself an adept in the lore, I 
am enabled to give the English version of this most wonderful 
document, and trust that to those who have not had an oppor- 
tunity of themselves in receiving such an one, its novelty will 
be sufficient excuse for the space taken up by it. 
It ran thus — 

Rice. 

„ "Which being interpreted, mean Gordon, 

Tsin. great ' man " 

On twenty-fifth day, at 4 o'clock, drink wine, drink tea, eat rice. 

Chang Ching Wan. 

Chang's (the name of the host) compliments. 

The yamun, or residence of Mr. Chang, was approached by 
us by means of numerous turnings and twistings among the 
streets of great intricacy; these would have been filthy, and 
indeed were so even now, although the intense cold having 
frozen everything that could be frozen, rendered their aspect 
something less repulsive than it would have been had the 
weather been more propitious. The residence itself consisted 
of a number of straggling buildings, all of one storey high, and 
thoroughly Chinese in character. Passing through an outer 
range of buildings, we then crossed a well-kept paved yard. 
At either corner tall beams were placed upright, a canopy 
stretching between them at the centre, so as in the hot season 
to afford shelter from the heat of the mid-day sun, although at 
the present time there did not seem to be much use for the 
contrivance. 

Having crossed this open yard, we entered a long, narrow 



10-1 TEIN-TS1N. 

room ; its front consisted of one large ornamental window, glass 
panes taking the place here of what among the less wealthy 
classes are formed of paper, rendered semi-transparent by being 
soaked in oil. The floor of this apartment was formed of large 
slabs ; it was neither covered by carpet nor mat. Opposite the 
door stood a highly-polished table, and on it were placed a 
number of very handsome native-made ornaments; among 
others, a magnificent porcelain vase with figures of birds and 
trees in high relief; a lantern, raised upon a stand, stood at 
either corner of the room ; two were suspended from the roof, 
and each contained a candle, coloured red, in token of the joyous 
occasion of the party given to us. Near either end of the 
room stood a stove, well filled with burning charcoal ; it was 
open at the top, except that a safe, made of wire gauze, was 
placed over it. There was no flue by which the poisonous 
vapours from the charcoal fire were to be carried off. It was 
evident that these, as they were formed, must become mixed 
with the atmosphere of the apartment. Yet, probably in con- 
sequence of the imperfectly fitting doors and windows, no evil 
effect is produced by what with better built houses would be 
very pernicious, or even fatal to those exposed to it. 

Directly in front of the door, and attached to the wall, a 
tablet stood, having upon it in golden characters what we pre- 
sumed to be a sentence. It was explained to us that it did 
express the moral maxim, "Not to covet is a virtue" — this to 
the native Chinese being a polite manner of giving expression 
to what is somewhat more forcibly expressed in our tenth com- 
mandment. Other sentences of kindred import, painted in 
golden characters on a red ground, were placed at intervals 
along the walls; in some places, suspended in the form of 
scrolls ; in others, painted upon the panels that separated the 
apartment in which we stood from one of a smaller size, but 
furnished similar to it. 

Our host received us most politely, bowed to, and shook 
hands with each of us separately. A number of small tables 
were speedily covered with viands, and in a few minutes after 
our arrival we had taken our places ; our party being evidently 
larger than had been expected, for the consul had brought 
several gentlemen with him. Our hospitable entertainer would 



TEIN-TSIN. 105 

not take a seat, but throughout "the feast" continued to heap 
his attentions upon all in turn. 

The chairs upon which we sat had all of them arms; were 
strong, roomy, and well-made. No cloth covered the table, 
but in lieu of that it was so brightly polished and varnished, 
that the reflection of our faces was perfectly distinct in its 
surface. Knives and forks of English pattern, spoons of the 
native pattern ; but they and forks of silver were placed before 
us. On the table, arranged with much taste, were dishes con- 
taining fruit, fresh as well as preserved. Among the former 
were grapes, pears, and apples ; among the latter a species 
of almond seed, which after having been pickled was washed, 
and had a peculiarly delicate taste. There were also dishes 
containing dried seeds of water-melons, preserved apples, pears, 
and plums; and among others, the appearance of which was 
altogether new to me, was a pyramid of what is called here the 
Siberian crab.* 

Amidst the small dishes upon which these various kinds of 
fruit were severally placed, were two, each of which contained a 
delicacy of a different order ; one of these contained a few, very 
few neatly cut, small slices of ham ; the other had placed upon 
it a pyramid of angular pieces of what, we were informed, were 
hard boiled eggs, that had been buried in the earth during a 
year. Their colour was by no means attractive, it being what 
to us seemed a most unhealthy gray ; the idea of tasting them 
was in itself not pleasant, yet when these two prejudices had 
been got over, the buried eggs did not taste so very bad as 
might have been expected ; but anything beyond this negative 
praise of them must, I fear, in justice be withheld. 

This course having been removed, small cups were placed 
before us, containing what looked and tasted like sweetened 
rice water (birds'-nest soup, we were informed by one of our 
party who had resided previously here, is not fashionable in 
the north of China). Immediately afterwards, a very small 
porcelain cup was placed beside each of us, and filled with 
Sham-shu-f, poured hot from a kettle. 

* The fruit so called is that of the Cratcegus Layii, and is by the Chinese held 
in great estimation, whether raw, preserved, or as jelly, 
t A spirit prepared from millet, as whisky is from barley. 



106 TEIN-TSIN. 

A root of a peculiarly white colour was next produced upon 
small dishes ; one of these was that of the famous Nelumbjfium, 
or water-lily, which is here esteemed a great delicacy; the 
other was the tuber of an edible sedge,* imported from the 
south country, especially Canton. 

Then followed a dish kept hot by means of a spirit-lamp 
beneath it, as indeed were all the principal ones that succeeded ; 
it contained shark's fin, prepared as a kind of stew, and tasted 
not unlike what skate at home does; "dinner rolls," cut in 
slices and beautifully toasted, were now handed round, tasting 
almost like German rusks — so crisp and good they were. 

Some of the preserves which had until now remained on 
the table having been removed, a new series of dishes were 
laid upon it. In one of them were what seemed to us to be 
olives, deprived of their kernel, and preserved in syrup; 
another looked like French beans, sliced and preserved so as 
to be crisp, athough by what means it was difficult to suppose ; 
for, so far as we could judge by their taste, they had not been 
placed in either vinegar, sugar, or salt. With this course was a 
small dish of seaweed, and so delicious was it that we reverted 
to it over and over again during the further progress of our 
entertainment. 

The greater number of the dishes that had been partaken of 
having been removed, they were replaced by others. Among 
these was a delicious haricot blanc of kidneys and vegetables, 
both cut into very small pieces; pumpkins cut into small 
pieces and stewed in sweet sauce; ham, cooked as a mince, 
with honey, rice, and chestnuts (of course, without the husks). 
Next came one more of the celebrated Chinese dishes, the sea 
slug,t or Beche de mer ; it was stewed in a thin kind of sauce : 
and as some of us had asked for chop-sticks, in order, as far as 
possible, to partake of our dinner in true China fashion, the 
slippery nature of the sea slug puzzled us sadly when attempting 
to raise the morsel by their unaided assistance ; the more par- 
ticularly as the weather at the time was so " tarnation" cold 
that our fingers were rendered quite stiff; a more palatable 
dish, however, than the sea slug, was produced along with it. 

* Mleoehwis tiiberosia. 

t Holothuria, imported largely from Japan and Ceylon. 



TEIN-TSTN. 107 

This was a peculiar combination of cabbages and chestnuts, cut 
fine, and mashed up together. It was voted decidedly good. 

This course having been discussed, hot " puffs/' containing 
within them preserved fruit, were by the servants in attendance 
placed upon the small saucers which had during the repast 
been frequently changed in the manner of plates. These puffs 
were particularly good. Sponge-cakes, tinted yellow, and cut into 
small squares, were at the same time handed round, and a kind 
of gruel, or " tea," prepared from almonds, and highly flavoured 
by them, was placed before us in cups. It was delicious. 

But our feast was not yet over — our delicacies were to follow. 
The first of these that made its appearance was a dish con- 
sisting of apples and water-lily roots, stewed together ; then we 
had preserved fruits, as before. 

The host, who hitherto had merely directed the attendants 
from a recess of the room, whence he had watched our pro- 
ceedings, now walked round the company assembled at table. 
To each of his guests he made a few remarks ; and, addressing 
one of our party, whose general mien and aspect were more 
venerable than his years would perhaps justify, he asked the 
gentleman, in respectful terms, " how many might his honorable 
years be," intimating at the same time that his own were in 
number sixty-seven* As he continued his rounds, however, it 
was discovered, somewhat unpleasantly, that he practised a habit 
which, according to our notions of politeness, is decidedly out 
of place at or near a dinner table — he expectorated like a sailor 
or an American. 

The time seemed now to have arrived for the introduction of 
the solids ; all the past seems to have been looked upon as so 
much bye-play — as a whetting of the appetite — as the oysters 
of which Lord Byron, having swallowed three dozen before 
dinner, complained that he found his appetite not at all 
increased; but, if anything, rather the reverse. Perhaps, 
indeed, so were our appetites. Mutton boiled, goose stewed, 
fowl and duck, all carved, or rather torn into small pieces, 
were now produced. As, however, no great inroad was made 
upon these delicacies, they were almost instantly removed; 

* According to the Chinese mode of reckoning, this would only be sixty-six 
and three months of ours. 



108 



TEIN-TSTN. 



small slices of pickled cucumber were in the mean time handed 
round, with a view, no doubt, to whet the appetite, as olives 
increase the gusto for claret. Cakes now appeared, very 
similar to flour dumplings; these, we were told, would have 
become small loaves of bread had they been baked instead of 
having been stewed, as they were; and as a wind up to this course, 
a dish of salted cabbage was placed before us. This was the 
only one that was absolutely unpalatable. It certainly was so. 
The next course included a dish of cabbage in a different 
form from that just mentioned, and one that was far more 
palatable, the vegetable having been in a peculiarly pickled 
state. Then we had the sounds of fish stuffed with shrimps, 
and a very delicate and delicious dish this formed ; then, what 
looked like a stew of vermicelli, but what was in reality pre- 
pared from the intestines of sheep cut into extremely fine 
slices. Then we had a stew prepared from a peculiar trans- 
parent kind of small fish found in the Peiho, and with it rice 
being handed to each of us, indicated that dinner was over, and 
an excellent dinner it was. 

The tables having been cleared of eatables, sham-shu cups 
were placed before us. The acting consul now proposed the 
health of our host. It was drunk " in a bumper," and the hos- 
pitable old gentleman appeared delighted at the honour that 
had been done him by his barbarian guests. So delighted, 
indeed, did he seem to be, that he himself seized the sham-shu 
kettle, and, going clean round the table, helped each one of us 
to another " bumper ;" but, alas ! alas ! the sham-shu was not 
good. 

Dessert was laid in an adjoining room ; we were accordingly 
invited to repair to it. It had neither stove nor fireplace ; the 
temperature during that night descended to 13 - 5° Fabr. It is 
not, therefore, to be wondered at if we felt somewhat cold — in 
fact, we were shivering. Fruit, precisely such as had been 
placed on the dinner table, was here laid out; the jelly of the 
"Siberian crab" being served up in addition. Forks only 
were placed beside this jelly. Cups of sweetened rice water 
were again handed round. Cheeroots were now introduced ; the 
. host, who escorted us to this apartment, indulged in, and 
appeared to enjoy, "a weed." He entered into conversation on 



TEIN-TSIN. 109 

general subjects with those who had a knowledge of his lan- 
guage, and appeared to enter with spirit on the discussion of 
some. 

At the early hour of half-past five o'clock, the consul having 
hinted that it was time for us to depart, a general move almost 
immediately afterwards took place ; each of us in due form took 
leave of our host, but, not satisfied with that, he accompanied 
us to the outer entrance of his " yamun," having already given 
orders that a number of his retainers should be in attendance 
with lights. As he walked along we observed that two servants 
held up his "train;" and once at the door, he again took 
leave of each of us, bowed, shook our hands, and finally, as we 
all moved off, bowed again as we retired, and, in native custom, 
shook his own hand. 

The Chinese New Year does not take place until considerably 
after ours. The 10th of February was, on the present occasion 
to them, what the 1st of January is to us. For at least a 
couple of weeks before that date it was apparent that prepara- 
tions were in progress for its celebration. The streets had 
become crowded with stalls of various sizes, at which cheap 
prints were exposed in great numbers for sale. The subjects 
roughly delineated upon these were, to us, inexplicable, but we 
may presume that they bore reference to the gaieties and fes- 
tivities of the approaching season ; or, perhaps, consisted of 
caricatures of life and manners of a nature somewhat similar to 
what are in England made the subject of " Valentines." The 
prices of many articles in the shops are now much reduced. 
One of the customs of the Chinese — and a most praiseworthy 
one it is — being to pay off all creditors at this season ; failing 
which they are said sometimes to prefer suicide to having to 
begin the new year in a state of bankruptcy. Visits of friend- 
ship are made ; there is much feasting and carousing among 
the people. For some days the shops are closed and business 
at a standstill. On being reopened after this recess, they and 
the houses are swept clean — a process of which they stand much 
in need, for the people are assuredly not distinguished on 
account of the virtue of personal or domestic cleanliness. 
There is, however, an emblematical meaning attached to the 
proceeding as now performed. It is meant to indicate that the 



110 TEIN-TSIN. 

various shortcomings, quarrels, and unpleasantness that may 
have happened during the byegone year, are now swept clean 
away into oblivion. But this is not the only ceremonial through 
which the Chinaman passes at this time. Having swept his 
house and shop, he treats himself to a warm bath, worships 
before the shrine of one of his favorite idols by exploding 
some crackers and burning a few joss sticks, makes his oblations 
before the ancestral tablets, and, having done so, enters once 
more upon the cares of everyday life with the very laudable 
object to make money — honestly if he can, but to make money. 

At an early hour on the afternoon of the 9th of February a 
profuse discharge of crackers throughout the city intimated to 
us that the people had commenced the ceremony of propitiating 
their household gods, with a view to obtain from them abso- 
lution from the peccadillos of the year that was now about to 
close. Shortly afterwards as we took a walk along the streets, 
we found them almost completely deserted, and almost com- 
pletely paved with the paper remains of the fireworks that had 
lately been exploded. 

On the morning of the following day — that being the begin- 
ning of their new year — the houses and shops, with a few rare 
exceptions, were closed ; the exceptions were those in which 
enamels, jades, and porcelain were exposed for sale; the profits 
arising from them being too great to be withstood, even for 
the sake of worshipping " gods " and ancestors. Upon the 
front of almost every house strips of red tinted paper, having 
upon them. Chinese written characters, were posted. These 
were expressive of good wishes and congratulations on the 
advent of the season. Upon some other houses sketchy draw- 
ings, such as have been already mentioned, were posted up, but 
these were not common. 

Lanterns of all sizes and forms were exposed for sale along 
the streets. Some were covered with paper, some with trans- 
parent gelatine obtained from seaweed ; all were painted with 
the most gaudy colours, and with designs of the most grotesque 
description possible. Among the designs adopted for the shape 
of these lanterns, that of the frog was an especial favorite. 
Others of them represented^ gigantic goldfish with monstrous 
tails, such as are elsewhere described as common at Canton, 



TEIN-TSIN. Ill 

and during early summer met with at this very place. Other 
lanterns were in the form of birds, others of grasshoppers ; 
some represented a gigantic mantis, and others were made to 
resemble huge crabs. 

Lanterns necessitate the use of candles instead of oil. We 
accordingly find that a kind of " dips " are used very generally 
in the north of China, and, of course, always when a light out 
of doors is required. These candles are coated very ingeniously 
on the outside by what seems to be a mixture of wax and 
tallow. The interior consists entirely of fat of some kind 
around a wick prepared by twisting raw cotton, or, in other 
instances, of the pith of a rush, so that the exterior layer being 
somewhat less readily liquefied by heat than the inner, secures 
the entire consumption of the latter, and effectually prevents 
the " running " of the candle, which is so great a nuisance with 
" tallow dips " in England. In the better description of houses 
and shops, these candles, sometimes in lanterns of most gorgeous 
patterns, are used entirely for the purpose of giving light, but 
in the poorer kinds of both, they give place to lamps of various 
patterns. In these oil and rush pith are the only substances 
used ; the pith being sold for this purpose upon the street. 

Upon " altars " in the Budhist temples, candles prepared in 
the manner alluded to, of a vermilion colour, ornamented with 
dragons and other strange devices, form as invariable an orna- 
ment as wax tapers of gigantic size do in Roman Catholic and 
High Church churches. Vermilion colour, it is to be observed, 
means rejoicing, and hence candles of this colour are also used 
at the celebration of marriages, and of festivals in general. 

In addition to articles already enumerated there were exposed 
for sale in the streets on the occasion of the New Year various 
ingenious although roughly made pieces of mechanism. The 
figures represented by these were cut out from cardboard, and 
so painted as to resemble Seikhs, Europeans, and Chinese. 
They were capable of being moved in various ways by hidden 
machinery, the whole being put and kept in motion by the 
action of the breeze upon a small wheel projecting from the 
upper part of the machine. 

Seated at a small stall at the side of one of the most crowded 
streets was a Chinaman, around whom a dense crowd had 



112 TEIN-TS1N. 

gathered. He paid not the smallest attention to what was 
taking place in his vicinity, but nimbly plied his fingers mo- 
delling figures from pieces of paste and of different colours, 
keeping his "audience" in fits of laughter by the rapidity and 
the correctness with which from his simple materials he " turned 
out " exact representations of first the one and then the other. 
At the moment of our approach he was in the act of modelling 
a Seikh trooper, representing him as performing the double 
operation of executing a solo upon the trumpet, and walking off 
with a fowl under his arm. The figure was a decided "success," 
and being so, obtained an immediate sale, a small coin being 
the price accepted for it. In a few minutes afterwards a Royal 
Engineer was "thrown off" — the eyes, the beard, the buttons on 
the tunic, the stripes on the trowsers— in fact, all the minutiae in 
the personal appearance or uniform of a member of that distin- 
guished and scientific corps being represented with a degree of 
correctness and a rapidity that were perfectly astonishing. 

After a little we continued our walk, and had the good 
fortune to pass a house in which the different members, of the 
family were engaged in the custom of worshipping the remains 
of their ancestors; a small shrine, erected for the purpose, had 
upon it a couple of figures, probably representing Confucius 
and some other sage — it may have been Mencius. These figures 
were evidently connected with the national philosophy, for 
there was in the entire place nothing at all bearing upon 
Budhism. The shrine was decorated with flags and orna- 
ments made of paper ; a few neatly arranged piles of apples and 
preserved fruit stood upon it, and in the centre, directly in 
front of what seemed to be the principal figure, was a vessel in 
which bundles of "joss-sticks" were being placed burning, by 
each successive worshipper as he advanced, for there was a con- 
siderable crowd of members of the family present. Piles of 
tinsel paper were also being burnt by the people, and it was 
particularly remarked that they were all most orderly, and per- 
formed their ceremonies with the greatest gravity. It was at 
the same time remarked that there were no women present. 

Around the shrine, and for some distance along the enclosed 
passage in which it was erected, were placed upon the walls the 
tablets of the deceased ancestors, who were now the objects of 



TEIN-TSIN. 113 

worship. At a rough estimate there appeared to be more than 
200 of these tablets, representing an equal number of progenitors 
and relations of one kind or another; the lives of all of whom, 
let us hope, had been such as to entitle them to the respect and 
veneration of those who were now worshipping before them. 

We learned that the display of fruit that now graced the shrine 
was destined to become an item in the feast, which in China, 
as in some other countries that might be mentioned, follows 
upon almost every public display. 

It was not until the 18th of the month that business seemed 
to have been fairly resumed, and all the shops reopened. Many 
of these were now filled with lanterns, in colour and shape 
similar to those already mentioned ; in others, large numbers 
of children's toys : but notwithstanding all the boasted ingenuity 
of the Chinese, it must be confessed that these toys were in 
manufacture and elegance of pattern very far inferior to those 
of Benares. 

New Year's salutations still continue between Chinese ; ac- 
quaintances meeting upon the street perform to each other 
obeisance so profound that the tips of their fingers almost touch 
the ground as they stoop, for they bow from the hip as the 
Mussulmen do. Entering some of the shops, we observed, 
placed in a small niche in the wall, what were evidently the 
" household gods." Offerings of cakes, preserves, and sweetmeats, 
were neatly placed before these images ; and the owner of the 
establishment observing that they had attracted our attention, 
endeavoured to explain by signs what was the meaning of the 
whole. Placing v his hands in the attitude of supplication and 
looking upwards, he repeated the word Tien, thus clearly express- 
ing the meaning he wished to convey, namely, that these 
offerings had been made in order that "heaven" might be 
thereby conciliated. 

We were informed that the festival, known as the feast of 
lanterns would conclude the festivities of the new year ; on the 
present occasion, the date fixed upon for it was the fifteenth 
day of the first moon, which happened to be the 24th of 
February. The looked-for festival did not take place, however, 
it being as we were informed on account of the large number of 
foreigners in the city. 



114 TEIN-TSIN. 

Having mentioned that bathing is one of the ceremonies 
practised by the Chinese at their new year, I may observe that 
not only then, but at other times, they frequent bathing estab- 
lishments, of which there are a considerable number scattered 
throughout this city. One of these I entered, and will now 
endeavour briefly to describe. 

Entering a narrow gateway that opened directly upon the 
street, I crossed a small yard to a somewhat spacious building. 
At several places along the wall of this building furnaces opened 
outwardly, somewhat as that of a lime or brick-kiln does, and 
at these natives were seated and supplying fuel for the purpose, 
we learned, of heating the water in the interior that was 
intended for ablution. Entering the building, we found it so 
filled with steam, that although there were several lamps 
burning, vision was obscure. The temperature felt oppressive to 
us, entering as we did from an atmosphere of less than 18° 
Fahr., and the effluvia that pervaded the place were absolutely 
sickening. 

In the apartment were more than twenty males of all ages, 
from boyhood to old age, and in various stages of their toilet, 
from nudity onwards ; for the Chinaman, as elsewhere observed, 
is not overburthened with modesty. Some were in the act 
of drying themselves, others of dressing; some were in the 
hands of the hair-dresser, who was most artistically rearranging 
their " tails," others were indulging in tea, which is here always 
served without either sugar or milk, and indeed with very 
little of the tea-leaf. At one extremity of this large hall was a 
smaller apartment, completely choked up by steam ; here, amidst 
the vapours, a number of naked figures could with difficulty be 
discerned, as some, squatted in shallow vessels, performed their 
ablutions, and others were most industriously occupied in 
washing their own clothes. In a similar recess at the opposite 
end of the larger apartment, and also more than half hidden in 
the smoke and steam, was a large bath of considerable depth ; 
in it several persons, immersed to their waist, were splashing 
about. 

It appears that the tariff 1 for a bath here is fifteen cash, the 
dollar being valued at one thousand. Here, then, is a Chinese 
institution that might be well adopted upon a large scale even 



TEIN-TSIN. 115 

in England, only upon somewhat different principles, and with 
more attention to decency and cleanliness than are observed 
here, for we were told that the' water in the baths is only 
changed once a day. 

The ordinary run of houses in Tein-tsin, and, indeed, generally 
in the north of China, are built upon an exceedingly simple 
plan. Their usual style is that of an ordinary square box, the 
interior of which is partially divided by a partition, so as to 
thus form two apartments. In the one facing the street busi- 
ness is performed, for almost everybody transacts business of 
some sort ; in it counters are arranged on either side or across, 
and behind these, sitting upon chairs or .standing, as the case 
may be, the inmates attend to customers, run up, on an abacus, 
which instrument is always in use, the amount of profit they 
make, keep their accounts, smoke their long-shanked, small 
brass-bowled pipes, and talk away cheerily together. 

The front of certain kinds of shops are altogether removed 
during the daytime, as, for instance, in those where the goods are 
constantly exposed, such as those of confectioners, curiosity- 
mongers, seedsmen, grain dealers, hardware men, old clothes' 
sellers, &c. In these, however, they are carefully shut up and 
locked shortly after sundown. Boards are placed across the whole 
space in the same way as shutters are slid into grooves in front of 
large windows of shops in Britain ; the whole is then carefully 
secured, and the inmates seldom appear on the streets afterwards : 
the early closing movement is, in fact, general throughout China. 

In other houses, however, very ornamental fronts separate 
the inmates from the vulgar gaze ; this front consists then of 
one large window, the wooden framework seems to be in all 
cases according to one uniform design ; a most elaborate one 
it is, but very neat and ornamental withal. 

The view of windows without glass must appear strange, yet 
few of those I am now describing have any; paper is the 
general substitute, and not a bad one it is either. Two or more 
layers of semi-transparent native paper are pasted on the 
framework just described ; and while it is said to keep the 
rooms in the cold weather much warmer than glass throughout 
would do, it admits light perfectly freely. The inmates, if 
curious, cannot indeed see through it what is taking place upon 



116 TEM-TSIN. 

the street, but the Chinese, as a rule, seem to he more zealous in 
attending to their own business than that of their neighbours — 
a characteristic, by the way, that must sound strange to the ears 
of some human pattern of perfection nearer our own western 
home. But yet there are some of the celestials who from love 
of display, or from a laudable desire to observe "passing 
events," introduce into their windows a few panes of more 
transparent material than paper. In the south, the shells of a 
large description of oyster, ground very thin, or horn made into 
thin sheets, serve their purpose ; glass is also used by some, 
and in the north seems to be the only material except the 
paper already mentioned that is employed. 

The inner room is not usually overburthened with furniture ; 
at the furthest end, and as far removed from the door as pos- 
sible, stands the sleeping-place of the male members of the 
family, the national " cang," which to the northern Chinaman 
is as indispensable an article of comfort as is the real old 
four-poster, curtains, feather-bed, bolster, pillows, and all, to 
bluff, honest, (?) happy, and snarling John Bull. 

This cang — a very different thing indeed from the cangue, in 
which prisoners are sometimes exposed in the public streets — 
is an erection of brick and mortar, of a foot and a half or so 
above the level of the floor, extending the whole distance 
between the side walls, and to some six feet or a person's length 
from the back wall. Upon it are arranged various coverlets 
and other articles of bedding, according to the worldly means 
of the owners, such as mats, wadded cotton coverlets, or 
" Rezais," as they would be called in India, and furs of various 
degrees of fineness ; the pillows being in some instances like 
very long narrow stools made of strips of bamboo, sometimes 
covered with a glazed kind of native waterproof material, some- 
times apparently stuffed with cotton and like ordinary bolsters. 

Such is the external appearance of the cang, but as with many 
other objects, an apparently simple exterior covers a very com- 
plicated interior. Near one end of the front of this strange 
sleeping place is a small door, like that of a stove or a furnace. 
We place our hands upon it : it is quite warm ; we then ascertain 
that immediately inside there is, indeed, a fireplace, from which 
a flue extends horizontally to the opposite end, whence it is made 



TEIN-TSIN. 117 

to recurve, and so on, backwards and forwards, until thus it 
passes under and warms the whole extent of the oven-like bed- 
place, upon which, instead of in which, the family is kept as 
warm as a pie, even during the coldest weather. Of course the 
last turn of the flue terminates in a chimney, and thus the 
smoke is carried off. 

A few cupboards, with bright, large, round plates of brass 
around the lock, and square plates along the sides and angles, 
are placed at either side and probably behind the cross par- 
tition. Two or more brightly polished tables, upon some of 
which are Chinese writing materials, upon others various articles 
of stoneware, stand at the sides. A few high-backed wooden 
chairs with arms are formally arranged close to the wall. The 
floor consists of flags, or even mud ; it looks damp and cold, but 
the Chinaman requires not carpets — his thick felt soles render 
him indifferent to what with us is indispensable for comfort. 
In the centre of the apartment stands a stove, in which charcoal 
is brightly burning, throwing such quantities of carbonic gas 
into the room as would, in the ideas of western sanitary re- 
formers, inevitably convert the entire family of John Chinaman 
into so many dead corpses before morning ; but which, never- 
theless, does no such thing. Upon this stands a kettle " singing ;" 
we are invited to sit down : a long-tailed celestial menial places 
small, semi-transparent cups before us, such as would make a 
fancier of Chinaware break the tenth commandment into little 
bits. The singing kettle is passed round, still discoursing its 
own "soft music." The pure infusion of the national herb 
streams in our little cup — the day is perchance cold without ; 
and destitute of either sugar or milk we enjoy the hospitality of 
our entertainer, who usually sits directly opposite us, his hands 
crossed in the long sleeves, which serve to him for mits or muff. 
If any of our party can speak Chinese, he enters into conversation 
with him. If unfortunately there are none of us so accom- 
plished, the " host " talks to whoever happens to be nearest to 
him, whether son, brother, or servant ; no doubt selecting for 
subject of conversation the wonderful habits of the " untameable 
barbarians," who, for the time being, are making themselves 
domestic enough. 
• The Chinese trust more to clothing than to fires to maintain 



118 TEIN-TSIN. 

bodily warmth ; consequently their contrivances for heating their 
rooms appears to our ideas rude and imperfect in the extreme. 
A handful of charcoal, or a few round pieces, no bigger than 
goose's eggs, of coal dust, moistened with water, and then formed 
into lumps of that size and shape, is all that they require. It 
is, therefore, only upon their cang, or the immediate neighbour- 
hood of these fires, that any person but a Chinaman could pos- 
sibly feel comfortably warm in a winter's day. 

In China one town is so precisely like another, that the 
description of one is tolerably applicable to all. The people are 
so conservative in their habits, that as they resist the innovations 
of fashion in dress, their costume being now the same as it was 
in the days of Confucius, so their houses and towns have hitherto 
resisted the spirit of improvement which has in Western 
Europe tended not only to beautify our cities, but to add much 
to their healthiness. 

In walking along the streets of Tein-tsin, the visitor is struck 
with the bustle, energy, and apparent contentedness of the 
people. So densely are the streets crowded, that to make head- 
way without being jostled is utterly impossible. Nor do the 
celestials take the trouble to get out of the way of the foreigner. 
How, among themselves, the opposing currents of human beings 
that fill the streets manage to get along upon their respective 
errands, is but one of the many Chinese puzzles that a stranger 
has many opportunities here of witnessing. These crowds are 
principally formed by men and boys ; a few old women come 
along tottering upon satyr-like feet. Coolies pass with hurried 
steps, carrying heavy loads at either end of a bamboo, the middle 
of which rests upon the shoulder. Others are busy conveying, 
in a similar manner, water-buckets ; a small tuft of grass, or a 
couple of pieces of millet stalks crossed, resting upon the surface 
of the muddy water which they contain, and thus preventing it 
from being jostled over the mouth of the vessel while being 
carried along. Other water-carriers are groaning and perspiring 
under the exertion of pushing along a large wheelbarrow, upon 
which six or eight of these water-buckets, all full, are arranged ; 
at intervals a " chair," with or without an occupant, is carried 
along by a couple of bearers ; then comes a horseman mounted 
upon a small, shaggy, Tartar pony, or upon a mule, or a donkey; 



TEIN-TSIN. 119 

a string of bells around the neck of the animal keep time by 
their tinkling with the pace at which it proceeds. Here a 
small description of cart, covered if for passengers, uncovered if 
for ordinary purposes, is being drawn along by bullocks, mules, 
ponies, or donkeys, for these animals would seem to be indis- 
criminately used for draught purposes, and it is by no means 
unusual to see one of each yoked together in' the same team, the 
driver using somewhat freely a whip of great length, not \inlike 
the implement employed at the Cape to " touch up" the leaders. 
Barbers, with their implements complete, itinerant black- 
smiths, bakers, cooks, sellers of lollipops, fruit, and vegetables, 
together with travelling tinkers and cobblers, are each calling, 
at the highest pitch of their discordant voices, the qualities and 
prices of their various commodities. 

Beggars, young and old, fat and lean, half naked or warmly 
clad, blind and not blind, deaf and dumb, or pretending to be 
so, or in the full display of all their faculties, wander about pur- 
suing their vocation, or watching for opportunities to " bag " 
what would, perhaps, not be bestowed upon them voluntarily. 
Occasionally a minstrel is seen at the door of some shop of the 
better class; he sings discordantly, and accompanies his ditty 
upon an instrument in form somewhat between the guitar and 
banjo. Some of these minstrels are blind, and these, it must be 
confessed, show by their manner of dress and cleanliness of 
person, that they are generally well taken care of by their brother 
Chinese ; indeed, so much is this the case, that there is reason to 
believe that, if not in some instances wilfully deprived of sight, 
their calamity is looked upon by their immediate relations as not 
altogether without a few compensating advantages. 

One class of beggars who are to be seen in great numbers in 
the streets, of Tein-tsin expose themselves during the coldest 
part of the year — while the thermometer ranges from below zero 
to 12° and 14° Fahr. — having no more clothing upon their persons 
than a few rags round their loins, and hanging down towards 
their lower limbs. What strikes us in regard to these men is 
that they are invariably young, strong, healthy, and " sleek" 
looking. How is it, we naturally ask, that they are able to with- 
stand the great cold to which they voluntarily expose themselves ? 
A cold so intense, that with the aid of furs, and warm clothing 



120 TEIN-TSIN. 

of various kinds, we ourselves had difficulty in preserving a 
moderate degree of warmth. That their health in no way suffers 
from their exposure is evident by their appearance alone ; indeed, 
they of all the numerous objects who solicit our charity, are as 
a class the very one who least deserve it, for not one among 
them is not well able to earn his own livelihood by manual 
labour. Is it that by long habit of exposing their bodies thus 
to the elements, they become the better able to resist the great 
alterations that in this part of the world take place in the tem- 
perature and other conditions of the atmosphere ? . No doubt 
this must be so in a great measure, for what lends probability 
to the supposition is, that many races of men who use what we 
would consider very scant clothing, are nevertheless strong and 
healthy. Indeed, our own ancestors once upon a time were 
not overburthened with drapery, and yet I question if the ladies 
of old, who tattooed their bodies, and but very partially covered 
themselves by skins of animals, were not quite as healthy as 
their successors of the present day, who are partial to aqua 
d'oro and crinoline. 

A curious confirmation of this belief lately came under my 
notice in the ' Atheneum/* where a writer, discussing the pro- 
bable causes of the decrease among the inhabitants of New 
Zealand during late years, thus expresses himself : 

" It is not a little curious that the Maori attribute their deca- 
dence in some measure to the introduction among them of new 
food and clothing, and the attendant change of habits. They 
affirm that in former times, when their custom was to walk 
abroad with little clothing, and to pursue their ordinary occu- 
pations in a state of almost nudity, their skins thickened, and 
became insensible to the effects of cold or heat." And so it 
may be with the almost nude beggars of this part of China, else 
we can hardly account for the strong muscular appearance they 
all have. 

A curious notice of a similar class of beggars appears in the 
work on ' Vagabonds and Beggars,' of which no less a person 
than Martin Luther is the author, and of which the date is 
1528. By it we learn that the system of beggars soliciting 
charity while purposely exposing themselves in a state of semi- 

* Of October 13th, 1860. 



TEIN-TSIN. 121 

nudity to the cold is of very old date, and not confined to 
China, for we are informed that " those woe-begone gentry of 
the streets who, upon the arrival of winter, are accustomed to 
discard most of their garments, and stand shivering in the 
public thoroughfares, would doubtless, but for the modest regu- 
lations of the new police, appear as their predecessors of old the 
Schwanf elders did, entirely naked." 

Another class of beggars remind us, by their self-inflicted 
punishment, of the class once known in Europe as flagellants, 
although in China there is this difference to be noted, that reli- 
gious motives have nothing to do with this " mortification of the 
flesh." On a cold day in January a man of the denomination 
alluded to was met on the street squatting on the cold ground. 
He was shouting to the bystanders and passengers at the top 
of a very stentorian voice, every few minutes inflicting heavy 
blows upon his naked chest by means of a couple of flat boards, 
which he held together in his hand. There was, no doubt, a 
good deal of deception in all this, inasmuch as the sound pro- 
duced was much out of proportion to the severity of the blow 
inflicted, although that was by no means trifling. Shortly after- 
wards I met another beggar, who pursued something of the same 
means for extorting charity. He, however, inflicted his blows, 
not with pieces of wood, but with a heavy brickbat. There was 
in his case no question whatever of the severity of the blow 
inflicted, inasmuch as the appearance of the chest indicated the 
effects of the successive blows inflicted upon it ; a visible en- 
largement was evident at the spot over the most prominent part of 
the left side of it that had been accustomed to receive the blows, 
a spontaneous thickening of the parts having taken place, of a 
nature similar to that observable upon the shoulders of palan- 
quin bearers in India and ordinary coolies in China. 

The number of persons who live by begging in Tein-tsin was 
enormous ; by our computation they amount to seven thousand. 
Many of them suffer from blindness ; indeed, not only here, but 
throughout other parts of China that I have visited, it has been 
observed that a very large proportion of the lower orders are 
more or less severely affected with disease of the eyes. 

As already stated, it has been asserted that parents by no 
means unfrequently blind their children intentionally, and there 



122 TEIN-TSIN. 

is every reason to believe that such is actually the case to a very 
considerable extent ; but even thi3 horrible system would only 
account for a portion of those whom we met with totally blind. 
Purulent ophthalmia prevails here to a fearful extent, being 
disseminated no doubt in part by the extremely filthy habits of 
the people, who crowd together in small, badly -ventilated houses, 
seldom change their clothes, and almost, if not quite, as seldom 
apply water to their persons at least, this is the case among 
the lowest orders. 

Smallpox is also very prevalent, making terrible devastation 
among eyes, and leaving scars that are horrible to look at upon 
the faces of its subjects. As elsewhere stated, vaccination is not 
practised by the Chinese, but in its stead inoculation. The 
consequence is that the scourge smallpox is disseminated by art, 
in addition to the periodical visits it makes in ah epidemic form. 
But these are not all the circumstances that aid in the production 
of blindess among the people in the north of China. A favorite 
method of treating diseases affecting the eyes consists in scraping 
the inner surface of the eyelid, which process is performed by a 
class of men who make this branch of native surgery their par- 
ticular province. The result of the operation is that the eyelid 
becomes inverted, so as to bring the eyelashes in contact with 
the point of the eyeball itself; disease is thus induced, and after 
a short time the power of sight becomes destroyed. 

Towards the latter part of January I visited one of the 
wretched huts in which beggars lodge. The temperature of 
the air had during the preceding night descended to 14° Fahr. ; 
at 9 a.m. it was only 21'5. The building in which the beggars 
wjlS assembled, measured in the interior ten feet, plus ten feet, 
plus twenty feet. Thirty-five men,,in a state of absolute nudity, 
were in this wretched apartment huddled together for the 
purpose of natural warmth, the cubic space allotted to each 
being just fifty-seven feet. What would sanitary reformers say 
to that? 

The atmosphere was so abominably foul as to be extremely 
sickening to us, nor were we able to remain within the door for 
a longer time than a few seconds. The inmates, however, were 
for the most part strong and robust, and looked the picture of 
health. How long they had remained in their present den, or 



TEIN-TSIN. 123 

whence had they come, we were unable to ascertain. One cir- 
cumstance only in regard to them was explained to us. It 
was, that the amount paid for lodging in this horrible establish- 
ment is five cash per day. One thousand cash are equivalent 
to a dollar, thus the extreme smallness of the charge is made 
apparent; but in comparison to it, the very lowest of the 
low of the London beggar lodging-houses must be palaces. 

It is said that in China it is a matter of the utmost difficulty, 
if indeed it be possible, for a person who has once descended, 
whether through vice or misfortune, to the position of a beggar, 
to raise himself from it again. Labour, however, is so abundant, 
and the cost of living so little, that unless by some of the acci- 
dents to which all men are liable, such as sickness, or other 
misfortune, few need become reduced to begging if they choose 
to avoid doing so. As is the case elsewhere, so here, beggars 
form a kind of fraternity ; they are amenable to certain heads 
chosen from among themselves, and voluntarily submit them- 
selves to certain rules made applicable to their own community. 
As a class they are as averse to bodily labour as their repre- 
sentatives in Europe. It is said that when opportunities offer 
they are by no means indisposed to take possession by violence 
of money or property that would not be bestowed upon them 
voluntarily, and, as might be expected, they furnish a large pro- 
portion of the criminal classes. 

In no part of the world that I have seen do people appear to 
have less idea of the value of human life than in China. As 
for beggars, they are looked upon as excrescences upon society, 
and, consequently, the faster they die, the better pleased does 
society seem to be. 

Gambling seems in China to be a recognised " institution •" 
at Tein-tsin gambling sticks are part of the establishment of 
itinerant confectioners and cooks. Customers, whether they be 
men or boys, do not, when they approach the savoury stall, 
proceed to make their purchases as they would with us. The 
vendor offers them, quite as a matter of course, a hollow joint 
of a stout bamboo, in which a number of long, thin slips of 
the sanie material, variously marked at the lower end with dots, 
are several times jerked up. Three of these are drawn at a 
time, and the process repeated three separate times, a small 



124 TEIN-TSIN. 

coin being paid down before each trial. If successful, the 
winner receives double the value of the amount he has paid ; 
but if the gambler fail, he coolly turns upon his heel and walks 
off to resume his employment ; nor does he repeat his visit to 
the stall, however hungry he may be, until the next regular 
hour for his meal. In fact, he takes his ill success as a matter 
of course, and resigns himself to circumstances over which he 
believes he has no control. 

In one of the main streets there is a triumphal arch that 
deserves a word of mention. It is built of wood; the side 
pillars and its capital ornamented with the usual Chinese repre- 
sentations of human and animal monstrosities. It had evidently 
been once upon a time highly painted, and has upon it still 
some traces of inscriptions. These, as the arch was erected by 
a mandarin in honour of the chastity of his wife, may be sup- 
posed to be the remains of what was an eulogy on her indi- 
vidual purity ; although it must be confessed it casts, by impli- 
cation at least, some little doubts upon the virtue of celestial 
ladies in general, when one in whom it is found is deemed on 
that account deserving of a triumphal arch. 

It was with not a little surprise that I one day came sud- 
denly upon a representation of Punch and Judy being exhibited 
in Tein-tsin. There was the same squeaky voice that is so 
familiar to our ears at home ; there were the same ridiculous 
gestures ; the same kind of cottage scene as at home, only here 
the "director" had neither drum nor Pandean pipes, like his 
western imitators. We were unable to follow the precise scene 
being represented, but we could not help asking ourselves, has 
this most popular street exhibition been imported from Europe 
into China, or from China into Europe ? In all probability the 
latter has been the case, for the Chinese are not usually ready 
to adopt " barbarian" customs or barbarian amusements. 

A matter of considerably more consequence than this or any 
of the others already mentioned, in which the English have 
been anticipated by many years by the Chinese, and of which 
evidences are now palpable to any person who will take the 
trouble to visit this part of the empire, is that of guns, the 
principle of which would seem to have been discovered in 
England but the other day. 



TEIN-TSTN. 125 

In walking through one of the villages on the immediate 
bank of the river, near where the ground for a settlement has 
been allotted, I had an opportunity of seeing a couple of swivel 
guns, evidently breech-loaders, and said to be not less than five 
hundred years old, so that Sir William Armstrong has been an- 
ticipated by a very long way by the celestials. Similar guns, we 
were informed, are still used on board many of the junks that 
navigate the sea and canals in the north of China, and some 
have been figured and described in the 'Illustrated London 
News. J One of those that I saw was measured at the time: the 
bore at the muzzle was an inch and a half in diameter ; the 
barrel six feet long ; several hoops of metal surrounded it for the 
purpose of giving it strength ; the swivel upon which the gun 
was intended to revolve was perfectly entire. The space at the 
breech intended for loading was about fifteen inches in length ; 
the covering piece was deficient, but from the presence of two 
openings, one at either side of the barrel at this part, it was 
evident that the covering piece had been secured by a cross bar 
run through these, and then secured by other projecting pieces, 
each of which forms a catch ; at the front of the above opening 
it was equally evident, from the manner in which the entrance 
to the barrel was bevelled inwards, that the breech-piece could 
readily be slipped underneath and there secured. 

In a narrative such as the present, in which I endeavour to 
convey to the reader some of the characteristics of a little-known 
Chinese city and its inhabitants, I cannot avoid giving a few 
particulars regarding the only professor of the medical art with 
whom during my residence in Tein-tsin I was fortunate enough 
to meet. 

At a retiring and comparatively quiet corner of the principal 
business street, this professor of the healing art has taken up 
his quarters. These quarters consist of an awning of blue cotton 
cloth, with white borders, upon which, in Chinese characters, 
are described at length the wonderful accomplishments of the 
presiding genius. The awning is extended upon four upright 
poles, so that secrecy cannot be observed here ; not that this 
signifies much, for the Chinese are not naturally a modest race, 
and an artificial civilisation has not done a great deal to render 
them so, even to external appearances, as it is said to be the 



126 TEIN-TSIN. 

case in some western nations. The patient, accordingly, boldly 
walks up to the physician here, for none who are so ill as to be 
unable to walk ever seem to ask for medical advice. Here he 
relates his various ailments, and it may be some of the idlers 
who are to be met with upon the streets, close in to listen to his 
recital of bodily ills. There is equally little mystery about the 
examination by the Chinese iEsculapius, or about his prescrip- 
tion. A number of small phials filled with gilded pills, some 
pieces of a black-coloured plaster, and any number of old 
decayed stumps of teeth, are strewn about upon the table. 

There is, however, a popular remedy to which the people 
themselves have often recourse without making application to 
any member of the profession. Thus, during the hot season I 
had often occasion to remark that great numbers of the natives 
bear upon their necks and upper parts of the body a succession 
of small patches of bluish colour. These we soon ascertained to 
be produced by pinching the skin ; we moreover learned that 
this is considered to be the orthodox method of treating the 
headache, to which they seem to be very liable at the accession 
of the intense heat of the summer months; and the people 
themselves entertain a belief that in proportion to the number 
and distinctness of these marks, so is their efficiency as a 
remedy. 

Not only are the Chinese as a people particularly partial to 
theatrical performances, but they are not less so to the exhibi- 
tions of conjurers and jugglers, many of whom traverse the 
country and larger towns. I have seen some of them, and have 
been struck with wonder at the proficiency of the performers in 
their wonderful art, as well as with the novelty of some of their 
performances. 

I can only give particulars of a few of these performances, 
in consequence of my having unfortunately not taken full notes 
of the whole on the various occasions I have had an opportunity 
of observing them ; but I may mention that they always take 
place in the open air, the performer having nothing in the 
shape of chair or table supplied to him. If he requires to place 
any of his apparatus on a stand, he manufactures it from the 
various odds and ends in his possession, and thus obtains an 
advantage he would not have if provided with these things 



TEIN-TSIN. 127 

merely at the time. I will give a short account of a few per- 
formances in succession. 

1st. The conjurer took a small ball in the palm of one hand. 
After various manipulations he placed it upon the crown of the 
head, the hand flat over it; with the other hand he struck 
smartly that over the head, and at the very instant he did so 
the pellet seemed to fall from the mouth, making a distinct 
"thud" as it fell, then rolling along the ground. 

2nd. He took a double piece of thick string; one of the 
" audience" divided it with a knife. Holding the divided ends 
in his fingers, the conjurer gave each of the other to a 
bystander. He pretended to perform some incantation over the 
divided part, then passed his wand across it, let go his hold, 
and the string was reunited ! 

3rd. Taking what seemed to be a small piece of wood, no 
larger than a lucifer-match, he inserted one end of it into a 
nostril; with a piece of wood which he used as a mallet he 
pretended to drive it in, the blows as they fell being distinctly 
heard ; at last it disappeared, apparently, up the nostril. After 
some manipulation the piece of wood was withdrawn, although 
not from the nostril by which it had been made to enter, but 
through the opposite one. He immediately afterwards drew a 
piece of wood, precisely like the original, from the nostril into 
which it had at first been put, then again from the other nos- 
tril, and so on alternately for a considerable time. But this 
was not all ; turning down the lower eyelid, a similar piece of 
wood seemed as if it projected from the outer angle of the eye, 
and were pointing towards the nose, and thus between eyes and 
nose, I counted ten pieces extracted instead of the one that had 
been first introduced. 

4th. He took a number of needles and placed them one by one 
into his mouth ; he then seemed to swallow a hollow brass ball 
of about an inch in diameter, and having in its interior a 
rattle. Walking round the circle which his* audience formed, 
and shaking himself, the sound of this rattle seemed as if it 
proceeded from his chest. After going through several con- 
tortions that were more expressive than elegant, a piece of 
thread was ejected from the mouth ; laying hold of it, he slowly 
unravelled it, pulling it straight out as he did so, and there- 



128 TBIN-TSIN. 

upon, at intervals of six or eight inches, were the needles 
threaded. 

5th. Laying a cloth upon the ground, and sitting cross-legged, 
he placed before him three empty bowls, and having done so, 
he then placed between himself and each of these bowls a 
substance which in shape and appearance had the general look 
of an olive. After various manipulations, he turned the bowls in 
succession mouth downwards, the fruit being still before him. 
Taking one of the seeming olives in his finger and thumb, he 
blew upon it, then turning the palm of the hand which held it 
downwards, he struck its back with the wand he held in his 
other hand, and as he did so the fruit was gone. He next 
went through the same process with the two remaining olives 
in succession, but meantime did not seem to touch either of the 
bowls ; with the wand, which he continued to hold, he turned 
over into its proper position each of the bowls in succession, 
and there, underneath each, was its appropriate piece of fruit. 

6th. He having taken three conical hats, such as are in 
common use by the Chinese, he placed them at different parts 
of his circle. Under one he placed the feathered pinion of a 
sand grouse, under a second what seemed to be some other 
portion of the skin of the same bird, and under the third what 
seemed to be the tail of some other bird. He then took a 
common rug, shook it before us, turned it round in every 
direction, apparently that we might convince ourselves that it 
was nothing but a rug. He now proceeded to manipulate this 
rug over each of the hats in turn, and threw away the par- 
ticular object that had been at first placed under them. He 
again shook the rug, turned round first in one way, then in 
another, and finally stamped upon it. He then proceeded with 
it first to one hat and then to another, manipulating it over 
each in turn, and leaving the rug over the last. He now raised 
the first two hats, and from underneath each came a pigeon, 
hopping and skipping along, and looking at one another in 
astonishment as they thus met. The rug was now removed 
from the last, and there were, in addition to the hat, three 
plates, each of which contained pieces of fruit, and a larger 
dish, having upon it a pile of fruit ; once more he returned with 
the rug, shaking it as he proceeded to one of the hats from 



TEIN-TSIN. 129 

which the pigeon had just escaped. Again he turned the hat 
mouth downwards, covered it with the cloth, went through the 
same manipulations as before, and then pulled out from under 
it a basin filled with water. 

All these performances took place in the open street; but, as 
a matter of course, I am unable to explain any of them. 

On another occasion I had an opportunity of witnessing 
some performances of the same kind as have now been de- 
scribed, and at the same time some of the same style of per- 
formances which we are accustomed to see in England. The 
performer had a leather cup secured upon his forehead by a 
series of tapes or bandages, although not of a surgical nature. 
He kept throwing into the air, to a height of several yards, first 
one, and then another of two large balls, catching each as it fell 
in the cup upon the forehead, picking it out with the hand, 
and throwing it again in the air while he placed himself in a 
position proper to receive the one about to fall. 

Some of the better classes of shops in the suburbs are filled 
with silks and various kinds of cloth of native manufacture; 
some with furs of various kinds and qualities; others with 
crockery jars, enamels, and various kinds of "curios," as 
curiosities have come to be called here. Cracked china, 
enamels, and jars, sell for most exorbitant prices. We had 
not been long at Tein-tsin before the prices of articles of these 
descriptions had run up so high, that £50 and £60 were often 
asked for an enamel vase, the utmost value of which was about 
£5. Even at these exorbitant rates, however, they were pur- 
chased up, thus illustrating the ancient proverb regarding the 
class of people who most readily part with their money. 

In reference to enamels, it may not be out of place here to 
observe, that having had on one occasion an opportunity of 
examining some of the best kinds of enamel that were to be 
found in Tein-tsin, and having admired not only the elegant 
patterns, but also the bright colours of the enamel itself, one of 
the gentlemen present gave us an account of the process by 
which it is prepared. It appears from his account, that in the 
process of manufacture, the design is, in the first instance, 
carved into the metal of which the vase consists ; a mixture of 
pulverized glass, intermixed with oxide of lead, of tin, or cobalt, 



130 TEIN-TSIN. 

together with salt of tartar, is then introduced into the crevices 
thus made, the substance being distributed artistically, according 
to the pattern which it is intended to develope. The whole is 
then put into an oven of regulated temperature, and is then 
baked. The colours are said not to be very distinct at first, but 
to become more and more so by age. Hence the great value of 
vases of one or two hundred years of age and upwards, as com- 
pared with those of recent manufacture. 

Some of the articles sold in shops of the above description are 
remarkable for the peculiar ingenuity displayed in their manu- 
facture. One of the most remarkable in this respect that I saw 
was a small scent-bottle made from crystal; the mouth was 
scarcely larger than a goose quill, and yet a landscape was 
painted with great neatness upon the interior of the bottle. In 
the same shop I also saw a porcelain vase of a very elegant 
pattern, but with the peculiarity that the upper portion of it 
revolved upon the lower. It is difficult to understand the 
processes by which either of these articles was manufactured. 

Being naturally anxious to visit an opium smokjng shop, I 
took an early opportunity of gratifying my wishes in this respect. 
The establishment was readily recognised by the initiated by its 
simple sign, which consisted merely of a few lozenge-shaped, 
or round pieces of brown paper pasted upon the door or wall — 
for the shapes of the paper and the part upon which they were 
pasted varied in different establishments. As we entered, four 
men, who sat at a table playing at cards for cash, politely 
saluted us, making at the same time a movement as if to rise. 
Two others were reclining upon a cang ; the face of one of them 
was flushed ; his eyes were red. Between the two men lay the 
opium pipe, the opium ready prepared and placed in a cockle- 
shell, and the lamp ready lighted. The apartment was not 
more than twelve feet square in size, and these six persons, 
together with two attendants, constituted its occupants. 

At a little distance from Tein-tsin, on the road to Pekin, js a 
dirty and crowded village; no fewer than three opium shops 
were now found in it, although at the time when the force 
advanced through it, en route for Pekin, no establishment of the 
kind was found. Here, then, we have one of the first fruits of 
the port of Tein-tsin being opened to foreign shipping. These 



TBIN-TSIN. ]31 

three shops have been opened for the consumption of " drug/' 
which was introduced by the first vessel that arrived under the 
treaty. 

On another occasion I entered a shop of this description. In 
the apartment dedicated to smoking, a man lay upon a cang, 
dead asleep, under the influence of the narcotic ; a second, whose 
head was already placed upon the pillow of bamboo wicker work, 
employed himself in moistening a lump of opium, apparently 
about a scruple in weight, holding it while he did so over the 
flame of the lamp. Having thus prepared it apparently to his 
satisfaction ; a portion was placed in the aperture of the bowl 
of the smoking-pipe, and then, being held close to the flame of 
the small lamp that stood convenient for the purpose, he 
deeply inhaled the fumes, permitting them to escape through 
his nostrils, after they had been retained within his lungs for a 
few seconds. The first morsel being thus speedily disposed of, 
he proceeded to manipulate another as he had done the former ; 
but during the few minutes we stood by, his eyes had already 
become bloodshot and heavy under the effects of his first smoke. 

It is not my object to enter into a discussion upon the many 
evils attributed to opium-smoking, my chief object in these 
pages being to convey to the reader as correct an impression as 
I am able of facts and circumstances that came under my per- 
sonal cognizance ; suffice it, then, to say, that I have witnessed 
much wretchedness and want among the victims of this vice ; 
but neither in a greater degree, nor among so large a proportion 
of the people, as are similarly debased in the United Kingdom, 
through the evil consequences of indulgence in spirits. 

It appears that the manufacture of opium is now in progress 
in the Shen-si province, the borders of which are not far distant 
from that of Pe-cheli. Some opium prepared there has already 
appeared in the market, and although undoubtedly very inferior 
in quality to that imported from India, is said to be propor- 
tionably cheap, and therefore likely at no distant period to 
seriously interfere with the revenue obtained in India from the 
cultivation of the poppy. 

There are several native establishments in Tein-tsin, which are 
more or less to that part of China what Fortnum and Mason's is 
to England, or indeed to the whole British empire. 



132 TEIN-TSIN. 

The principal shop of this description here is situated in North 
Street, and was well worthy of a visit. Like all shops in this 
part of China, its entire front being removed during the day, 
its interior is thus made to communicate directly with the 
street. Its floor is covered with a succession of baskets, jars, 
and porcelain vessels ; a couple of counters divide it, and around 
its three walls are shelves, upon which rest all the most esteemed 
kinds of native delicacies. Suspended from the ceiling is a 
stuffed sturgeon, highly varnished, and still more highly colour- 
ed artificially with vermilion, yellow, and bright blue colours ; 
from the nostrils of the creature two wires extend to a length of 
a couple of feet, and support at their extremities a ball, each of 
bright red floss silk ; and as they agitate in the breeze that freely 
enters the open space, they wave backwards and forwards in 
imitation of the antennae of butterflies, or of similar appendages 
with which the representations of "the dragon" are orna- 
mented. 

Fins of sharks of all sizes, and dry as board, hang from the 
ceiling and occupy shelves — various other preparations, the 
precise nature of which it is impossible to divine, hang also 
pendant from the roof; of these the more valued are preserved 
in wicker-work, the less valuable being put up in paper. 

Dried fish of various kinds — some, if we might judge from 
their appearance, decidedly good — formed a great proportion of 
the contents of the shop, and occupied a great part of the 
shelves. A stand for sesamum oil was at one end of the shop ; 
piled above each other along the wall were a kind of large 
earthen vessels with large mouths hermetically sealed by means 
apparently of a composition like putty : these contained a parti- 
cular kind of spirit which is brought from the valley of the 
Jang-tse, and is held by the people in high esteem. In large 
jars on the ground are pickled sounds offish; and heaped up on 
the tops of others are salted turnips, the tubers being slit up for 
the more ready reception of the brine, and the tops twisted 
about into a knot. Near these are a series of jars containing a 
strange -looking blackish mass with a heavy, sweet odour ; what 
its precise nature is we cannot learn ; to us it looks dirty and 
offensive, but seems to be much prized by the people for whose 
use it is intended. 



TEIN-TS1N. 133 

On one of the counters are a series of preserved fruits and 
other materials. Among these we recognise ginger; a very pale 
jelly, which forms one of the number is, as we are informed, 
prepared from sea- weed,* various kinds of which are about the 
floor, heaped up in large baskets, and perfectly dry ; long strips 
of what appears to be dried gelatine occupying others. Another 
delicacy we at once recognise; it is the bright red jelly of the 
" Siberian crab," or more properly of the fruit of Cratagus 
layii, which is itself common in the market, the agreeable 
subacid flavour of the jelly commending it to foreigners, at 
whose tables it is often seen. Dried cuttle fish put up in bundles, 
pickled shell fish, that is molluscse, dried shrimps, and dried sea 
slugs, or Holothuria, make up the greater part of the other deli- 
cacies, at least so far as we could recognise them; unless, 
indeed, we include a particular kind of small, transparent fish, 
which seemed to be held in great favour, and was in general 
appearance somewhat like a miniature " Bombay duck." 

Some other delicacies only we were able to recognise. Sugar, 
white, but with very fine grain, a kind of curd-looking jelly, 
prepared from bean flour and arrowroot, extracted from the root 
of the Nelumbrium, were the principal of these. There were very 
many, however, of whose nature it was not in our power to 
form an opinion ; yet what we saw repaid a visit to the esta- 
blishment, where we met with nothing but politeness from the 
occupants of it. 

Among the many objects of one kind or another illustrative 
of the manners and customs of the most interesting people — 
among whom I now was — that I visited, the edifices connected 
with the peculiar religions that they possess were certainly not 
the least in interest. 

The Chinese, in the names they give to their various temples, 
seem to take an especial delight in selecting those of the most 
pompous kind that can be devised ; and they moreover apply the 
term temple to buildings which have no connection with even 
the slight ~ substitute for religion which prevails among these 
people. Thus, an examination hall they dignify with the name 
of Temple of Fame. Then of religious edifices, we have the 

* The fucus called Gigwrtma ienax furnishes, when boiled, a jelly used for 
making lanterns, as also for varnish, and for food : May this be it ? 



134 TEIN-TSIN. 

Temple of Confucius, the Temple of Future Punishments, the 
Devil's Temple, the Dragon Temple, the Temple of Oceanic 
Influences, and so on. 

There is no very material difference in the general aspect of the 
greater number of these ; all consist of a greater or less number 
of small buildings within one general enclosure ; these individual 
buildings being devoted to figures and images of different sorts 
and sizes. I regret, however, to have to say that by all accounts 
the monks who preside at these shrines are not always emi- 
nently famous for the spotless purity of their lives j nor, if we 
may believe report, are their temples dedicated solely to the 
worship of figures made of inanimate clay. 

A brief notice of one or two of these temples will be sufficient 
to convey an idea of the general style of the whole. That 
known among the Chinese themselves, under the native 
synonyme for the " Temple of Oceanic Influences," is the one 
in which the treaty of 1858 was signed, and from this cir- 
cumstance is now called simply the Treaty joss house. It is 
situated outside the city, upon the open plain which, as already 
stated, separates the wall from the line of intrenchments built 
for the purpose of defying the foreigners. In early summer it 
became necessary to occupy it as quarters for the troops, in 
order that, as the hot season approached, they might be less 
crowded together than they had been throughout the winter; 
and in order to fit it up as barracks, many of the figures it had 
contained were removed. The principal shrine remained, how- 
ever, and here the principal figure was a representation of Budha 
surmounted by a canopy, half obscured by a thin silk curtain 
which hung across the front, and surrounded by a series of 
smaller figures, which probably represented deities of minor 
importance. Around the walls of the apartment stood in 
various attitudes " celestial " deities, each of whom had an 
expression different from his companions— some being gentle 
and philanthropic, others the reverse. Banners, standards, 
gongs, bells, and drums were variously suspended from the 
roof, and placed at intervals ; incense sticks, and candlesticks 
stood upon a raised altar, which would have looked like what 
we are accustomed to see in a Roman Catholic church, were it 
not that in the centre stood the Confucius tablet. The whole 



TBIN-TSIN. / 135 

was enveloped in a dim, religious light, occasioned by the win- 
dows here, as everywhere else in the north of China, consisting 
of semi-transparent and very dirty paper. 

A totally different style of temple was that of Horrors, con- 
taining as it did representations of the Buddhistic notion of the 
punishments which the wicked suffer in a future state. The 
temple itself is situated near the north-western angle of the 
city, and immediately adjoining the walls. It consists of a 
series of scattered buildings, the whole being surrounded by a 
wall, having a huge gate in front, at either side of which is a 
collossal figure carved in stone, intended to represent dogs, but 
which, from the grotesque exaggeration of their features, are 
complete monstrosities. 

Entering the general enclosure, I found each of the buildings 
within it was occupied by different series of clay figures, all of 
which were of excellent workmanship, and evidently Buddhistic 
in character. In one apartment there were representations of 
the judgment and future state ; and some of these were of so 
strange a character, that I am inclined to think a few details 
regarding them may not be uninteresting. 

At one end of a room stood a representation of a furnace, the 
flames being partly represented by the arrangement of clay in 
alto-relievo, and partly by the aid of painting ; various portions 
of limbs were represented in these flames, as also an entire 
body appeared as if it had been newly thrown in by a demon, 
who stood in artistic attitude in front, as much as to say "I alone 
have done it." Upon the top of the furnace two other demons 
were represented as if in the act of revolving a horizontal wheel ; 
and from the centre of this wheel rose spirally what was in 
reality wire painted black, but which, by a little ingenuity was 
made to appear to expand into a painted scroll upon the wall. 
On this scroll were representations of various creatures, thus 
indicating clearly that the whole was intended to illustrate the 
theory of transmigration of souls. 

I at the time noted a few of the figures represented upon this 
scroll. Among them were griffins and dragons, mandarins, 
and some lower orders of people, old as well as young; horses, 
bullocks, deer, donkeys, crane, a common fowl, a scorpion, a 



136 TEIN-TSIN. 

snake, a tortoise, a turbinated shell. Fish of various kinds, 
crabs, butterfly, dragonfly, beetle, and mantis. 

In another apartment was what reminded me of the vision of 
Mirza. A bridge spanned a rapid torrent, down which were swept 
the bodies of the lost, and, as if to increase the horrors of their 
situation, some were represented as entwined by a snake. The 
bridge itself was of elegant shape, consisting of one large centre 
arch, and a smaller one at either end of it. It was, moreover, of 
comparatively great height ; in this respect similar to those seen 
upon plates of the old willow pattern, and generally met with 
in Scotland up to a comparatively late period. One poor, thin, 
emaciated fellow was showing most valiant fight against a 
demon, who stood upon one end of this bridge contending the 
passage against all comers; and descending upon the opposite 
end, having upon their faces an expression of beatitude, were 
several who had, either by mediation of a friend or by their 
own merits, obtained the right to pass. 

In the same apartment that contained these representations 
were three others that especially attracted my attention; the 
first of these was the figure of a cross upon which a victim 
appeared as if in the act of being tied; the second of these 
objects was the figure of the sacred bullock, but without the 
hump of the "Brahminee;" and the third was a hook which was 
suspended from the roof, and upon which was impaled through 
the back a human figure. 

The signification of these was at the time only in part ap- 
parent, but became more so soon afterwards, when I had begun 
to trace the connection of the religions of China with those that 
had their origin in the West ; thus the cross was evidently 
traceable to that blessed religion under which arts, science, and 
civilisation have attained their present highest state of perfection. 
The bullock without the hump indicates a connection with the 
superstitious rites of Isis and Osiris as practised thousands of 
years ago in Egypt ; and the third represents the horrible rite 
of " Chakkur puja" still, or until very lately practised by 
Hindoos in India. Other figures represented the infliction upon 
women of various kinds of tortures or punishments ; some of 
them of so horrible a nature that they are better not described. 
Some of them, neatly dressed, and with the small feet of the 



TEIN-TSIN. 137 

country, were being treated by man-devils in a highly ungallant 
and cruel manner. There were no feminine demons, which no 
doubt says much for the good taste of the celestials. Female 
forms were represented as being sawn asunder, pounded in 
mills, thrown into cauldrons, in which skulls, feet, hands, and 
cross-bones seemed to float about ; abdomens were cut open 
after the most approved Sepoy manner, and, as a climax to the 
whole, some were represented as being thrown wholesale over a 
precipice, as the Christians formerly were from Pappenberg by 
the Japanese; only with this, little difference, that here they 
seemed to be impaled as they fell upon spikes placed for this 
malevolent purpose. . In all this I saw nothing to lead me to 
think that women were permitted to enjoy the privilege of 
transmigration after death; all their punishments were repre- 
sented as being inflicted upon their own proper and individual 
bodies. Probably the Chinese, together with some other eastern 
nations, deny to woman the possession of a soul. 

On one occasion, during the cold of winter, I took a long walk 
through the suburbs on the French side of the river, and up 
along the left bank of the river Peiho. In our way I came to 
a very old Buddhist temple, which my companion and myself 
determined to enter. No sooner had we passed through the 
outer gate than we were amazed to see the four officiating priests 
come rapidly towards us ; they approached us with great civility 
and freedom, bowing to us, shaking their own hands to us after the 
native custom, smiling and talking as we preceded. Opening a 
door of one of the buildings, they invited us to enter, and as we 
did so, we found it was their dwelling-house into which we had 
been escorted. The apartment in which we now were was large, 
and contained but little furniture ; it had a floor made of brick, 
and like other houses in this part of China, its windows were 
formed of paper ; a few chairs and tables formed its entire fur- 
niture, one of the latter being devoted to books. At one end 
of the room stood a cang or raised brick wall, which here com- 
bines the double purposes of couch and bed, having a flue 
running backwards and forwards through it, and a small fire- 
place at one point, so as the more readily to diffuse heat through 
it during dreary winter. In the centre of the room stood a 
stove, and upon this; as we entered the apartment, "ne of our 



138 TEIN-TSIN. 

hospitable newly-made clerical friends placed a kettle. It con- 
tained tea, which having been quickly heated, we were invited 
to partake of. We had not an opportunity of declining the 
proffered hospitality now, had we been inclined so to do. No 
sooner had the tea been heated, than one priest hurried himself 
to place cups before us ; a second poured out a pale infusion ; 
and a third, opening a large cupboard, brought us a few small 
loaves of steamed bread. 

I will not be so ungracious towards our entertainers as a 
recent popular writer has proved himself towards the poor but 
hospitable cottagers of the highlands of Scotland. Having ac- 
cepted their hospitality, I will not abuse their homely fare, nor 
ridicule the spirit of good-heartedness in which it was offered. 
The fare offered to us by the Buddhist priests had this great 
recommendation, that it was the best it was in their power to 
give ; and if this tea could not be said to have been according to 
our ideas all that was desirable, the bread was infinitely superior 
to what was provided for our troops by our commissariat. My 
companion and myself having entered into conversation regarding 
our agreeable adventure, we were amazed to see our entertainers 
sit and stare at us in mute astonishment. They subsequently 
showed us over their temple, which contained the usual number 
of images and figures, the principal shrine. being occupied by 
representations of Buddha in his three manifestations, namely, 
the past, the present, and the future. Many other images were 
placed in different portions of the temple ; and in front of the 
principal a joss stick buried. The priests laughed and talked as 
usual when in presence of their " gods/' and in a manner that 
gave us but a poor impression of the veneration they entertain 
for these figures. Among the Buddhists, as among their 
western representatives, the Roman Catholics, there are monas- 
teries and nunneries. Having thus given a brief account of a 
visit to the former, I will add a few remarks in regard to the 
latter. 

During the hot season it became necessary for vis to increase 
still further the accommodation provided for the troops. A 
nunnery was accordingly solicited as one of the buildings to be 
fitted up for this purpose. In visiting it with the engineer 
officers, I had the pleasure of seeing two of these Buddhist 



TEEST-TSIN. 139 

devotees; their heads were closely shaved; they were dressed 
precisely like men, and what was perhaps no less remarkable in 
this part of China was that their feet were natural in size and 
shape. They wore the same description of stockings and shoes 
that are commonly used by men, and in their general appearance 
so strongly represented the higher sex that my friend, whom I 
accompanied, had on a former occasion committed the grave 
error of mistaking the nuns for monks. 

Their temple only differed from others that we had seen by 
containing several figures of female deities ; and we observed 
that the one in their own dwelling was one from the Hindoo 
mythology, having iy> fewer than forty-six arms. One of the 
nuns looked particularly smart, and were we to judge from her 
manner alone, did not give us the impression of being a person 
who would from choice retire from the world. The other, how- 
ever, was demure and sour, her features bearing the lack im- 
pression of persons who, forsaking sublunary things, devote 
themselves to contemplation and chastity. 

We were not prepared to find so large a population of Mahom- 
edans as really exists in Tein-tsin. That a trade existed be- 
tween Arabia and China so early as the sixth century is well 
authenticated, and we know that the Chinese in their victories 
towards the north-west boundaries of India brought back with 
them from time to time many captives. Other captives were 
made of Mahomedan invaders of China, and the descendants of 
these constitute the present followers of " the prophet" who 
are interspersed throughout the empire, and form a considerable 
portion of the population of Tein-tsin. Unlike some other 
sects that might be named, they do not, when in a foreign land, 
ignore in public the religion which they profess". On the contrary, 
each Mahomedan and family boldly declare to all the world the 
fact that they are Mahomedans. The Chinese written character 
signifying that they belong to the people who are not eaters of 
pork is placed prominently upon the large lamp which every- 
where here is suspended over the door ; thus at night as well as 
by day, all the world may know, if they take the trouble to use 
their eyes, that the inmates of these houses are Moslems. 
On one occasion I visited the principal mosque of this sect. It 
is situated in the western suburbs of the city, and in external 



140 TEITST-TSIN. 

style is more or less Chinese. It is altogether devoid of the 
minarets and domes that distinguish, similar temples elsewhere, 
its ornaments being almost perfectly Chinese in their general 
appearance; internally, however, it lias all the characters of 
Mahomedan mosques elsewhere. Inscriptions in Arabic deco- 
rated the walls; priests squatted upon a mat-covered floor, 
enwrapt, as it were, in the study of the Koran, which volume was 
printed in Arabic, a language that these men, when requested 
to read, did so fluently. The mosque was so built as that the 
worshippers, while performing their devotions, faced towards the 
west ; but a matter which created no little surprise, was the fact 
that in the temple of a sect so strict, bigoted, and fanatical as 
Mahomedans notoriously are, they should nevertheless find them- 
selves compelled to permit the existence within its walls of the 
ordinary symbols of the more purely Chinese religion. A shrine 
upon which stood the tablet of Confucius, and around which 
was wreathed in bold relief the Taoist dragon, stood almost in 
the very centre of the Mahomedan temple. From the priests 
here we learned that the number of Mahomedans in this one 
city is about ten thousand, and that scattered about among its 
streets are three temples, although none of them so large as the 
one to which we obtained admittance. The general appearance 
of the priests and people generally to whom this temple belonged 
did not differ from that of the ordinary Chinese ; their features 
had all the characters that usually distinguish the natives of this 
part of China ; like them also the Mahomedans wore tails ; the 
greater number used no covering for the head, but the officiating 
priests and some of the people who happened to be in it at the 
time of our visit wore a conical cap of a blue colour, which is 
evidently a remnant of the dress worn by their forefathers in 
Arabia, Persia, and India. 

One of the most interesting public institutions in Tein-tsin 
that I had an opportunity of visiting was the Foundling Hos- 
pital, to which, by the courtesy of Mr. Mongan, acting consul, I 
obtained admission. This building is situated in the suburbs of 
the city, near the eastern gate. It is apparently strong and 
substantial, without ornament, save the figures of dogs carved 
in stone, one of which is placed at either side of the stone steps 
leading to the entrance door. Above the door is placed a tablet, 



TEIN-TSIN. 141 

bearing upon it an inscription in Chinese, which being trans- 
lated intimates that here is " The Hall for Cherishing Children." 
Entering under this tablet, we passed along a passage and across 
a court-yard ; and having done so, were met by some of the 
people connected with the establishment who, recognising the 
consul, at once offered to conduct us over the entire place. 
There seemed at the time of our visit to have been about twenty 
children, together with their nurses, accommodated in each of 
these enclosures ; the total number of foundlings in the estab- 
lishment being about eighty ; and it may be observed that so 
general in this part of China is the fashion of compressing the 
feet, that those of the unfortunate female inmates of this estab- 
lishment were being subjected to this process. There is no 
separate portion of the building appropriated as an hospital for 
sick ; the children are attended by native physicians in their 
own dormitories or court-yards. One division, however, is ap- 
propriated to a class of children and grown people whose melan- 
choly condition is calculated to command the pity of all visitors. 
Here the inmates were composed of the blind, the deaf, the 
dumb, and the idiotic of both sexes, together with their at- 
tendants ; and here we were informed that while, as a general 
rule, the other children are not retained after they have attained 
the age of fourteen years, the unhappy creatures for whose use 
this particular portion is devoted, are retained for life if neces- 
sary. Returning from visiting this part of the establishment, 
we met the superintendent, who politely invited us to his own 
quarters. Over the door of what seemed to be the hall of 
reception, was a tablet similar to that already mentioned, as 
being over the outer doorway ; the characters upon it signifying, 
as translated by Mr. Mongan, " We sincerely beseech thee to 
rescue the naked." Arranged upon tablets on either side of the 
hall were the code of regulations of the establishment, and lists 
of the principal benefactors and contributors to its funds ; these 
reminding us of what we were accustomed to see in charitable 
institutions at home. Having entered the apartments of the 
superintendent who had the rank of a brass button mandarin, 
and a friendly good-humoured man to boot, we were invited by 
him to sit down ; and according to Chinese custom, had tea 
served up so soon as we had taken our seats. The room in 



142 TBIN-TSIN. 

which we were was decorated with scrolls upon the wall, on 
each of which one or more moral sentiments were inscribed ; 
of these, two only were translated to us, and their meaning 
seemed to be somewhat obscure. The characters upon one of 
these signified, when interpreted into English, that " To look at 
the image of clouds reflected from the ocean is dazzling to the 
eyes." The other, when similarly interpreted, signified that 
" He who observes the forest upon the mountain side, learns 
what is the nature of man" — a sentiment, the meaning of which 
is by no means evident, unless indeed it be identical with that 
expressed in other terms by Sir John Davis in his valuable 
work* on China, namely : that " By studying in the retirement 
of mountains and waterfalls, man returns to the primitive good- 
ness of nature" — a sentiment, the truth of which is little known 
by the many who pass their years amidst the torment and con- 
tention of city or public life. 

The furniture of the apartment was neat, and displayed con- 
siderable taste; several flower-pots stood upon tables, and in 
recesses, these containing dwarfed flowering trees of different 
kinds, which had, doubtless, been brought within doors for pro- 
tection from the cold, for the season was winter. 

Prom our agreeable entertainer we learnt that the foundation 
of the establishment dates back about seventy years, it having 
been erected in the fifty-ninth year of Tien Lung, grandfather 
of the present emperor, Hien Fung. The funds were provided 
partly by original endowment, partly by donations and sub- 
scriptions; of late, however, the funds would seem to have 
fallen into a somewhat unsatisfactory state, and the institution 
to be almost, if not quite, entirely supported by the charity of 
the salt merchants of the city. 

The children brought in are, in some instances, of a class 
corresponding to that from whom institutions in England, 
similar to this one, derive their distinctive names. In other in- 
stances, infants are brought in by their parents, when the latter 
are too poor to maintain them, and in such instances are often 
claimed when the pecuniary circumstances of the father or re- 
lations become more propitious. 

It usually happens that the number of applications for ad- 

* Vol. ii, p. 152. 



TEIN-TSIN. 143 

mission depend much upon the state of the harvest ; thus, when 
the crops are abundant, and the harvest favorable, applications 
are few ; while/ under opposite circumstances, they become, as 
might be expected, more numerous. We were also informed 
that some of the children in the institution are adopted by 
people who have no family of their own, and it would appear 
that comparatively few remain in it until they attain the age of 
fourteen. Those who do remain so long are then sent away, 
the boys to learn trades — each receiving a donation of ten taels 
— the girls, to be married, with a dowry of fifteeen taels each, 
or about £5 sterling. The fact deserves to be stated, however, 
that the girls are always placed in a respectable position in life, 
never being abandoned to vice and infamy. 

I have entered at some length into a description of this insti- 
tution, because few people, personally unacquainted with China, 
would suspect the existence of such a one in that country. It 
is, moreover, satisfactory to state that, at the time of our visit 
the children within its walls looked remarkably healthy, although 
personal cleanliness was evidently a matter altogether beneath 
the notice of their attendants. There was not among them 
more than a fractional part of the squalling that there would be 
among one quarter the number of children in the United King- 
dom, and the arrangement of everything connected with the 
place was quiet and orderly. 

This is not the only charitable institution maintained by the 
Chinese in Tein-tsin. There is another, of a similar kind to 
the Foundling Hospital, supported for the reception of blind 
people, and another for the aged ; into neither of these was I 
able to obtain an entrance, but I have been informed that, as 
compared to the Foundling Hospital, they are badly conducted. 
An establishment of a different kind to these was visited by me ; 
it was found to possess an interest of its own, and to well 
repay its inspection; this was a native school. One day, in 
passing along one of the narrow streets in the outskirts of the 
city, my attention was attracted by the well-known hum of a 
juvenile school at home. As I turned to enter, I found the 
master standing at the outer door, taking observations, no 
doubt, of the passers by, and of their doings. I stopped to 
enter, and, as he discovered my intention, he " chin-chinned," 



144 TEIN-TSIN. 

bowed several times, and shook his own hands to me ; then, 
opening the door of the apartment in which his pupils were 
assembled, he invited me to enter. The room was small, dark, 
and close ; seated upon forms, at different tables, were about a 
dozen boys of about the same number of years in age ; these 
were jabbering their lessons over well-thumbed books, the sym- 
bolical characters of which were incomprehensible to me. The 
young scholars did not appear to stand much in need of the 
" master's " help ; at all events, he seemed to be evidently of 
that opinion, for as I, after a minute or two, left the place, he 
accompanied me to the door, bowed, chin-chinned, shook his 
own hands as before, and then took up his former position to 
observe the passers by. 



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CHAPTER VI. 

TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Topography of Tein-tsin, with some account of agriculture and gardening in the 
vicinity of that town — Succession of crops— Fruits — Vegetables— Preparation 
of oils, &c, &c. 

I propose devoting the present chapter to a rapid sketch of 
some points connected with agricultural operations in the north 
of China, introducing such remarks, at the same time, as present 
themselves relative to some of the natural productions and 
climate of that portion of the country. In order to give, as far 
as possible, a connected account of these, I will select from my 
journal such notes as I took regarding them from my arrival 
there onwards throughout the succeeding year. 

Having landed at Taku on the 17th December, when the winter 
cold had fairly set in, the hard frozen earth on shore sounded 
strangely as I first stepped upon it. The air felt bracing and 
delightful; and the first impression was that throughout the 
succeeding months a delicious climate was before us. 

Starting on the following morning for Tein-tsin, the road by 
which I travelled stretched along through a dreary flat tract of 
country, which showed indications of being during the hot 
season little if at all better than a swamp. The roads by which 
it was intersected in various directions Were raised above the 
general level to a height of several feet, thus indicating that 
during certain periods of the year this part of the country is 
more or less inundated. 

Having travelled several miles, a few slight undulations 
appeared in the country, although nothing that could be called 

10 



14G TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

a mound or eminence — nothing more, indeed, than a trivial varia- 
tion in the dead level that characterised the country before and 
on either side, as far as vision could extend. Fields bearing 
marks of recent cultivation gradually became more and more 
numerous; at first they were separated from each other by 
" arms " of the marsh already mentioned, but these interrup- 
tions diminished, until after riding about twelve miles along the 
road, it became apparent that cultivation had extended over 
almost every spot of the surface ; here and there the face of the 
country was intersected by canals of irrigation ; and as the frost 
was not yet sufficiently intense to close these up, I had an 
opportunity of observing the process by which the water is 
raised from these canals, and made available for fertilising the 
fields. 

This was done in much the same way as in Lower Bengal. 
Two persons, standing upon opposite sides of the small canal, 
work by means of a rope in either hand, a basket, to which these 
are secured midway, in such a manner as that by a succession 
of swinging movements the basket is made to dip in the water, 
and being filled, to raise to the level of the field, and then, by 
a slight turn of the hand, or jerk, it is turned over so as to 
empty its contents into a place prepared for it at the border of 
the field, and from which by narrow drains, or " water courses," 
it is led to wherever it is needed ; precisely as the similar process 
is performed in India and Egypt. 

Trees were few : an occasional line of bare leafless branches 
at first appeared in the distance ; after a little I began to pass 
groves of apple trees, that had evidently been planted with much 
regularity and care. I had tasted at Taku both apples and pears 
grown in this neighbourhood, and had found the former soft, 
but with somewhat the flavour of British fruit, the latter watery 
and indifferent. 

Bordering the roads a few trees stood, which, although leaf- 
less, were readily recognisable as elms and willows; others 
appeared to be poplars, and of these descriptions of trees were 
those of all sizes, from that of only a few feet high to that fit for 
timber. 

Of birds, the common European gull, which I had already 
seen in flocks in the Gulf of Pecheelee, now was observed 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 147 

hunting over the fields in search of food. Nor was this the only- 
familiar bird that presented itself; the crow, the jackdaw, lark, 
and sparrow flitted about as at home, and a woodpecker was 
obliged to content himself with exercising his boring propen- 
sities upon the trunk of an ancient willow — there being no 
" hollow beech tree " here for him to " tap/' Huge flights of 
the pin-tailed or sand grouse (pterocles) darted with noisy and 
rapid flight across the now bare plain, their numbers far 
exceeding what furnish in India such excellent sport on the 
march between Soodianah and Ferozepore. 

The day was piercingly cold— a high wind arose toward after- 
noon, blowing in gusts, and bringing up from the eastward 
masses of dust ; the pools and water-courses along the sides of 
the road became covered with a thin pellicle of ice — the thermo- 
meter stood at 30° Fahr., — the distance I had to ride was long, 
not much, if at all, under thirty-five miles. Cold, hungry, and 
fatigued, therefore, I arrived at Tein-tsin. 

The country in the immediate neighbourhood of Tein-tsin is 
perhaps the most level that I have ever seen, the plains of India 
not excepted. For many miles on either side there does not 
appear to be an undulation a foot high. Scattered at distant 
intervals are a few small villages, the foundations of which are 
slightly raised above the surface, doubtless with a view of pre- 
■ venting them from being inundated during the rains that fall in 
early summer. A few trees of moderate size are found growing 
about these villages, but otherwise the country was bare ; the 
crops, by the time that I visited it, had all been cut and housed ; 
the vegetation had already been destroyed by the cold and the 
frost. The few trees that I saw were leafless, and thus the aspect 
of the country was as uninviting as could well be desired. 

The soil is of a very rich alluvium, mixed with clay and mica- 
eous sand, bearing all the evidence of having been deposited in 
still water. In some parts it is covered to a considerable extent by 
saline efflorescence, which is said to consist of common chloride 
of sodium, for the preparation of which regular "pans" are esta- 
blished somewhat nearer the mouth of the Peiho than Tein-tsin, 
and of which high -stacks, well covered over by mats, are 
arranged in lines on the bank of the river opposite, and a little 
below that city. 



148 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Not a stone nor a pebble is to be found in the soil. It is 
said to be exceedingly rich ; yielding crops readily. The country 
here is very much drier than it is more towards the south, as, 
for instance, near Shanghaie and Canton. There it is divided 
almost like network by canals and water-courses for irrigation. 
Here, however, they seem to be very few ; although in the dry 
season, when I arrived, the dry beds of not a few were easily 
detected. The fields to be cultivated are generally of an oblong 
square form, slightly elevated above the general surface ; a slight 
embankment is thrown up around each for the purpose of 
preventing the escape of the water that is thrown up into 
it for irrigation, from the superficial channel that is thus 
formed. 

I stated that there are no undulations upon the surface of the 
country ; this must be received as meaning natural undulations. 
The aspect of that in the immediate neighbourhood of Tein-tsiu, 
that is, within a circuit of two miles, is strangely broken by 
mounds of various sizes and shapes, which are nothing more 
than graves of former inhabitants of this large city. 

In this part of China, the dead are never buried, as we 
understand the expression; the bodies are placed in huge, 
massive coffins — these are carried beyond the gates in most 
instances, and laid upon the surface of the ground. Subse- 
quently the coffins are covered with matting, or encased in brick- 
work, or thatched over with straw, or covered to a greater or 
less depth by mould ; the more wealthy the deceased, the larger 
the mound, generally pyramidal or dome-shaped, that is col- 
lected over the remains. The coffins of paupers are not onlyof very 
inferior wood, but are very slightly covered. The effects of the 
elements in many instances remove a sufficient quantity of soil 
to expose those of all classes ; thus, the odour of decomposition 
is often perceptible as we walk along through these extensive 
burial grounds. 

Tein-tsin is a very old city; during its existence, the dead 
have continued to be disposed of as they now are. It will there- 
fore be readily conceived that the soil must be saturated with 
decomposing animal matter. Whether this circumstance is 
sufficient to account for the extreme unhealthiness of localities 
here, where the soil may have been recently turned up, is a 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 149 

point that cannot be positively affirmed. We know, for a fact, 
that in the south of China the vicinity of places that have lately 
been exposed, are notoriously unhealthy, and it has been 
asserted that during the time the force was encamped near the 
graves outside the walls, previous to advancing on Pekin, 
several cases of what seemed to be Asiatic cholera occurred in 
soldiers located close to a part that had lately been turned up, 
but ceased on the regiment moving to a more eligible encamping 
ground. 

It would not, indeed, be easy to picture to one's self a more 
utterly dreary scene than that which at this season of the year 
was to be seen around Tein-tsin. Over the seemingly inter- 
minable plain, not a sprig of green vegetation occurred to break 
its brown and arid look. At intervals we saw collected together 
a few wretched hovels, built of unbaked brick and mud ; these 
were somewhat raised above the level of the neighbouring coun- 
try, and near them a few leafless trees were the only natural 
objects visible. In the clear sun-shiny days of winter, the 
mirage on the horizon gave the idea of the presence of water, 
although, in reality, wherever water was it was deeply frozen ; 
agriculture was at a stand-still, and as the frost increased in 
severity, and almost all vapour disappeared from the atmo- 
sphere, the cold north wind raised as if in eddies the fine 
impalpable dust of this alluvial plain, for on not more than a 
very few occasions did snow cover the ground, and never suffi- 
ciently thick to permit it to be drifted into wreaths. 

People, unless forced to leave their houses, remained within 
doors, consequently only a very few human beings were ever to 
be seen. Flocks of cattle, or of sheep, there were none visible 
on the plain, after the intensity of winter had fairly set in ; 
even wild animals were scarce. Hares, indeed, were throughout 
the winter abundant, and a few foxes were also to be met with, 
but these apparently were the only four-footed animals that 
defied the cold. Birds even were scarce, the only one in addi- 
tion to those already mentioned that was abundant being what 
seemed a species of emberiza or snow bunting ; at the commence- 
ment of the cold, ducks and geese flew past in flocks, performing 
their migrations to the warmer latitudes of the south; but 
during the depth of winter none were visible, except in the 



150 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

public market, to which they and pheasants were evidently 
brought from some considerable distance. 

On walking a little way into the country on New Year's Day, 
I reached a village where the agriculturists were busily occupied 
covering up in pits, similar to what we see at home, a kind of 
turnip (or green radish), the root being, no doubt, intended for 
spring consumption. At the same village I observed a kind of 
raised mud embankment. On ascending to the top, I discovered 
that it formed an underground apartment, or "tykhana/' 
through the roof of which an entrance and ladder communi- 
cated with the interior. Curiosity induced me to descend. On 
doing so, I found myself in a snug, warm apartment, as com- 
pared with the temperature above ground. In racks arranged 
for the purpose, and so placed as to permit free circulation of 
air throughout, were piled lines of the vegetable called Pekin 
cabbage, for winter and spring use. There was free circulation 
throughout the apartment, and the quantity of decayed leaves 
that lay about the entrance to the chamber, indicated the care 
that was bestowed upon the removal of these from the sounder 
portion of the vegetable. This vegetable has more the general 
appearance of a lettuce than anything else, but its individual 
leaves are in texture, general character, and taste, like those of 
a turnip. There is no distinct " heart " to it, but the leaves 
run up close together to a height of six or eight inches ; the 
stock so formed being close, white, and much esteemed by the 
natives. It is also in common use at the tables of foreigners, 
and is, when boiled, most excellent. It also makes an excellent 
winter salad when cut across in tolerably thin slices, and mixed 
with proper sauce. The natives have other methods of pre- 
serving it : they sometimes place it in deep pits, which they 
simply cover over with matting ; at others, they pile it close in 
deep, narrow, earthen jars, which they in like manner cover up ; 
and thus they retain it fresh and good throughout the winter. 
They prepare it so as to form something like sour-krout, by 
steeping it in brine; it is in this state often sold in the streets, 
and, although in regard to appearance, it is most uninviting, is 
said nevertheless to be highly esteemed by the Chinese. 

An attempt was some years ago made by Mr. Fortune to in- 
troduce this vegetable into England ; he himself collected the 



TOPOGKRAPHY OF TEIN-TSIN. 151 

seed from it, and had them carefully conveyed home. Yet the 
young plant, which was produced in the moist climate of 
Britain, was, in every respect, unlike its parent; its leaves, 
instead of coalescing like those of the original plant, began to 
spread immediately on reaching the surface of the ground. 
Neither was the flavour of the plant, when cooked, at all like 
what it is in China. This, as we shall see, is nothing more 
than the modification which so often takes place in plants under 
circumstances affected by climate, temperature, and soil. 

As the cold of winter continued, small deer, hard as boards, 
and completely frozen, were brought to market, as was said, 
from Tartary. Pheasants, and the smaller game from a shorter 
distance, had been exposed for sale in that state, almost from 
the very commencement of the frost. Frozen fish were 
abundant ; in fact, it was impossible to expose any article of 
food, for even a short time, without its becoming so much ice. 
The Chinese, however, evidently bestowed some degree of care 
upon the manner of freezing some kinds of their fish ; this was 
done apparently by raising and dipping in water, by means of a 
string secured through the dorsal fin. In this manner a thick 
coating of ice was rapidly produced upon the body of the fish ; 
the form, and even the precise attitude in which its muscles 
had become immovably stiff, being retained by the transparent 
block of ice ; and as the fish had been subjected to the process 
of freezing while still alive, it was asserted, although with what 
degree of truth I am unable to say, that on the return of genial 
spring weather, when gradual thawing takes place, it once more 
becomes restored to life. 

In the immediate vicinity of some villages an occasional plot 
of green vegetation still existed, defying the dryness and the 
cold that prevailed, and destroyed every kind of plant and 
vegetable, with a very few exceptions. These plots of green were, 
however, sheltered from the cold north wind by a most excellent 
and effectual contrivance, and which I observed was also in 
general use around individual huts in villages, where they served 
the double purpose of protecting the inmates from the cold, and 
ensuring to each family complete privacy. Fences made of 
millet stalks, crossing each other, and both thick and close, 
formed the contrivances alluded to — they were . always con- 



152 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

siderably more than six feet high— formed a perfect barrier 
against the cold wind ; but as no harm ever arises here from the 
south breeze, an opening was always left on that side for the 
admission of the genial sunlight and heat; for even in the 
coldest weather, warmth was conveyed thereby, except where 
the wind was admitted. 

The first indication of farming preparations for the ensuing 
hot weather was apparent on the 25th of January. On that day 
the sleighs that have throughout the depth of winter been used 
entirely for the conveyance of messengers and ordinary mer- 
chandise, began to be freighted with manure. 

At different parts of the city, and in the suburbs, there are 
places set apart for the preparation of manure, and where, during 
the early winter, it was preserved in stacks and large heaps. It 
is needless to say that these places are offensive to sight and 
smell in a degree that cannot be imagined by people who have 
never visited China. Hitherto, the heaps have been daily added 
to; now, however, for the first time, they 'were broken upon; 
sleigh after sleigh was loaded with this very abominable but 
extremely useful compound; and by means of a pole which 
a man on the hinder part used between his legs, they were 
pushed along the ice that covered the river, and thus conveyed 
towards the fields, for the fertilising of which they were 
intended. 

Up to the end of January we had been using potatoes brought 
all the way from California, and which had been reshipped at 
Hong Kong for this place ; the natural result had been that they 
were both scarce and expensive ; various other vegetables had 
been served up at table as substitutes, the principal of them 
having been " sweet potatoes," of more than one species ; 
spinach and carrots, which abound here. About the time men- 
tioned, a supply of most excellent potatoes suddenly appeared 
in the market, having been brought down from Tartary. We 
enjoyed the potatoes very much, but naturally felt some wonder 
how the vegetable could have got to Tartary ; but, great as our 
surprise at this was, it was increased when we learnt that in 
some parts of Japan the potato plant, with tubers, is found indi- 
genous and wild. If this be so, and there is no reason to doubt 
it, the theory of this vegetable being a native of America only, 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 153 

must henceforward find its fitting place among the popular fal- 
lacies ; indeed I have it on the authority of Mr. Fortune that the 
tuberous potato plant is found evidently in a natural state, in 
certain parts of Japan. 

It is not possible to be stationed at a place like Tein-tsin, 
and not occasionally contrast its general aspect and scenery with 
those of our own native land. There, in " old England," how- 
ever great the winter cold may be, vegetation is never utterly 
destroyed; during the most trying parts, grass at all times 
covers the face of the earth. In sheltered nooks, and on sunny 
banks, a daisy, a sprig of groundsel, an occasional dandelion, 
and a tiny byronica unfold their petals. The deciduous trees, it 
is true, look bare and wintry, yet the numerous evergreens 
that adorn parks and ornamental grounds give to the landscape, 
even at this season, an appearance of fertility if not of richness. 
There are few parts of the United Kingdom devoid of some 
degree of undulation on its surface. In the majority we have a 
constant succession of hill and dale, copse, wood, and fleldj, 
while at intervals streams beautify and fertilise the district. 

How different all this from the winter aspect of the enormous 
plain that stretches away to the horizon on either side of Tein* 
tsin. Here all is bare and monotonous ; dust sweeps in eddies 
over a plain almost devoid of life ; for the time being agricul-, 
ture is at a stand-still, and for months few animals or people 
expose themselves to the cold blasts that sweep across the 
plain. 

Throughout February the aspect of the plains continued what 
it had been throughout the long dreary winter. It was not 
until the 1st day of March that agricultural operations fairly com- 
menced. On that day, at a short distance from the city, a man 
was observed at work in simply breaking the surface of the soil 
by means of a one pronged mattock. This was "scutched" 
into mere grooves, for the operation did not extend deeper 
than an inch or two; no manure was in this instance used; the 
soil looked rich and alluvial; and in the grooves thus rudely 
made, wheat was sown. 

By the sixth of the month the temperature during the day 
had become very agreeably mild, although during the night the 
thermometer had descended to 23° Fahr., and at 9 a.m. was at 31° 



154 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

In riding across the fields in the neighbourhood of the city, 
the greater part of them were still untouched by the plough. 
On a few, people, especially boys, were busily engaged with 
rakes made of a series of bent pieces of bamboo, arranged in a 
fan-like shape, and attached to a handle, in collecting the loose 
straw and grass that may have become detached from their roots 
during the severity of winter. On some few fields, heaps of 
manure were being placed at intervals, precisely as may be seen 
at home, these being for the evident purpose of being spread 
upon the surface while yet fallow, so as to mix with the soil 
when that comes to be turned up. The trees, with one exception, 
showed as yet no sign of opening the bud. This one exception 
was a magnificent poplar of not less than eighty feet in height, 
on which the uppermost buds had evidently begun to enlarge, 
and were in some instances opening. 

On the 11th of this month, by which time the indications of 
the thermometer had risen to 40° Fahr. at 9 a.m., agriculturists 
in great numbers were employed in sowing the smaller kinds of 
millet. Preparations for irrigation were in progress; a rude 
kind of plough in operation turning up the soil ; bullocks and 
donkeys being employed, often together, at other times a mule, 
or a man was similarly employed. 

A further increase had taken place by the 13th in the numbers 
of people employed in the fields. In one strip of ground situated 
in a hollow, as if it had at some period or other formed a canal 
for irrigation, the double process of ploughing and sowing 
wheat were being performed simultaneously. 

The rich soft soil in this part of China does not need to be 
turned up by the plough to the depth required in England; 
while its great freedom from the roots of grasses and fern weeds 
renders unnecessary the use of a powerful plough such as is re- 
quired in our own country. All that is here necessary is a 
plough, shaped indeed somewhat like our own, but consisting 
of a light framework, the " coulter" consisting of an instrument 
shaped not unlike that used in the highlands of Scotland for 
cutting turf; this was secured in such a manner as that it rested 
upon its flat surface in the earth, at a depth of about four inches, 
that being apparently the greatest to which it was necessary to 
extend. As the plough was pulled along, it was made, by means 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 155 

,of a couple of boards so placed, to throw the turned up earth into 
ridges, and by placing upon the point part of the implement a 
box containing the seed, and which in size and shape was pre- 
cisely similar to what is used in country retired parts of Scot- 
land, for sowing turnips, the Chinese succeeded in combining 
in one the two operations of ploughing and sowing. 

It was an interesting sight, reminding one of home and early 
associations, to observe a flock of rooks in one of the clumps of 
trees that occur at long intervals throughout the neighbouring 
country. These birds were on the 14th busily engaged in putting 
together and arranging their nests, although the trees in which 
they built were bare and leafless. As I observed them, I could 
not help wondering whether the Celestial rooks are as regular in 
the commencement of their building operations as their species 
is said to be in Scotland, where they invariably begin to build 
their nests on the first Sunday in March, thereby scandalising 
some " crows" of a sanctimonious turn of mind, who religiously 
eschew all occupation of a useful kind upon that day. 

From the month of October, not a drop of rain appears to 
have fallen in this part of China until the 15th of March. During 
the preceding night, and early on the morning of that day, a 
gentle fall took place. It was neither preceded nor attended 
by perturbations of the atmosphere ; its occurrence being first 
perceptible by its pattering on the roofs of the houses. So 
mild had the weather suddenly become, that even already I note 
that exposure to the afternoon sun is somewhat unpleasant. 

In the fields and wide plain surrounding Tein-tsin, no sign 
of vegetation is yet apparent ; all look barren as they did in 
the dead of winter, and one continuous waste stretches away on 
either side, far as the horizon. The depressing effects upon a 
person who is out of health, of a landscape such as this, can only be 
fully realised by a person who has had under these circumstances 
to gaze upon it day after day through several months, in some 
of which it was physically impossible for him to be emancipated, 
however severely he might suffer from the circumstances of his 
position. 

In early spring, that is, in the month of March, if indeed not 
in February, we have an opportunity at Tein-tsin of observing 
what is certainly a more effectual than elegant method of forcing 



156 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

onions. The bulbs are during winter placed in open vessels 
containing a little water ; these vessels are kept in bath-houses, 
such as are elsewhere described ; there they have the advantage 
of a moist atmosphere coupled with high temperature, and there 
they grow rapidly, shooting out pale and blanched leaves, which 
I doubt not are considered to be a great delicacy by the Chinese^ 
but which, considering where and how they are forced, I do not 
by any means begrudge to them. In the same manner, bulbs of 
the double flowering narcissus are made to germinate, and they 
afterwards speedily flower by being simply retained in water as 
hyacinth bulbs are at home. With the first genial weather of 
spring, branches of these in full bearing are hawked about the 
streets. 

By the middle of the month, the fields were absolutely dotted 
thicldy over with people engaged in farming operations ; all 
were busily at work, few raising their heads to look at the 
stranger as I rode past, and thereby contrasting strangely with 
their brethren of Ireland, or of England either. Some were 
engaged in planting chalots in small beds that had just been 
prepared for the reception of the bulbs. Others were employed 
in turning up the soft soil of patches that had evidently borne 
cabbage of the Pekin species during the previous autumn. This 
they effected by means of a very simple implement shaped some- 
what like a hoe, but attached to a handle by means of a stem 
and socket bent like a " swan's" neck, so as to turn the edge of 
the instrument to an angle of about 45°. The labourer used 
this very useful instrument by turning the soil towards him, 
and so clean and soft was the soil so turned, that it looked more 
like that of an extremely well kept garden than what we are 
accustomed to meet with at home as farming. As a general rule 
the labourers on the field, and peasants generally, adopt one 
uniform colour of dress. The colour is indigo blue ; the cloth 
generally of native manufacture, but it was observable that 
American drill was pretty extensively used to make the short 
loose drawers and short tunic or blouse, these constitute the 
entire summer wardrobe of these people. When we consider 
how very conservative are the ideas of the Chinese, we may 
naturally conclude that this has been the colour and " cut " of 
the peasants dress here — it may be for thousands of years — as 



TOPOGRAJHY 0¥ TEIN-TSIN. 157 

the implements now used by them may he considered to be fac- 
similes of those that had been employed in this country prior 
to the commencement of our era. 

Manure having in the first instance been spread upon the 
surface, embankments were then raised throughout the field 
about to be brought under cultivation, so as to divide it into 
small plots of about eighteen feet long by four broad. Between 
these small divisions, water- courses were prepared, so that irri- 
gation could be the more readily performed either from the 
river or from the numerous small canals for the purpose that 
intersect this portion of China. These plots having been turned 
up by the hoe, as just mentioned, wheat was being sown in them 
in very regular rows. The soil Was then brought over the 
grain by means of a garden rake, but turned as the hoe has 
been described to be, only to twice the extent, so that the teeth 
merely touched the surface of the ground horizontally ; thus 
effectually carrying along with and upon them, any unprepared 
soil or objectionable matters that might exist, and leaving the 
earth itself smooth and neat. Along the sides of the small field 
water-courses for irrigation, beans were being planted, two and 
two put into a small hole that was made by a kind of spike ; the 
interval between these holes being ten or twelve inches. The 
seed beans themselves were of the common flat description met 
with in England, only not quite so large. Some were brown, 
but others, although perfectly dry, yet retained a green hue. 
The quantity of ground that was being planted with chalots was 
perfectly surprising, miles of fields actually seemed in process 
of being planted with this vegetable ; yet among all the numbers 
of persons busily engaged in the work, I only on one occasion 
observed a woman. The weaker sex is almost completely un- 
fitted for hard labour by the abominable artificial deformity of 
cramping their feet, to which they are subjected. It must, 
therefore, be under the most pressing necessity that they are 
ever thus employed. I have at various times subsequent to 
that which I am now alluding to, carefully observed whether 
women really were employed in outdoor labour, and on not 
more than two or three occasions have I seen them thus occupied. 
On one of these, however, they were occupied in raising water 
for irrigation, a description of labour that must have told very 



158 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEItf-TSlN. 

severely upon them. One of the methods of raising water for 
irrigation, namely, by a basket secured in a particular manner 
between two ropes, and worked by a person at either end, has 
been already described. This method is apparently the least 
laborious of the two, and it was only at it that women were 
employed. The other method is by means of a kind of bucket 
secured by a rope or bar of wood to the end of a high pole ; 
this pole,* which acts as a lever power, is supported at its 
centre by a fulcrum, a weight being placed at the further end, 
sufficient nearly to balance the water vessel when full, and by 
alternately lowering the latter into the wells which have been 
dug for the purpose at intervals, a constant supply of water is 
readily procured ; the vessels being made somewhat like inverted 
pyramids or cones, so that on being brought to the ground when 
full, the act of touching the surface upsets them, and thus dis- 
charges their contents. A few wells of this description are, as 
first mentioned, scattered about the extent of fields ; they are all 
very superficial, in fact not more than eight to ten feet at the 
utmost, and carefully protected inside by brickwork. The water 
in these is not employed for culinary purposes in consequence 
of the large amount of saline matter with which it becomes im- 
pregnated from the soil, and indeed, generally speaking, canal 
or river water appears to be preferred even for agricultural use 
to that from wells ; no doubt from the fact of these containing 
less of this combination of nitrate of potass and chloride of 
sodium, which from a superficial examination seem to form the 
particular compound with which the soil is impregnated. 

I must observe that I am still describing what was the state 
of the fields on the 15th of March. On that day I remarked 
that wheat which had evidently been sown during the preceding 
autumn, and had withstood the severity of the winter frost, now 
began to show its green leaves. A few small plots of ground 
thus showed a faint change of colour, but, with this exception, 
the vast expanse of plain was still arid and bare as before. The 
atmosphere already felt balmy and spring-like. A few cirro- 
cumulous clouds appeared in the sky, the amount of vapour in 
the atmosphere had undergone a perceptible increase, and the 

* Precisely similar to the " skedoof " so common in Egypt. 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSTN. 159 

weather is described as being similar to fine spring weather in 
Scotland. On the 16th the recurring warmth had revived a few 
insects, which now, but half recovered from their long winter 
sleep, began to show themselves. 

The first regular burst of vegetation was observed to take 
place on the 18th; on that day a few tender sorts of wild 
plants projected from the earth to a height of not more than 
half an inch, and then, only in damp and sunny places ; and 
elm trees were found to have opened their dark- brown florets, 
although no sign of a leaf was yet visible upon their branches. 
Notwithstanding the almost total want, as yet, of any green 
thing in the fields, there was yet a degree of fascination in 
them which led me almost daily to wander down among them. 
The aspect of the labourers, the groups in which they were 
every here and there collected, the peculiar, but in all cases 
most excellent implements they used, the strange crops they 
were planting or sowing, the exquisite manner in which they 
cleaned, prepared, and rendered smooth the earth before sowing 
in it, the simple yet ingenious means by which the free access 
of water throughout vast fields was provided for, were all sub- 
jects of much interest to observe. All was new to me, and 
therefore calculated to arrest attention ; but what was perhaps a 
source of even greater interest than these, was to watch and note 
the gradual advance of season, and to look for the appearance 
of products, the nature and description of which were as yet to 
->sSne as a sealed book about to be opened. 

It has been already remarked that some birds had at this 
season commenced their migration northward; among others, 
swans had been observed in their flight. Some of these birds 
were soon exposed for sale in the market, and, much to our 
surprise, one was one evening produced upon our mess table all 
trussed and roasted like a gigantic goose. We had never before 
heard of swan being eaten ; on the contrary, we were aware that 
its flesh was among the prohibited articles of food according to 
the Mosaic law.* We remembered, however, that under his 
code of rules as to what the Israelites were directed to eat, drink, 
and avoid, they never could have enjoyed the luxury of jugged 

* Deuteronomy, xiv, 16. 



160 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

hare, pork-sausages, and various other articles of diet which are 
now voted to be by no means bad ; nor did we, therefore, see any 
just cause or impediment why we should not send our plates for 
a helping of roasted swan. We did so ; the meat was voted 
delicious; we had it served up cold on the following day; it 
was, if possible, still more appreciated, and before the birds had 
completed their migration, we were able to enjoy for a second, 
time our treat of the forbidden delicacy. 

On the 20th of the month I had occasion to ride past the little 
plot of ground in which, on the 1st, I had seen wheat in the act 
of being sown. Some idea of the rapidity with which vegetation 
advances was at once given in the circumstance that the young 
crop, during the twenty days that had intervened since the time 
of sowing the seed, had grown to a height sufficient very nearly 
to hide the surface of the soil. 

The want of birds throughout China is often made subject of 
remark. In the particular part of that country in which we are 
now situated, there appear not to be more than a very few species 
that are stationary and resident ; all the others are only occa- 
sional visitors at the change of seasons as they pass from north 
to south, and vice versd. During the winter, not a single 
aquatic bird had been seen except dead in the market, and there 
there was abundance of duck, teal, geese, and, as has just been 
said, at one time of swan. On the 24th of March, however, a small 
gray tern appeared, performing its graceful gyrations over the 
river, as it pursued its search for living food. The variety 
created by the visit of this one specimen was agreeable, for the 
solitude which the absence of the feathered species gives to a land- 
scape can only be fully appreciated by sojourners in China, 
where, probably more than in any other country, this is to be 
observed. 

On the 25th a very large flight of swans passed towards the 
northward. In riding across the fields, I observed that a dark- 
coloured plover, with white tipped wings, had, for the first time, 
made its appearance. It rose as I approached, taking to wing 
while I was still at too great a distance to observe with precision 
its specific markings. Now, for the first time, leaves of grass 
appear on the banks, giving to their hitherto sombre brown 
colour the faintest possible tint of green. 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 161 

By tie 28th the appearance of the country had fairly taken 
on its vernal hue. At this time, after a long country ride, I 
noted how pleasant it was to observe the manner in which the 
young grain and other crops began to send up their green leaves. 
A stray green leaf might be seen bursting open the earth upon 
some bank that faced the south, while the branches of trees, 
with the exceptions already mentioned, showed no sign of leaf. 
On this day, while riding along the banks of the river, I was 
gratified to observe some familiar-looking gray gulls — their 
general aspect and note precisely similar to those of the British 
species — looking for food in the soft mud of the river sides, that 
had been left exposed by the receded tide. An avocet dropped 
down in the midst of these lattoral visitors while I was in the 
act of observing and admiring their graceful movements ; and, 
heedless of my near proximity, it at once commenced its curious 
zigzag manner of hunting, with its beak deeply imbedded in 
mud and slime, for the insects and shell-fish upon which it 
feeds. 

A peculiarity of Chinese birds may be noted in this place as 
well as any where else ; it is, that whereas to the natives of the 
country they are extremely wild, they are said to be com- 
paratively tame when approached by an European. The reason 
of this, as a matter of course, is, that they know how destructive 
of their life is the Chinaman, but they as yet have but very im- 
perfectly learnt how deadly to them is the vicinity of an English 
sportsman. This, however, they will sooner or later discover. 

The sudden transformation in the aspect of the river itself 
that had taken place since the disappearance of the ice was 
matter for wonder. Boats, and a crowded floating population 
had, as it were, sprung into existence ; at the same time, no per- 
ceptible decrease was observable in the crowds that thronged 
the streets of towns and villages. During the depth of winter 
all the junks that had not been overtaken by ice too suddenly 
to permit them to be drawn up from the river, were lodged in 
numbers of extempore docks, made for the purpose, at short 
, intervals along the banks in the immediate vicinity of the towns ; 
these docks being so made that they could be flooded at full 
tide, but left dry as it receded j and an embankment of earth 
between their mouths and the river forming a cheap and efficient 

11 



162 TOPOGRAPHY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

mode of dividing these effectually, and at the same time forming 
a footpath for passengers. 

On the last day of March I had an opportunity of ohserving 
a point of very great interest while riding along near the city. 
I had often been informed that during the advance of the army 
to Pekin last autumn, vineyards teeming with fruit were fre- 
quently passed. I had also been told that throughout the pro- 
vince of Chih-li, the grapes of Tein-tsin were famed for their 
excellence. During winter this delicious fruit had been fre- 
quently served at mess as dessert ; but hitherto, in my rides and 
walks, I had failed to find one single vine, and therefore naturally 
wondered how or where they were cultivated. The mystery was 
now solved. In a small enclosure, the walls of which were of 
millet stacks, although now old, and in several parts broken 
down, a number of people were engaged in disinterring vines ; 
some of the trees had already been completely disinterred, 
except their roots, and now lay spread upon the surface of the 
ground; others were being disinterred from what had looked 
like the round mounds of earth that distinguish some of the 
Budhist graves in this part of China ; it, in fact, became imme- 
diately apparent, that with a view to save the vines from the in- 
tensity of winter, they are carefully coiled up, and being placed 
in an excavation made for the purpose, and so near the roots 
that these may not be disturbed, are then covered over with soil 
to a depth sufficient to protect them from the frost. This being 
the case, therefore, it was now no matter of wonder that no 
vines had been visible during winter. 

On this day the surface of the fields that had lately been 
sown and planted, showed, for the first time, that the young crops 
had advanced to the surface. Young and tender shoots were 
seen bursting the earth — some, as it were, cracking it and 
raising little sods upon their still bent tips — others were carrying 
up the remains of the seed from which they had sprung. The 
flowers of elm trees had now fully opened, presenting themselves 
in dark red bunches as they do in England. 

Immediately in front of the door of my quarters stood a tree, 
in general aspect like an apple. Day after day, for several 
weeks, I had watched it. I had often been told that with the 
occurrence of spring vegetation, leaves and flowers burst into 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 163 

being with such suddenness in this part of China, that I almost 
expected each succeeding morning to find in full blossom and 
foliage what had the previous night been but a bare trunk and 
branches. Each day, however, I watched in vain for this 
sudden transformation. The month of March advanced, and 
yet neither did leaves appear upon it, nor upon any other. The 
fields were not yet richly green with young crops, and grass, 
and, in fact, the aspect of the country as compared with "home," 
was bare, inhospitable, and uninviting. 

With the advent of April, however, a sudden change in the 
progress of vegetation occurred ; the leaf-buds of the tree I 
have just alluded to had opened, showing the fresh green leaf 
still partially curled up, although in the act of bursting. It 
now became apparent that the tree was an apple one, and this 
fact increased the curiosity with which the occurrence of flowers 
was looked for. Some rose bushes of various sorts that had lain 
neglected throughout the winter, were also found on " all fools' 
day " to have thrown out a few small red dots, which we knew 
indicated where shoots would sooner or later extend from. It 
is almost needless to say, that no sooner did this indication of 
vitality on the part of the "briar bush" — for such it was— 
become apparent, than it was taken into most careful nursing ; 
the dead twigs were cut away, and the plant, if heretofore 
neglected, was for the future most carefully looked after. 

As will be seen, by what is to follow, the progress of vege- 
tation was from this date extremely rapid. On the 2nd of this 
month (April), some extremely pretty dwarfed peach trees, of 
what is called " the rose flower variety," were brought round in 
pots for sale. This variety derives its particular name from 
having the petals of the flower multiplied, so as at a little 
distance to resemble a rose. The flowers of different indi- 
viduals were not of the ^same colour ; thus, those of one were 
white ; of another, of that particular shade of pink from which 
the name of " peach blossom" is taken ; but in both, the pro- 
fusion of flowers was so great as almost entirely to conceal the 
apparently old, gnarled, and crooked branches of the plant. 

The manner of producing this old and dwarfed appearance in 
these plants was at once apparent on examination. The first 
part of the process seemed to have been to saw right across a 



164 TOPOGEAPIIY OE TEIN-TSIN. 

peach tree stem of about an inch and a half in diameter; 
leaving the stump about eight or ten inches high from the 
flower-pot in which it was growing. From the upper part of this 
stalk, shoots appeared rapidly to spring, just as oziers do from 
the summit of willow stems, or, as they are called, pollards, that 
in some parts of England give a characteristic aspect to the 
landscape. These young shoots appeared to have been after- 
wards divided in a slanting direction to about half their diameter, 
after which they were bent at right angles at the point of divi- 
sion, and secured in their unnatural position by means of fibres 
of grass. It appeared, however, as if some of the fresh shoots 
that would have been superfluous were cut off; leaving only 
those that in the opinion of the manufacturer were likely to 
become useful in forming some of the .fantastic shapes into 
which the plant was destined to be trained, or ornamental, in 
bearing a load of the characteristic blossoms. Some of the 
more recent branches were so tender as to be readily bent 
without being partially divided; these were trained like the 
others, and secured, like them, by grass fibre ; the effect pro- 
duced being to convey the idea of a miniature tree, which, 
however, was far more prolific in flowers than one of natural 
size would have been. 

On the 3rd, willows were seen with leaves quite unfolded, 
their male catkins hanging pendulous from their branches ; a 
poplar similar to that already noted, although still devoid of 
leaves, bore, suspended from its uppermost branches, at a height 
from the ground of not less than sixty feet, long dark-brown 
catkins, the colour of which contrasted agreeably with the silvery 
white colour of the bark upon the bare stem. The evening breeze 
was cold; the thermometer indicated 51° Pahr., and as these 
pendulous flowers waved backwards and forwards high above 
our heads, they seemed to indicate rather a battling against 
the elements and the season, than that they had- been invited 
into being by a genial climate. It was not until the 9th of 
April that field flowers were observed to have unfolded their 
petals — at this time the lowest point during the night by the 
thermometer was 47°; at 9 a.m. the temperature indicated was 
59°. Walking across some fields, I was agreeably surprised to 
observe the small familiar shepherd's purse, partly in flower, 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 165 

and partly showing its heart-shaped seed-vessels, thus indicating 
that it might have been found in bloom several days earlier had 
it been sought for. As, however, its locality was immediately 
underneath some willow bushes that lined a small water-course, 
extending from one of the wells dug in the open field for pur- 
poses of irrigation, its presence had hitherto escaped me. 
The progress of vegetation in the fields was observed to have 
at this time been wonderful. Some of the winter wheat, as also 
that sown not more than five weeks ago, now waves on the 
fields, as the breeze passes over it. Native radishes and turnips, 
which about the same time had been planted for the purpose 
of yielding seed, are now in flower. Vines lately disinterred 
are making their appearance in the most out-of-the-way and 
unlooked-for places, and extempore trellis work of strips of 
bamboo are being prepared for them. Digging, planting, 
sowing, and irrigating, are all in full operation; thus a walk 
among the fields is really productive of pleasure and gratifica- 
tion to any person who takes an interest in farming operations. 

Having unexpectedly discovered a nursery and greenhouse for 
forcing plants, an inspection of its contents became a source of 
much gratification to me, not only on the present but on future 
occasions, and as I shall hereafter have occasion to recur to 
these, it is only necessary at the present to note a few par- 
ticulars connected with its appearance at this early period of 
the season. 

A large number of shrubs of various kinds had evidently 
been only lately removed to the open air from the underground 
apartment in which they had been preserved throughout the 
long winter. This apartment was, in a great measure, similar 
to those in which cabbages are preserved, and which have been 
already described. Its roof being covered by a layer of straw 
and mud to a depth sufficient to exclude the cold that had 
prevailed. 

Numbers of the plants that were displayed were undergoing 
the process of dwarfing, which differed in no way from that 
already described, except that here the spaces in the branches, 
where the incisions previously mentioned had been made, in 
order to facilitate their being bent, as well as to decrease the 
amount of sap conveyed to them, were filled with the tenacious 



166 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

clayey mud which forms the greater part of the soil in this 
locality. 

The greenhouse was a long building of a tolerably substan- 
tial nature, when we take into consideration the very fragile 
and temporary nature of edifices generally in this part of 
China. Like the house of a very famous Irish gentleman, " all 
of the oulden time," this one was built of " mud and (millet) 
straw," &c. ; like it, also, there was " a hole on top, through 
which the smoke so gracefully did retrate," but in the present 
instance the " hole" was by means of a chimney, and the entire 
building appeared extremely well adapted for its purpose. Its 
front faced the south, but strange as the fact may seem, there 
was not a pane of glass in it. 

As elsewhere mentioned, glass is not used in this part of 
China for the purpose of making windows, as it is with us : 
oiled paper is here almost the universal substitute : of this mate- 
rial, accordingly, secured upon frame-work of wood, the entire 
front of this greenhouse consisted, the presence of oil through- 
out its texture rendering it semitransparent. The interior of 
this building contained stands for plants, which stands were 
extended across the mud floor, and separated from each other, 
as well as from the walls, by passages sufficiently broad to 
permit a person to pass freely along these directions : on each 
range of stands were placed in pots numerous plants of the 
Jasminium sambac, the flowers of which were just about to 
open, and the leaves of which, notwithstanding the faint light 
admitted through the Chinese substitute for glass that formed 
the front, looked fresh and green. An equable temperature was 
maintained within by means of common Chinese stoves ; no 
thermometer was in use whereby to regulate the temperature ; 
which, so far as could be judged by the sensations, seemed to 
be about 75°, the temperature of the same forenoon having 
been 53° Fahr. 

On the north side of the Imperial Canal, and close to its 
bank, a series of fruit and flower gardens occur at short intervals; 
nor are they enclosed by any more substantial wall than what is 
formed by millet stalks erected as a fence : in some of these I 
observed on the present date, namely, 10th of April, Sunday, 
peach trees so thickly covered with their beautiful blossom, as 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 167 

from a distance to appear like so many masses of pink : two other 
trees in the same enclosures were nearly as densely covered by 
pure white flowers ; these, as I afterwards ascertained on more 
close inspection, being cherry trees. Near these gardens, but 
extending at intervals along the canal to the extent of above two 
miles, are a succession of vineyards, yet a month ago not a vine 
was visible here, they were then still imbedded in the earth. On 
the 18th of April I note that now they are all trained upon 
trellis work, and rapidly bursting into leaf. Elm trees and wil- 
lows are in full foliage. In the orchard, peach, pear, apple and 
cherry trees are loaded with blossom ; a few plants of that beau- 
tiful plant, the Dialytra spectabilis, appear in the gard ens ; the 
weather is balmy and springlike. From the garden, near which 
I now stood, an extensive cultivated plain stretched away to 
and beyond the horizon : in many parts of it the growing crops 
were now apparent above ground; in others, labourers were 
busy at work, ploughing or sowing ; the canal itself was literally 
covered with junks and native vessels of all kinds, some sailing 
with wind and tide, others being tracked against both by 
means of ropes secured to the masthead and drawn by the crew* 
who for this purpose walked along a pathway on the bank ; in 
fact, the entire scene was now one of bustle, life, and ani- 
mation. 

A somewhat long ride on 20th April, took me across a wide 
tract of country, extending southward from Tein-tsin, and from 
the Grand Canal : here the fields were far less extensively culti- 
vated than those that extend along from the opposite or left 
bank of that canal ; between the patches that have been brought 
under cultivation are numerous tracts still arid and bare ; alto- 
gether, vegetation here is far behind what it is on the northern 
city, and the apparent infertility of the soil contrasts strongly 
with the richness and genial appearance of the vast extent of 
plain on the opposite side. This infertility of the fields here 
generally, and absolute barrenness of some parts of them, 
became afterwards more fully apparent than they were even at 
this time. Nor was there any great difficulty in finding an 
explanation of the circumstance. The soil to the southward of 
Tein-tsin is deeply impregnated with the saline production to 
which allusion has already been made ; but in some patches to 



168 TOPOGRAPHY OT TEIN-TSIN. 

a far greater degree than in others. In places where the salt 
most abounds, a few shoots of salsola plants make their appear- 
ance here and there ; but around these, when the atmosphere is 
dry, a white efflorescence, like hoar frost, covers the surface of the 
grouud. Along the more extensive parts of the plain, however, 
the soil is less saline, and these have all been cultivated. 

On my way back from the present excursion, I visited a garden 
in the vicinity of one of the principal temples or joss-houses in the 
outskirts of Tein-tsin ; here I found in full bearing, with their 
beautiful clusters of flowers, the blue and the white lilacs that 
form so ornamental and favorite a shrub in England ; these 
looked like old familiar friends, and brought up recollections 
of times and circumstances now long past, but the memory 
of which still clings to me, it may be with some associations 
of romance that have resisted the roughing incidental to a 
somewhat protracted " battling with life." A few pages back I 
mentioned how suddenly the foliage had appeared upon an apple 
tree that grew immediately in front of the quarters which I 
occupied : on the 21st of April I noted that it had become com- 
pletely covered by a mass of beautiful pink and white blossoms, 
and that these had burst from what had on the previous day been 
only buds, to the full formed flower of the apple. 

Henceforward it became a matter of difficulty to keep a note 
of the appearance of plants, so rapid was the succession of 
flowers upon the fields and by the road sides, or irrigation 
water-courses. On the 22nd of the present month, a long ride 
in the afternoon discovered to me various familiar home plants, 
and some no less familiar birds. Suddenly I became aware of a 
bank upon which a nodding violet grew, and dismounting, 
examined carefully the Chinese representative of our English 
favorite of early spring. The present differed in some respects 
from these, having, in fact, nothing but its colour and general 
appearance to indicate its relationship to the beautiful, hairy, 
and sweet-scented species that in early boyhood 1 used to pluck 
in the heather, moors, and on the river banks of dear old 
Scotland. Along the plains, what seemed to be an ononis, or 
restharrow, occurred in patches, and here and there pink and 
white and blue flowers of an astragalus, stood up to a height of 
three or four inches through the carpet of green grass by which 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 169 

the fields were now covered. A small early woodroof, or as- 
perula, not more than an inch or two high, showing its dangling 
yellow anthers at intervals as I passed along. Flights of what 
were ascertained to he protincole ran along the ground, rising 
into mid air as I attempted to near them, and tripping lightly 
along the hanks of the canal were several specimens of the gray 
and white wagtail. It was not, however, only in the field that 
the progress of vegetation was to he traced ; the market was hy 
no means a bad place to ohserve it in. Here, then, on the 23rd, 
were exposed for sale mushrooms of orthodox appearance, and 
as we found for a long time subsequently, of very orthodox 
flavour, at least when nicely cooked, and the "mantle left 
on." 

The heat of the afternoon sun had, by the 24th, become some- 
what oppressive : on this date I have noted in my journal that in 
the fields, the spring plants of the ordinary broad bean project 
a couple of inches above the ground ; French beans are equally 
forward, and peas begin to throw out their tendrils ; maize 
plants are also more than two inches high ; and in other parts 
seeds of this plant were being sown. It will no doubt be 
observed, that the appearance of these plants has been noted by 
me, although no mention is made of the date on which they 
were sown. This must be unavoidable, when it is remembered 
that my visits to the fields were only made at intervals of 
some days, and that a natural desire for variety prevented me 
from proceeding day after day along the same beaten path. 
Peaches had begun to form upon their trees ; a small mul- 
berry tree was rapidly forcing its pendulous fruit, its leaves 
being in full foliage, but apple and pear trees were still 
covered with flowers. Some lily plants had sprung up in 
gardens, melon plants had begun to project from the ground ; 
wheat and beans were sufficiently advanced to wave in the 
breeze as it passed over them ; and as regards trees, willows and 
elms ; these two most common species in this part of China were 
in full bearing of both leaf and flower. Lettuces must have 
made their appearance above ground several days ago, for on 
the 29th a few were brought round for sale : these were still 
small, but made into salad were excellent. In the fields, cucum- 
ber plants were now apparent above ground, as were those 



170 TOPOGKAPITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

of melons, and some of the cereal crops showed signs of 
" shooting." 

On the first day of the " merry month of May," I found a 
small procumbent cruciferous plant, showing a profusion of its 
white petals. It grew in a moist and shady situation, and near 
it were found a dead-nettle or lamium, also in flower, while from 
among the soft grass that in this particular spot grew plen- 
tifully, a sedge shot up its sombre and peculiar head of flowers. 
The fields generally were now covered by crops of different kinds, 
the greater number of which had attained considerable height; 
in some places, and these indeed of great extent, tracts of land 
were as yet bare, the seed for which they were intended not 
having yet been sown ; in others, however, the cereal crops were 
far advanced towards maturity; and on the 7th the fact was 
noted, that some bearded wheat and barley were in grain, 
although the stalks were so stunted as not to be above a foot and 
a half in height : the fields of these crops were those that had 
received the seed between the 1st and 10th of March, so that 
the time that had elapsed from then till now is not more than 
above two months : on the 9th, bean plants in the fields had 
come into flower, and so also had some few patches of white peas 
that occurred here and there, in the immediate vicinity of vil- 
lages. I had afterwards to remark, that this delicious adjunct 
at dinner, although it apparently grows well where sown in this 
part of China, is very scantily cultivated ; and what is equally 
strange, the natives do not appear to raise it in successive crops, 
as those of some parts of India do. Here, however, I may remark 
the difference of t^e periods of the year as compared with India, 
in which field crops such as I have been describing are sown. 
In that country, the heat of the climate would, long before May, 
have parched both beans and peas ; nor is it often that wheat, 
even in the Punjab, remains upon the fields beyond the early 
part of April. There, however, the comparative mildness of the 
winter renders that the season for prosecuting the cultivation of 
this description of crop, which is accordingly called the cold 
weather crop, in contradistinction to millet, rice, melons, &c, 
which form that of the hot and rainy seasons. 

It was evident that the stunted appearance of the crops that 
has already been alluded to, was on the present occasion caused 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 171 

by a delay in the occurrence of rain, which has for some time 
hack been anxiously looked for by the natives ; when, therefore, 
a slight fall took place on 10th of May, there was a general 
thanksgiving to " the dragon " for the mercies thus bestowed. 
The manner of testifying this thanksgiving was undoubtedly 
somewhat noisy and boisterous; but this, no doubt, was in 
accordance with the peculiar tastes of the myth to which they 
were addressed. Bands of people with a kind of drum, a shrill 
instrument not unlike a trumpet, bells, cymbals, and gongs, set 
to work, as hard as ever they were able, by making as much 
noise on these to " chin, chin, joss" for the showers that were 
then falling upon and fertilising the fields. I have, unfor- 
tunately, omitted to note that during the early season nursery 
and garden plants were plentifully brought round the streets for 
sale; some of these were exceedingly pretty, others neither 
pretty nor interesting. The precise dates upon which these 
made their appearance have unluckily not been recorded in my 
notes, but having purchased a considerable number as they grew 
in pots, for the purpose of ornamenting a very unornamental 
residence, these maybe enumerated in this place. Amongst the 
earliest in flower of these were several kinds of rose ; the familiar 
one known in England by the name of the China species, with 
its delicate reddish flowers, was early in bearing ; and although 
certainly it did not throw out fresh blossoms during the ensuing 
season, it did so at irregular intervals, continuing to be an orna- 
ment throughout the whole summer. Next to it in frequency, 
and far excelling it in beauty, was the pale cream-coloured flowers 
of what, according to Mr. Fortune, is becoming familiar in Eng- 
land, under the name of " the seven sisters/' from the manner 
in which that number of flowers grow from each stem. The 
common red geranium, so well known in England, was nearly 
equally common here; so also was jasmine, both white and 
yellow ; lilies, irises, Solomon's seal, and a broad-leaved species 
of sedum, which although not yet in flower, were nevertheless 
plentifully sold ; pomegranate trees, small and large, and densely 
covered with flowers, whose size was curiously enough propor- 
tioned to that of the plant, were abundantly procurable ; so also 
were apple trees in blossom and fruit — oranges, large and small 
— not even excluding that extraordinary monstrosity the five- 



172 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

fingered citron, — all being sold at a price so low as to make us 
wonder how it could remunerate the nursery men who had reared 
them, for the majority are not natives of this neighbourhood, 
and required to be carefully tended during winter in the green- 
houses already described. 

It was somewhat amusing to observe the very heterogeneous 
nature of the plants, which from time to time were in the early 
part of the season brought round for sale ; whether these were 
merely intended for the foreigner, or whether they found a sale 
among the natives themselves, I cannot say; but their bare 
enumeration will give an idea how strangely they were at times 
grouped together. 

Of shrubs, there were in addition to those already mentioned, 
a species of plum, peaches, and oleanders. Two species of honey- 
suckle, one precisely similar to that of our own home woods were 
also brought, and being placed out of doors formed throughout the 
succeeding season an ornament to the door way, as their twining 
shoots extended themselves around the pillars that supported the 
temporary verandah of matting which became necessary during 
the heat of summer, to protect the fronts of our houses from the 
extreme fierceness of the sun. All these plants, with the ex- 
ception of peaches and pomegranates, were in their natural 
state ; these had been more or less dwarfed, or treated by artifi- 
cial means. The shrub, however, upon which the Chinamen 
seem to exert most ingenuity in producing monstrosity and 
deformity, in this part of the country, is the Thuja orientalis. 
This they convert into the likeness of animals and monsters, 
by means of cutting some branches, twisting others, and utterly 
destroying the natural beauty and symmetry of all. In the 
south of China, the privet is the kind of shrub most commonly 
used for similar purposes, but here, it is left to produce its 
branches according to its own pleasure ; being cultivated in pots 
in nurseries, similar to those already mentioned. 

Amongst the earliest plants that were hawked about the streets 
for sale was a peony* of very ornamental kind. So early as March 
we had been puzzled to decide what was the nature of the plant 
whose ranunculous-like leaves covered some fields of consider- 

* Called, in Chinese, " Mow-tan." 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 173 

able size. Soon, however, tlie large beautiful flowers made their 
appearance; plants were then taken up and placed in flower- 
pots ; for the Chinese seem to like moving flowers in this manner, 
after they have fairly flowered. These peonies were all very 
" double/' but of varying degrees of pink and red colour ; they 
have a very ornamental appearance, and are purchased partly with 
the object of being arranged in halls and about doors, and partly 
for the purpose of the flowers being taken to ornament the hair 
of girls and women. 

Small vines were, as may readily be supposed very great 
favorites among purchasers of plants; they accordingly met 
with a ready sale. 

Among the plants which are esteemed in consequence of the 
beauty of their flowers, were carnations and sweet williams; holy- 
hock and marsh mallow ; wild datura, or the stramonium plant, 
was also brought round for sale ; sometimes in the same basket 
with small plants of French beans, a wild species of solanum 
{nigra), and melon plants. This mixture, however, strange as 
it was, did not include all the forms of plants that were hawked 
upon the streets, placed in pots as if they had been objects of 
great rarity and beauty. Among plants of this latter descrip- 
tion was a wild kind of polygonum, which grows in marshy 
places along the river sides, to the height of five and six feet ; 
and which is on account of its numerous drooping spikes of pink 
florets, decidedly the most ornamental of the present class. The 
others of less pretence included some species of artemesia, for 
several kinds grow wild in the fields, and although devoid of 
beauty possess more or less sweet smell, varying in intensity 
from that of the wild tansy at home to that of the more favorite 
" southern wood," so familiar to all who have visited the high- 
lands of Scotland, where it is an especial favorite. 

Another old Highland favorite, which here also found a place 
in pots, and was sold upon the streets was mint. Horehound was 
also occasionally met with, although much more rarely, but with 
these it was not unusual to see carefully placed in earth and set- 
tled in a flower pot, a common plant of beet. Nor was this all ; 
for in others, chalots were artistically arranged, and offered for 
sale, as if they had been most precious bulbs, and the scent from 
their fresh green leaves an odour of the most fascinating kind. 



174 TOPOGKAPHY Or TEIN-TSIN. 

Flowers, vegetables, fruit, and crops in general, had, after fairly- 
appearing, continued to advance favorably towards maturity, 
until all met with a sudden check on the 13th of May. The 
season so far had been perhaps more than usually dry, yet there 
were good prospects of a fair return of farm products. On that 
day, however, occurred an electric storm, which is described in 
its appropriate place ; on the following day many leaves, and not 
a few of the more tender parts of plants were found curled up 
and of a blighted appearance, as the result of this storm ; wheat 
generally was now in ear; not only the bearded kinds, but also 
the more ordinary descriptions, but the straw was in all instances 
short and stunted; the heads of grain were small, and the 
general aspect of the whole very different from the luxuriant 
richness of a field in England covered with the same description 
of crop. 

The first fruit of the season that was exposed for sale was 
cherries, very small and very insipid. In colour they were of a 
fresh pinkish red, similar to those of home, but in no one other 
respect did any similarity exist between them and those of our 
own country ; neither were they very abundant in the market ; a 
few only were exposed for sale at the stalls, and, except by 
children, they did not seem to be readily purchased. 

Early in the present month mushrooms had, as already men- 
tioned, been brought into market, and had for some days formed 
an agreeable adjunct daily to our dinner. On the 26th, French 
beans were produced at table, thus showing the extreme rapidity 
with which this description of vegetable becomes matured in this 
vicinity. A ride across the fields on the following day enabled 
me to see the farmers engaged in clearing and raising the earth 
about the various kinds of onion, chalot, and garlic, which, if we 
were to judge from the immense tract of country that was now 
green with them, formed one of the principal articles of food of 
j;he natives. 

Beans were plentifully in flower, wheat, as already mentioned, 
was fully in ear; millet was in some places being sown; in 
others, the young plants of it were two and three inches high ; 
cucumber plants and melons were trained upon standing fences 
composed of millet stalks so arranged as to form with each other 
an open network; and in other places, fences or open trellis 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 175 

/ work of similar kind was giving support to the twisting stem of 
what we subsequently ascertained to he a hairy description of 
what is called the " sweet potato." These supports are made 
with great neatness, and in as far as the cultivation of. cucumbers 
is concerned, might well furnish a hint, by no means unworthy 
of being taken in England. 

On other portions of the fields gourds and pumpkins of various 
kinds were rapidly advancing. A broad-leaved species of the 
egg plant or brinjall covered several fields of considerable 
extent ; everywhere the ground was in process of irrigation ; the 
people employed in this kind of labour working most indus- 
triously throughout the whole day, nor ceasing even after a 
heavy fall of rain, except till the succeeding morning. 

For the first time this season cucumbers were served up at 
dinner ; they were small, and, as compared to those of England, 
or even of India, very inferior in quality ; the Chinese appa- 
rently studying how they can produce quantity rather than 
quality in both fruit and vegetables. 

I have casually mentioned the fact of peonies having in early 
spring been cultivated in fields. On the 28th of May I had an 
illustration of how rapidly one crop is in some instances made 
to succeed another here. Walking along the fields at the out- 
skirts of the city, I. passed one of these that had been under 
cultivation with this exceedingly ornamental crop. Now, how- 
ever, it was bare, and ready prepared to receive some other 
description of seed. 

The month of June set in mild and agreeable. On the 2nd 
the temperature was noted as having at its lowest been 61°, 
and at 9 a.m. 68° ; a slight shower of rain had fallen during the 
previous night ; there was just enough of humidity in the atmo- 
sphere to render it agreeable, and a gentle breeze prevailed from 
the south. So pleasant was the temperature, that in company 
with some others I was able to enjoy a walk of not less than 
six miles, and I mention the fact in order to show that not- 
withstanding the intense heat which, as we shall see presently, 
soon afterwards prevailed, the temperature up to the present 
time was, as compared with that of India, comparatively mild. 

It was not until now that I could note the circumstance of 
the plain which stretches away to the south and west of Teio- 



176 TOPOGRAPHY OF TEIN-TSE5T. 

tsin, having become almost entirely green. On those parts of 
it that had been cultivated;, the growing crops had completely 
hidden the surface of the ground; but there were numerous 
tracts, apparently too arid for cultivation, and these had retained 
till late in the season, the same brown, dry, bare appearance that 
throughout the long winter had given them their dreary inhos- 
pitable look. Some few bare patches there were still, and these 
white on the surface with saline efflorescence, with a few solitary 
looking plants of Chenopodium, and salsola growing from them ; 
the greater part, however, was now covered by a soft green 
carpet of growing grass and sedges, and the country generally 
had at last assumed its summer aspect. 

Barley had by the 3rd of June begun to turn yellow in the 
ear ; cumin, a plant which seems to be used tolerably extensively 
in Chinese cookery, was seen growing in patches. In some 
places fennel was cultivated in beds ; the plants being now 
several feet in height, and rapidly progressing towards the 
development of flowers. Celery, although not more than three 
or four inches in height, covered parts of the fields to a con- 
siderable extent in the vicinity of villages. The small plants of 
this vegetable were much used in native cookery, as well as in 
that for foreigners. The growers of it, however, seemed to have 
no idea of the art of bleaching it, nor of cultivating it so as to 
increase its size and flavour, as is done in England. In other 
patches of the fields, young carrot plants were seen growing 
plentifully and luxuriantly; yet, when we afterwards had an 
opportunity of tasting them at table, they were found to be very 
inferior to what we had been accustomed to at home ; lettuces, 
however, which also were now plentifully grown in the fields, 
although when brought to table and mixed with the necessary 
sauces, made most excellent salad, were, in appearance, as they 
were seen growing, very inferior to British ones. 

It will be observed from the hasty sketch now being given of 
the various kinds of crops in cultivation near Tein-tsin, that 
they present a strange mixture of garden and farm ones, as met 
with at home ; while among them are others that flourish prin- 
cipally in tropical countries, as, for instance, millet. There is, 
however, no distinction made here, or scarcely any, between 
gardening operations and those that are more properly considered 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 177 

to belong to the farm ; thus, the plough, although used in the 
more extensive fields in which wheat, barley, and millet of its 
different kinds are sown, is not employed in tilling land intended 
for the cultivation of the more succulent description of crops 
already mentioned. The hand-hoe, and small spade, are the 
implements chiefly used in the latter case ; so that, as already 
observed, a great part of the farming operations here are in 
reality what with us are restricted to the garden. 

It will also be observed that in offering my remarks upon the 
successive vegetables that appear, I have taken opportunity to 
compare their qualities with those of similar productions met 
with at home ; and it will, I trust, be tolerably apparent that in 
every case the corresponding products of England have gained 
by the comparison. In this I have had an object; it was to 
convey as correctly as I am able, the impressions made upon 
me at the time, and in so doing to indicate some of the respects 
in which Chinese garden and field produce fall far below those 
of our own fair land. 

There is a peculiar tendency among the great majority of 
men who visit foreign countries to lavish unqualified praise 
upon not only the products of these, but upon the people, their 
customs, language, and institutions, to the disparagement of all 
that they had ever seen on their own native soil. 

Accounts that had been given of this part of China were, for 
the most part, all written in this strain; the climate was 
described as exquisite ; the soil as one of the most fertile upon 
the face of the earth, and both vegetables and fruit so exquisite 
and luscious as to excel anything to be met with at home. Per- 
sonal experience has shown me that in every one of these 
respects the advantages of this neighbourhood have been alto- 
gether overrated in the descriptions of them published, and that 
among the residents here the entire province is looked upon as 
the most unproductive in China. 

In the orchards apricots and peaches had partially formed on 
the trees. Among the familiar plants in nurseries, were holly- 
hock and hibiscus in flower, and numerous pomegranates in full 
bearing of their peculiar bright red flowers. Others, however, 
presented blossoms of a very pale colour ; and I may here men* 
tion the circumstance that, much later in the season, when the 

12 



178 TOPOGEAPHPY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

subacid, refreshing fruits of the shrubs were exposed for sale, the 
colour of the two different varieties was as distinct as it was now 
found to be in the flower — the one dark red, the other of a pale 
yellow, approaching straw colour. 

In the gardeus the Indian tube rose was cultivated in plots. 
Some beds were variegated with yellow and red roses, such as 
have been already mentioned as being sold along the streets ; 
and others were yellow with marigold, precisely similar to 
the spines used by the Hindoos as offerings to " Gunga Gee " 
when performing simultaneously their ablutions and devotions 
in the most filthy waters of that sacred stream. 

Although at this time fruit had not arrived at maturity in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Tein-tsin, the appearance of a 
quantity of ripe apricots in the market on the 3rd of June 
showed clearly that there were at no great distance some 
orchards in which the trees were considerably in advance of 
those nearer that city. These apricots were stringy, and not 
particularly juicy ; yet, as we had hitherto been restricted at 
dinner to pears, apples, a few grapes occasionally, chestnuts, 
throughout a great part of winter, and walnuts almost con- 
tinuously, the new apricots were appreciated, perhaps, fully 
more than their intrinsic qualities merited. 

Balsam plants, not more than four and six inches high, and 
covered with single flowers, were on the 5th of June sold in 
great abundance upon the streets, and at so cheap a rate, that 
we foreigners purchased a number at the rate of two shillings 
per hundred. I had afterwards many opportunities of seeing 
how they were cultivated in gardens. They were reared in beds, 
where the seed had been placed in the earth at intervals of 
about six inches, so that the young plants were afterwards 
easily removed with a sufficient quantity of soil around the 
roots to enable them to grow freely when planted. 

The manner in which this and other kinds of fragile plants 
were removed from the soil deserves to be noticed. In conse- 
quence of the amount of tenacious clay with which the mould 
here is mixed, the surface of the ground rapidly becomes dry, 
rendering it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to remove 
one of the more delicate descriptions of plants therefrom with- 
out severely injuring it. To avoid this, the gardener turns upon 



TOPOGRAPHY OF TEIN-TSIN. 179 

the bed, from which it his intention to pluck up hy the roots 
or remove a flower or vegetable, one of the small water-courses 
which, as already mentioned, intersect, at short intervals and 
in almost every direction, whatever gardens or fields are under 
cultivation. The water is permitted freely to flow upon the 
bed, it being raised for the purpose, either from well or river, 
according to circumstances ; the surface ground speedily becomes 
so wet as to become a perfect puddle, and while in this state, 
the field labourers or gardeners remove readily by the hand 
such plants as they wish ; carefully pressing the mud around 
their roots while in the act of raising them. 

By the 7th of June, the temperature had reached a minimum 
of 69°, at 9 a.m. it stood at 82°, and during the day attained a 
height of 98° Fahr., the atmosphere containing only thirty-five 
per cent, of aqueous vapour. Hitherto we have found that 
vegetables have made their appearance gradually ; now, however, 
we were to have a complete influx of them. The advance of heat 
was rapid, so also was that of vegetation ; so much so, that on 
the 9th of June, I had noted in my journal that fields of wheat 
had become so yellow as to indicate that the crops were ready 
to be cut down ; cucumbers, melons of different kinds, French 
beans, kidney beans, peas, celery, lettuces, and country 
cabbage, the leaves of which taste like turnips, were found 
abundantly in the market. Millet was not more than six inches 
high, and vegetable marrow formed one of our commonest and, 
at the same time, our most favorite vegetables at table. 

A longer than usual ride on the 1 2th of June brought myself 
and companions along the border of a field on which the crop 
was, were we to believe some of the famous advertisements of 
this day, the Revalenta Arabica, that plant which proved so 
inestimable a solace to many an old lady of either sex, and so 
large a source of profit to what in mercantile phraseology is 
termed " a. certain party." The crop that covered this field was 
the Ervum lejts, or, as it is better known in India, where this 
kind of seed most abundantly grows, " massoordhal ;" and very 
sweet meat indeed does it make, precisely similar to what has, 
during many years, been familiarly known in Scotland under the 
name of " Glasgow brose meal." 

Tamarisks of large size and in full flower were brought round 



180 topographs: op tein-tsin. 

for sale on the 15th of June ; and on this date both carnations 
and tube roses were in full bearing. The former plant occurs 
occasionally on the waste pieces of the plain, which, as already 
mentioned, extends southward from the Tein-tsin,'a stunted- 
looking individual, shooting up its head here and there from 
among the grass. Three days afterwards, the large double lark- 
spur was exposed for sale, and really formed an exceedingly 
handsome and ornamental plant. 

On the 20th, barley was being plucked up by the roots as 
ripe ; for here the sickle was not used for this kind of grain. 
The weather had attained a heat quite equal to that of India ; the 
natives, suiting the amount of their clothing to the temperature 
now, were as slightly clad, and more so than those of that country 
during the corresponding season. In the streets, the people 
were in general naked to the waist ; some of the coolies wore a 
shade of white cloth round the head, securing it by twisting 
their tails around it ; the better classes, however, wore nothing 
at all upon the head, merely shading themselves from the inten- 
sity of the heat by holding up the fan between their faces and 
the sun as they walked along. 

It was a source of amazement to all how they escaped sun- 
strokes ; the front part of their heads being clean shaven, the 
powerful midday rays struck upon them directly, but yet no 
evil effects seemed to arise. The contrast between the Chinese 
in this respect and our Seikh troops stationed here was remark- 
able, and not a little absurd ; the one, as just remarked, wore 
no head-covering at all ; the others, carried, twisted around 
their heads, many yards of cloth, as a turban or " puggery." 

In the fields, away from towns and villages, the labourers 
sometimes dispensed entirely with clothing. It was a novel 
sight to see workmen, in a state of nudity, manfully using the 
hoe ; nor was it only in the fields that garments were thus 
dispensed with. Boatmen, whether on the river or canals, were 
by no means seldom seen naked as when born, at their ordinary 
work, nor did they seem to heed how thickly crowded was the 
neighbourhood in which they were, nor who or of what sex 
were the passers by. Never before had I seen so utter a want 
of modesty as I now observed among the Chinese men, for the 
other sex is here remarkable for their modesty. 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 181 

Large quantities of nool kool were now in a very advanced 
state of maturity. The peculiar tuber of these had attained a 
tolerable size, and was fit to be served up at table. In riding 
upwards along the left banks of the Peiho river, I was some- 
what surprised to pass a field in which a few plants of potatoes 
were being raised. This vegetable does not appear to be in 
regular cultivation in this part of China, although it evidently 
is so towards Mongolia and Thibet. Probably, therefore, those 
few plants are the result of an experiment now in process of 
being made with a view of introducing it here. 

The bean crops were fully ripe, and on the 27th of June I 
note that they were being cut down. Barley had for the most 
part been plucked up, and was now being beaten upon " thrash- 
ing-floors" prepared for the purpose, not far from where the 
crops had stood. 

These thrashing-floors are, in some respects, like those we 
read of in Scripture j they consist of merely a space of ground 
set apart for the purpose, the surface of it being made smooth 
by means of beating and plastering with soft clay, which thus 
soon forms a crust upon the surface. The grain crops are here 
deprived of their seed by having a stone roller, about two feet 
and a half in length, ten inches in diameter at one extremity, 
and a little less at the other, moved round and round the floor, 
upon which the crop is spread. Sometimes the stone is pushed 
before a man, who for this purpose uses his feet, as we often 
see at home when a person adopts a similar method of rolling a 
cask before him. On other occasions, a mule, or a donkey, or 
a half-starved bullock, is yoked to this roller, and made thus to 
" tread-out" the barley. Unfortunately for these animals, the 
Chinese venerate Confucius, and not Moses ; the consequence 
is, that whether the beast of burthen employed upon the thrashing- 
floors be an ox or an ass, he is always most carefully muzzled ; 
a kind of flail is sometimes, although not often, used for 
thrashing corn, but the roller is much more often the only 
implement by which this is effected. 

Melons, vegetable marrows, and various other forms of 
Cucurbitaceae are now exposed for sale, a large globular form of 
brinjall or egg-plant, much larger than the common species of 
India, is also abundantly in the market, and common at table. 



182 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

The plant which yields it is in itself ornamental as it grows in 
the fields; being not less than three to four feet in height, 
with large cordate leaves; the flowers also large, and even 
showy ; the globes of fruit, which are not less than six inches in 
diameter, and of a dark violet, glossy hue, contrasting well with 
the dark green of the leaves from under which they hang 
pendant. Indian corn is sufficiently advanced to give us the 
opportunity of having the heads of soft green grain served up 
at table, being first washed, and then well seasoned with butter, 
salt, and pepper. These are general favorites wherever this 
crop is cultivated, and were extensively sold in the streets, 
where they underwent the process of washing, in the cooking- 
places that in Tein-tsin occupy every corner, and every recess 
sufficiently large to hold one. 

Apples, not certainly quite ripe, yet very nearly so, were 
served up as clessert on the 28th of June. Grapes of last year, 
and those of the present, were also placed side by side, the 
latter were not fully ripe, but sufficiently so to be eatable. As I 
shall hereafter have occasion to describe the method of pre- 
serving fruit which the natives here adopt, I will now only 
remark, that here on this occasion the fruit of the past year 
and that of the present formed dessert together. 

On the 3rd of July, I had occasion to observe that all the 
fields that had been sown with wheat and barley were bare, 
these crops having been removed. Indian corn (maize) was now 
three feet high, and common millet not less than two. In some 
places, extensive fields were green with melons, cucumbers, and 
pumpkins. Trellis work, covered with the twining stems of a 
species of dioscorea or yam, such as has been already mentioned, 
interrupted the evenness of the fields at long intervals ; having 
the appearance when observed from a distance of so many 
hurdles erected preparatory to a horse-race; vines were 
now luxuriantly green, completely concealing by their rich 
foliage the framework of bamboos and branches upon which they 
were trained. 

The temperature of the air attained its maximum between 
the 17th and 24th of this month. During these days the ther- 
mometer indicated during the day 108° Fahr., and the mean 
temperature of the whole was 96°. Alarming mortality oc- 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 183 

curred among our men ; and so great a degree of exhaustion was 
produced by the intense heat at this time, that it was a matter 
of the greatest difficulty to rouse ourselves to the exertions that 
were absolutely necessary. Fortunately for us this state of 
affairs did not continue long. On the 24th clouds arose, a 
storm of wind and rain set in, and thenceforward the tempera- 
ture began to moderate. 

August commenced very agreeably, so much so that an after- 
noon ride of more than seven miles was very enjoyable. The 
minimum of the thermometer is recorded as having been 62°, 
at 9 a.m. 77° ; the degree of humidity in the atmosphere was 
71°, the sky over-cast, cloudy, and threatening rain, a pleasant 
breeze blowing from west by north. It will thus be seen that 
notwithstanding the severity of the climate to which we had 
been exposed not more than a few days ago, we are now in the 
enjoyment of one that is not only bearable, but agreeable. The 
rapidity and the extent of climatorial changes are here very 
remarkable. It is this peculiarity of the climate that enables us 
to exist throughout the summer ; for were the great severity of 
the heat such as we have lately had to continue throughout two 
or three weeks, it is not saying too much to assert that in that 
time our numbers would have been literally more than decim- 
ated by disease. These remarks, however, are only incidentally 
introduced here; my present object is to convey to my readers 
an impression of what is the appearance of the cultivated fields 
in this part of China, and what the nature of the crops that are 
there produced ; yet the latter, although no doubt suited to the 
soil, are modified to a great degree by the climate ; the remarks 
I have offered in regard to the latter, are, therefore, not inappro- 
priate to the subject more especially in hand. 

On the 1st of August I came upon the first field of the 
cotton plant that I have seen in this part of China. The field 
was by no means extensive, nor was the crop upon it luxuriant. 
The plants were however covered with a plentiful crop of flowers 
of a yellow colour, the mouth of the corolla bordered by a streak 
of orange colour, thus giving to it an extremely attractive ap- 
pearance. In an emergency such as unhappily now exists, it is 
matter of great importance to have in view places where cotton 



184 TOPOGRAPHY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

may be cultivated. Here, therefore, is one, where it might doubt- 
less be raised in considerable quantities. 

In one inclosure by which we rode along, tamarisks grew so 
thickly that we naturally thought they must have been cul- 
tivated for some particular purpose, although, if this was the 
case, we were unable to ascertain what the precise purpose was 
for which so unusual a crop was being raised. The whole of 
these, tall and short, were in full flower, the pink spikes con- 
trasting beautifully with the bright green of the leaves of 
elegant shrubs. In another enclosure, several trees of the 
jujube or zizyphus were seen growing, their branches bearing 
an ample crop of still immature fruit. Millet covered immense 
tracts of field, and was now rapidly coming into flower. It is 
evident that this description of grain forms the staple article of 
food in this part of China, yet, in consequence no doubt of the 
comparative dryness of the soil here, the plant grows less 
luxuriantly than I have seen it grow in India. 

For some time I had been of opinion that sugar-cane grew 
either about Tein-tsin, or at a very small distance from it ; 
pieces of what looked like the stem of it were exposed for sale, 
and eagerly masticated by both boys and grown persons, pre- 
cisely as is done in India. On further knowledge, however, it 
turned out not to be sugar cane, but the stem of the growing 
millet, which indeed contains so large a proportion of sugar in 
its composition, that if I mistake not, the manufacture of this 
from it has been attempted in Europe. 

The absence of rice fields deserves to be mentioned. This 
description of grain, although extensively employed as food by 
the Chinese throughout almost all parts of the empire, is not 
cultivated in this neighbourhood, the soil probably not being 
sufficiently rich for it, and irrigation not sufficiently extensive. 
The greater part of what is consumed in the province of Pecheli 
is brought up by canals from the valley of the Yangtse, and, as 
elsewhere more particularly described, large public granaries for 
its reception and preservation occur on the banks of the Peiho at a 
distance of seven miles from the north-west end of Tein-tsin. Fruit 
had by the beginning of August become plentiful in the market. 
Melons of different kinds were extensively sold upon the streets. 



TOPOGEAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 185 

Apples of several descriptions, peaches, plums, greengages, and 
grapes were now procurable in any quantity. 

We had served up to us at table a description of dessert 
that, until now, was quite new to us ; this was the peculiar 
shaped fruit of the nelumbium or great water lily, the general 
shape of which is very like that of the perforated head of the 
spout of a vessel used for watering plants. The nuts on being 
extracted and skinned have a flavour not by any means unlike 
that of filberts, and are evidently held in great esteem by the 
natives, who, during those months in which vegetation is dormant, 
seem to relish the roots of the same plant as much as they now 
do its seeds. 

By the middle of August, the millet crop had attained a height 
of five feet and upwards ; in some places crops of melons and of 
Indian corn of an early kind had been removed, the ground 
being in course of preparation for one of some other kind. 
Several heavy showers of rain now occurred, and a sensible 
moderation of temperature took place. 

A break now takes place in my notes relative to the fields at Tein- 
tsin for a short time. My health having suffered considerably, 
I was under the necessity of taking a short trip by sea, which 
will probably be elsewhere alluded to. It was not, therefore, 
until the 7th of September that I renewed my walks and rides 
among the fields in the neighbourhood of that place. When I 
did so, I had the pleasure of accompanying Mr. Fortune, one of 
the most accomplished botanists, and, as regards the flora of 
China, the greatest authority of the day. I had unfortunately 
omitted to bring with me such books as would have enabled me 
to ascertain the names of plants with which I had been previously 
unacquainted, not having expected to have been stationed in 
this part of China ; I was accordingly now dependent upon Mr. 
Fortune for the names of several of those that are about to be 
mentioned. 

Having on the present occasion visited several of the nurseries 
already mentioned, Mr. Fortune found himself at once revelling 
among old and familiar acquaintances, regarding the habits, 
native quality, products, and relative value of which he favoured 
me with a running commentary as he passed on from plant to 
plant, astonishing the native gardeners by the readiness with 



186 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

which he mentioned each shrub and flower by their several 
Chinese names. Here, as already mentioned, we found growing 
and in flower, the Jasminium sambac and the Olea fragrans, 
these being, as previously stated, two of the plants whose flower 
buds are employed to give their peculiar odour to certain kinds 
of scented tea ; they are also employed extensively for orna- 
menting the hair of ladies, and for scenting the apartments of 
the wealthy during the winter, the flower buds being for this 
purpose collected in considerable numbers, and placed in an 
open saucer upon the table. Mr. Fortune mentioned that the 
flowers of a third plant, namely, the Chloranthus, are also used 
extensively in the preparation of scented teas, but no specimen 
of it was found in the nurseries visited by us on the present 
occasion. Growing wild and evidently uncared for, along the 
borders of these nurseries, and close to the millet straw fences 
by which they were surrounded, the tomato plant, with small, 
stunted fruit upon it, was observed, struggling as it were for 
life among what were evidently looked upon as other weeds; 
near it, and evidently as much neglected, we also came upon a 
plant of phyzalis or Cape gooseberry. Its fruit was of a more 
decidedly orange colour than that met with in India. On some 
future occasions, I came upon more of the same plant, but its 
fruit is evidently not esteemed by the Chinese, notwithstanding 
the delicious, subacid flavour it possesses. 

Begonias were rapidly coming into flower, and a few speci- 
mens had actually opened, reminding me of several species of 
the same genus that shoot out their long and beautiful flower 
stalks from the crevices of schist and shale rocks, wet with 
percolating water from the overlying soil in and around the 
Himalayan stations of Simla. Sterculias, Bignonia, and some 
individuals of Magnolia were also met with in these nurseries, 
although not in large numbers. 

One description of tree, for the name of which I am indebted 
to Mr. Fortune, bore upon it the peculiar tomato-like fruit which 
in its fresh state is esteemed a great delicacy at Hong Kong ; 
and in this part of China was seen during last winter exposed for 
sale in a carefully preserved state, looking at first sight by no 
means unlike Normandy pippins. This was the Dyospyrus haki, 
the fruit of which is known by the name of " pit simmon." 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 187 

The manner of grafting trees had been already observed by 
me in this nursery. The operation as practised here is of the 
most extremely simple nature. The stem that is destined to 
receive the graft is sawn across, on one side a portion of the 
bark and even some extent of the wood is cut off in a slanting 
direction. The extremity of the branch about to be grafted is 
similarly prepared ; the flat surfaces are brought together, some 
mud, perhaps secured by a piece of dirty rag or a little grass, is 
applied, the whole secured by a string ; and thus the process is 
complete. It does not appear, however, that the Chinese have 
even yet discovered the more elegant art of " budding." One 
curiosity in the way of grafting deserves to be mentioned. In 
this nursery I saw this operation successfully executed between 
a cypress and a juniper ; two branches while still growing, and 
without having been lopped off from their respective stems, had 
been bared at the side, the two even surfaces were then brought 
together, and secured in the manner already mentioned. Union 
had taken place, and the two kinds of shrub grew fresh and 
green from the point at which they were united. 

But the plant which Mr. Fortune seemed to prize most highly 
was one of the genus " Forsythia." He had already introduced 
into England at least one species of it, and now he came upon 
one which he was inclined to think had not hitherto been de- 
scribed. Strange, however, as it may seem, the shrubs that were 
mostly valued had all been brought from the south of China. 
A flower, like a prophet, or like many a man of more ordinary 
stamp than a prophet, although still superior to the ordinary 
run, has no honour' in his or its own country. 

These shrubs, somewhat numerous and various as they are, are 
by no means all that we now had an opportunity of examining. 
Fig trees of considerable size grew in pots ; there was no fruit 
upon them, nor even at a somewhat earlier period of the season, 
when a few figs appeared exposed for sale in the market, did 
they seem to be of more than the most ordinary quality; we 
are, therefore, left to presume that this particular kind of fruit 
is but little esteemed, and consequently little cultivated here. 

Not only in these nurseries, but in some of the enclosures 
around temples, other ornamental shrubs besides those men- 
tioned were found growing more or less abundantly ; thus, that 



188 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

extremely ornamental one, the largestrsemia is here a very 
great favorite, although, perhaps, not quite so much cultivated 
as in India; hydrangeas are also evident favorites in this 
part of China. Vitex forms a common genus here. Convolvuli 
and japonicas ornament the fences with their elegant flowers ; 
the Lawsonia or mendhee of India gives out its delicious fragrance 
to the evening air as in India. Oleanders are by no means 
uncommon; and occasionally, while passing through the neigh- 
bouring villages I have seen a sirrus, and what appeared to be 
an acacia of some kind, although being without flowers, it was 
not possible to identify even its genus. Camelias, the flower 
buds of which were now half mature, were evidently looked 
upon as perfect treasures by their possessors ; so were a few 
azaleas which we met with; nor must I omit to mention one 
solitary plant of " boxwood " that we came upon, carefully 
tended in a nursery. 

By this period of the year, patches of buckwheat, that 
occurred at long intervals near some of the native villages 
situated upwards of four mile3 from Tien-tsin, were in full 
flower ; the plant was not eighteen inches in height ; the white 
flowers of it covered completely the plot of ground upon which 
it grew, concealing the yellowish-green leaves of the plant. 
Other fields where white with flowers of shalots of different 
varieties ; the latter giving to the places covered with this de- 
scription of crop a very beautiful appearance, although in this 
instance it was decidedly distance that lent enchantment. 
Nearer approach enabled the pungent odour of the garlic and 
onion, in which the Chinese so much delight, to make an ex- 
tremely unpleasant impression upon our olfactories. 

In the more immediate neighbourhood of the river and canals, 
immense tracts of land had been, and still were, covered with 
the jute plant or corchorus. This is a member of the mallow 
natural order ; grows to a height of ten feet and upwards when 
cultivated and well supplied with water by means of irrigation; 
otherwise it remains not more than a foot or so in height, and 
every way stunted in appearance. 

To obtain the bark, from which the fibre is taken, the plant 
is steeped in water, generally in canals or in pools prepared for 
the purpose. After a little time, the skin is as readily run off 



TOPOGBAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 189 

as is that of osiers, which undergo a similar process in England 
previous to being sent to the basket-maker. The jute in its 
rough state being thus removed from the stem, it is packed up 
for sale ; the stems being carefully dried, and then put up in 
large bundles to be converted ultimately into firewood. Indeed, 
were it not for this material, and the stalks of millet from which 
the grain has been removed, it is difficult to conceive what 
would become of the natives for fire during the long cold days 
and nights of their dreary winter. Coals that are obtained from 
near Pekin are not only very inferior in quality, but so expensive 
that comparatively few natives could afford to use them. There 
are few bullocks in this part of China, and scarcely any cows 
at all, consequently the description of fuel to which M. Hue gives 
the name of argols, is not obtainable ; in fact, were it not for 
the materials just stated, the inhabitants would be left without 
fires. 

It is well known that the sauce called soy is a product of 
Chinese manufacture. Some very odd ideas, however, are 
entertained in respect to the constituents of it ; indeed, so im- 
plicit a belief exists among many persons in England that cock- 
roaches form a chief ingredient in it, that perhaps this circum- 
stance forms one reason why it is by no means popular at table. 
It is not made altogether of cockroaches, however, although 
possibly an occasional stray insect of this description may get 
into the vats and jars during the process of manufacture, as 
flies, beetles, or even more objectionable creatures than these do 
into vats in England. Soy is a product of the soy bean, which 
is a species of dolichos, and is somewhat plentifully cultivabed 
hereabout ; its short, rough, and hairy pods, and phaseolus-like 
leaves at once indicating the plant. 

An occasional field of sesamum is met with also. This de- 
scription of crop is now for the most part in seed ; some of the 
digitalis-like flowers of it still remain, reminding me of the 
same plant, which is extensively cultivated in India, and for the 
same purpose that it is here, namely, for the fine oil which it 
yields. This is much used in Chinese as in Indian cookery; 
and my readers will, no doubt, remember that the plant is said 
to have been cultivated for the same purpose in the days of the 
patriarchs. 



190 TOPOGUAPHY OP TEIff-TSIN. 

On the 9th of September I observed for the first time a few 
plants of tobacco in flower. These were cultivated in gardens, 
but apparently for no other use than mere ornament, as their 
number was very inconsiderable. We may, indeed, presume 
that the soil here is too dry for this particular kind of 
"weed." 

It may seem strange that in a place where so much opium is 
used, as is the case in this part of China, no poppies seem to 
be cultivated. No doubt the soil is unsuited to them ; yet not 
only does the opium poppy grow in some parts of China, as, for 
instance, in the Shansi province, and near the higher parts of 
the Yang-tse ; but opium is now, as already mentioned, coming 
to be manufactured in China to an extent that is calculated to 
interfere very seriously with the Indian market. 

On the present occasion Mr. Fortune pointed out to me one 
of the most common trees that grow in this neighbourhood, as 
being the Sophora japonica, from which is obtained the supposed 
" green indigo," that was some years ago believed to have been 
discovered. The tree in question belongs to the leguminosse. 
It varies from twenty to twenty-five or thirty feet in height ; 
its branches are spreading, but in one variety droop elegantly 
from a common centre, after the manner of the trees to which 
the appellation of " weeping " is usually added. According to 
my talented companion, although this tree does not in itself 
yield a green dye, its flower-buds have this peculiarity, that when 
dried, and afterwards infused in water, a cloth that had previously 
been coloured blue by indigo acquires, on being macerated in 
the liquid, a beautiful green, which is the more valued because 
permanent. He also mentioned, while discussing this subject 
and the alleged fact of a permanent green dye having been ob- 
tained from a rhamnus found in China, that two species of this 
genus produce actually by themselves two different colours ; the 
one a purple blue, the other a yellow, and that by a combi- 
nation of these the green, as already mentioned, is obtained. 

By the 14th of September some of the fields had been cleared, 
re-manured, and were now in progress of being sown with wheat. 
Thus I have had it in my power to note the precise dates upon 
which this grain had in spring been placed in the ground, and 
now I have had the satisfaction of recording the earliest date 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 191 

upon which the seed of what is called the autumn crop is 
committed to the earth. 

"What are called by some Pekin, by others Shantung cabbages, 
are now about half advanced to maturity. Green radishes are 
also well forward, and turnips have thrown out leaves of con- 
siderable size, although as yet the tubers have not begun to 
form. The large yellow flowers of the helianthus are now 
objects of striking appearance, rising high above the vineyards 
around which the plants have been reared for the sake of their 
seeds, which are highly esteemed by the natives, and are said to 
be very palatable when eaten. Celery is abundant in the fields; 
fennel is now begun to ripen its seeds, but is only met with 
in two places in this neighbourhood. A few stalks of maize, 
evidently of a late kind, are still met with in the fields, and 
their heads of grain, yellow, although immature, are exposed 
for sale in the streets. Ditches and hollows are more or less 
completely filled with water after the heavy rains that have in 
the early part of this month taken place. A green layer of 
duckweed or lemna covers these in some places, moving from 
one part to another according to the shiftings of the wind, and 
growing from the slimy bottom of others. Tufts of aquatic 
plants grow abundantly, looking like those we meet with in 
similar localities at home. The larger trees are still fresh and 
green as ever. The moderate temperature incites people to 
take long rides and walks throughout the day, and sportsmen 
begin to meet with snipe and quail in their country rambles. 

It may not be considered out of place if I mention that on 
the 16th of September we had at table new potatoes, brought 
down, as we were informed, from Tartary. These had the same 
delicate flavour that is so much appreciated at home when this 
most useful tuber first makes its appearance, and in every other 
respect seemed to be of most excellent quality. I have else- 
where alluded to the fact that only a few plants of this vegetable 
have as yet been seen in this neighbourhood ; but there appears 
to be no reason why, with a little trouble, it might not be 
cultivated here. 

Pomegranates at the same time appeared in the streets, 
looking not only completely ripe, but of most excellent quality ; 
these were the produce of the nurseries, where, as already 



192 TOPOGRAPHY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

mentioned, they were cultivated in pots; the shrubs being 
moved within doors, and preserved in conservatories during the 
severity of winter. 

By the 18th of September the climate had become so bearable, 
that with a view to convey an idea of it, I observe that the 
minimum point recorded on that morning was 58"5°; at 9 a.m. 
the thermometer stood at 68° Fahr. ; the per-centage of vapour 
in the atmosphere, complete saturation being represented by 
100, was 75. A gentle breeze came from the north-east; the 
sky was clear and almost cloudless. 

Considering my residence in this part of China now drawing 
to a close, I took a longer than ordinary ride across the fields, 
noting as I did so a few of the plants whose names I had not 
previously recorded ; yet even now, it is not to be supposed that 
I can notice more than a very small proportion of the genera 
that constitute the flora of this part of China. On the unculti- 
vated fields chenopodiums, or goosefoot, grew more or less 
abundantly, according to the moisture that pervaded the locality; 
one kind, namely, a silvery shrubby-like one, being an exception 
to this, and selecting apparently the very driest banks for its 
site : as members of this order the plant commonly called cocks- 
comb is to be enumerated; it, and an inferior description of 
beet, were occasionally seen growing within the borders of 
gardens, and these had already begun to show signs of autumn 
upon them. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of the river, where the 
common British species abounded, it was in many places com- 
pletely covered by a cuscuta or dodder, the long white tendrils of 
which encircled almost every stem and twig of this particular 
plant, but not spreading to those of other kinds. Calamus, 
or sweet flag, typha, and sparganium, grew in a few of the 
marshy places near the irrigation canals, but the greater number 
of these were crowded with the arundo, which excluded all else. 
On some of the waste lands grew a species of asclepias, whose 
long twisting stems entwined themselves around whatever they 
came sufficiently near. This plant looked, even from a short 
distance, like a species of bitter-sweet ; but its flowers, and the 
milky exudation from its divided stem, at once indicated its true 
nature. Another plant that grew abundantly on the waste lands 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 193 

I mention here, because its specific name has been given in 
honour of the gifted gentleman in whose company some of my 
most pleasant walks have been taken ; this is the Statice 
Fortunii, one of the genus to which belongs the beautiful 
British wild flower, the common thrift, whose pink coloured and 
rounded heads of flowers form not a little attraction in our 
walks along the sandy banks of some of our most charming 
Highland streams. 

One other plant will only be noticed in this place ; the names 
of a few more that were seen in the course of my present ride 
are noted at the foot of this page.* The plant which deserves 
more than a passing mention is a species of sonchus or sow 
thistle ; it grows here abundantly, its yellow flowers frequently 
appearing from some ditch or small excavation as we pass along. 
In the early part of spring, that is, so soon as vegetation had 
begun to break the surface of the ground, the young shoots of 
this particular plant were eagerly sought for and abundantly 
brought to market, on account of their long roots, which having 
an agreeable bitter, were much relished both in their raw and 
cooked state by the natives. 

Large quantities of beautiful asters ornamented gardens at 
this time, their many bright colours giving to the flower-beds in 
which they grew a really brilliant appearance. In some places, 
what appeared to be young plants of the same kind were being 
cultivated, for the apparent purpose of being taken within doors, 
as ornaments during the winter. In others, chrfeanthemum 
plants had already attained a large size, although they were 
not yet in bearing. In others, amaranthus, or " everlasting," 
grew in large masses. 

The general aspect of the country had now become so different 
from what it had been during the preceding winter, that I was 
tempted to note a few of the more prominent respects in which 

* Vicia, of more than one species ; an astragus ; salsola, growing in marshy, 
saline localities ; procumbent euphorbium of a bright green and red species, 
occurring in old French bean fields ; lynum, a plant very similar, at first sight, 
to berberis, and like it, often forming part of hedges; senecio, and small 
wild asters ; Leontodon taraxacum ; and lastly, a species of the " blue bottle," 
commonly met with in marshy woods, in Scotland. A species of rubia grows in 
the hedges; pinnex and plantago in marshes, and day lilies plentifully in 
gardens. 

13 



194 TOPOGRAPHY OE TEIN-TSIN. 

the great extent of change had taken place. Now, with the 
exception of a few tracts of land apparently left fallow, in order 
to yield pasturage, and a few of comparatively small extent that 
are so impregnated with salt as to be utterly barren, the country 
for many miles forms one continuous expanse of cultivated 
ground, covered more or less completely with growing or with 
ripening crops. So tall is the millet, that in travelling along 
the narrow roads that intersect the fields under this description 
of crop, a rider, even upon a tolerably tall horse, cannot often 
look over the crop by which he is surrounded ; consequently, 
some little amount of care is necessary in noting the precise 
paths by which he prolongs his ride, if he wish to avoid the 
chance of losing his way and getting benighted. 

The grass that covers some of these meadow lands is, when 
cut and dried like hay, extremely sweet, its scent very similar to 
the vernal grass of England; with it is mixed the particular 
kind which, when preserved and submitted to the necessary pro- 
cesses, yields the straw from which mats, and certain kinds of 
hats are manufactured. The Carew lachryma, or " Job's tears," 
for such are its ordinary names, does not grow here in the 
same abundance that it does in the south of the country, but 
is sufficiently abundant apparently to repay a few persons, 
while the trailing stems of it are green and fresh, to collect them 
for sale. 

The first birds in progress of migration were observed on 
23rd September; they were wild geese, commencing their south- 
ward journey, preparatory, no doubt, to the cold of winter 
setting in with violence, from which they are effecting their 
escape. In regard to vegetables, turnips, as large as ordinary 
eggs, were now brought to market ; carrots, not so large as those 
at home, and far more insipid, were also freely sold. The latter 
vegetable had indeed been frequently observed by me growing 
in beds in the fields, but I had omitted to mention it in its 
proper order. 

Taking a long excursion into the country, chiefly along the 
left bank of the Imperial Canal, I had an opportunity of 
observing some fields of wheat that had lately been sown, now 
showing the young plant, or breer ; a few stems of the Indian 
corn still held out upon the fields. On climbing to the summit 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEITSr-TSIN. 195 

of an old tower that had originally been erected many years ago 
for the defence of the river and approach to the capital, I was 
able to obtain an extended view of the surrounding country. It 
was unquestionable that the hues of autumn had already begun 
to fall upon the greater part of the crops by which the fields were 
covered ; the bright green of summer had faded, and now, with 
the exception of the patches covered with crops of succulent vege- 
tables, all others looked "sear and yellow." 

Growing wild in some of the hedges in the neighbourhood, I 
had frequently remarked a species of hop ; on one occasion, 
Mr. Fortune had inquired of the natives whether it was con- 
verted to any use by them, and the reply he obtained was in 
the negative. I had carefully watched the progress of the plant 
to maturity, and was struck with the fact that, when ripe, its 
heads possessed much of the peculiar bitter flavour that charac- 
terises the plant at home. Here it flowers in August, and by the 
commencement of October is ripe; it might, therefore, be 
matter for consideration whether it might not in the course of 
a very few years be found a profitable article of trade. The 
Indian hemp plant had often been met with also during the 
season, but no use is made of it by the natives ; possibly it does 
not here possess the properties which in India give to it its 
value, for we know that in the case of both animals and plants, 
some that have extremely obnoxious qualities under one series of 
conditions, whether of climate or locality, lose them more or less 
completely under others. 

So also with stramonium ; a few plants of it are occasionally 
met with in the neighbourhood of Tein-tsin, but were the fruit 
here as pernicious as it is in India, for example, we may pre- 
sume that it would be found in much greater abundance than it 
is. Having had occasion to proceed to and return from the 
mouth of the Peiho in a gunboat, I had an opportunity of 
observing the appearance of the country along the banks, 
throughout the thirty miles and upwards that intervene between 
Tein-tsin and the sea. 

In some of the fields labourers were at work cutting, or rather 
striking down the lesser kinds of millet. The implement used 
by them for this purpose was not unlike one of our ordinary 
sickles, and they seemed to level the crop very rapidly with it. 



196 TOPOGRAPHY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

Much of the greater millet had disappeared, and what little 
remained appeared to be perfectly ripe. The foliage of the trees 
still retained the fresh green of summer, but all else showed the 
tints of autumn. In some places the crops of reeds that occu- 
pied the marshes had been removed, and in those where they 
still stood, they, like the field crops, appeared ready to be cut 
down. In a few fields, not only had the crop been removed, 
but the plough and sowing machine were at work, laying down 
the seed of the succeeding spring crop ; but over the greater 
space, the surface was covered with the varying green of 
radishes, "cabbages," turnips, and nool kool ; an occasional 
patch of the red tops of the beet, showing out bright by 
contrast. 

Although not exactly connected with fields and agriculture, 
the preservation of fruit by the natives of the north of China is 
considered to be a subject of sufficient interest to justify a brief 
description of it here. I have in the preceding notes recorded 
the different stages of some of the field and garden produce from 
the time that the seed was committed to the earth, or when the 
young plant first appeared above ground to its fructification, 
ripening, and final removal ; I trust I may, therefore, give a 
short notice of the manner in which some of the products are 
preserved from decay. 

The place of this description which I visited consisted, in the 
first place, of a large oblong square excavation in the ground, 
to a depth of not less than twelve feet ; the breadth was not less 
than forty, and the length not under three hundred ; a roof made 
of layers of reed covered up by mud protected the whole, the 
ridge being from the floor not less than thirty feet, the eaves 
projecting well over a raised embankment from the surface of 
the ground of not more than three or four feet, thus rendering 
the enclosed apartment perfectly " tight," except as regards its 
door, and a range of three or four ordinary ventilators along its 
roof. The floor of this large apartment, which was formed- 
originally of the clayey soil, was slightly inclined, so that moisture, 
formed by the water which might percolate from the ice em- 
ployed in preserving the fruit, should accumulate in a small 
reservoir prepared for it at the foot of the declivity, and from 
whence it might readily be baled out through a drain, in the 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 197 

same manner as water has already been described to be raised 
for irrigation. 

On entering the immense " pit/' the outline of which has 
been roughly described, we found that a deep layer of solid ice 
covered the floor; fruit of various kinds, more particularly 
grapes, peaches, apples, and pears, were being, or had already 
been, packed in strong wicker baskets ; each of these was of a 
diameter of two to two and a half feet, and of about the same in 
height, a thick layer of matting lining them internally; the 
top, which also consisted of strong wicker work, was only sepa- 
rated from the contents by a layer of straw ; it was then screwed 
on, and over it a mat was placed. 

On either side of the wide apartment a range of wooden 
labels, on which were Chinese written characters were rudely 
stuck into the earth constituting the top of the excavation. We 
observed that in straight lines between these tickets, baskets 
containing a particular kind of fruit were placed. Each row as 
they were placed were successively covered up by a layer of ice. 
Over this another row was about to be placed ; a layer of straw 
and rubbish separating the top and bottom of each basket from 
direct contact with the ice. Thus, as we were informed, layers 
of fruit and of ice were placed alternately, so as completely to fill 
the apartment ; and so well is the fruit preserved, that according 
to the account given by the proprietor of the pit, it was only 
during the bye-gone month that the last of the fruit of the 
previous year had been expended. 

Another object of interest deserves a passing notice, namely, 
a manufactory of sesamum oil. I have already mentioned that 
this seed is grown tolerably extensively here. I had an oppor- 
tunity on 5th of October of observing the process of extracting 
the oil from it. The general internal arrangement of the place 
in which this was done was not unlike that of the place already 
described as that in which flour was in process of being 
obtained. 

The general steps through which the sesamum were passed 
may be very briefly described. They were in the first place 
collected, and soaked in water to a certain point, then placed in 
a shallow cast-iron vessel, when, over a fire kept up by millet 
stalks, they were parched. Being taken from this, they were 



] 9 8 TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

ground between two " querns," revolving by donkey power, as 
mentioned in reference to the process of grinding wheat. 

A dark drab-coloured oily matter distils down the sides of the 
stones as the process of trituration takes place. This is col- 
lected and placed in a second shallow iron vessel over a fire ; it is 
then violently beaten and agitated until, under the combined 
influence of this operation and the heat to which it is exposed, 
the oil rises to the surface. The oil is then collected, further 
purified by being again agitated, and heated in vessels. The 
refuse is carefully collected ; it is a valuable article of manure, 
and is carted away in buckets placed upon wheel-barrows to be 
converted into the extremely offensive matter which, when 
mixed with other descriptions of compost, it proves. 

The purest kind of the oil is used in cookery for the rich, or 
in the best description of eating houses; the next quality is 
employed for a lower class of persons, and the inferior kinds are 
used in lamps, where, with the pith of a rush, it is made to afford 
a very tolerable light. 

An oil manufactured from " ground nuts " (Arachis hypoffea) 
is also prepared here; this peculiar underground pea being 
common in the markets, although during all my excursions 
among the fields I had not met with any of the plant in progress 
of cultivation. The parched grains of it are eagerly eaten by 
the natives, and to some Europeans are by no means unpalatable 
as dessert. 

Among the last of my excursions through the town of Tein- 
tsin, I had occasion to observe that on 8th October bulbs of 
narcissus had not only been planted in vessels partly filled with 
water, but that some of them had actually thrown out their first 
leaves to a height of not less than half an inch. It is to be 
supposed that throughout the intensity of the cold weather, 
which is now so soon to occur, these will be carefully protected 
within doors, where, in the warm temperature of the towns they 
will in due course progress, so that with the returning warmth 
of spring their beautiful and sweet-scented flowers may be 
among the earliest indications of that pleasant season. 

Such then is a general view of the varying aspect of vegeta- 
tion according to season as recorded by me from time to time, 
and such a few of the remarks that present themselves as I write, 



TOPOGEAPHT OF TEIN-TSIN. 199 

in reference to various subjects more or less intimately con- 
nected therewith. The 9th of October was an extremely agreeable 
day in more respects than one. The temperature during the 
preceding night had descended to 42°; at 9 a.m. the dry bulb of 
the thermometer indicated 57°, the wet 46°; the wind came from 
the north with tolerable power ; the sky was clear. During 
mid-day the sun was hot, yet not sufficiently so to render walking 
unpleasant. In the early afternoon the breeze still prevailed ; 
the degree of dryness to the sensations being sufficiently great 
to affect unpleasantly the chest. 

Under the impression that this would be the last date upon 
which it would be in my power to take a long walk through the 
fields in this part of China, I started tolerably early in the after- 
noon ; and taking a stroll of some three miles along the parts 
nearest the river, and consequently the most readily fertilised 
by irrigation, I resolved to note as I proceeded, the various 
crops, as well as the other matters of agricultural interest which 
met my view as I proceeded. 

In the more marshy patches along the side of the river, and 
close to the extempore docks that occur at intervals near the 
town, immense crops of reeds had grown ; these were now all 
cut down and removed, the spaces that had been covered by 
them looking brown, bare, and as if already resigned to winter. 
Of small millet, there remained none upon the ground; patches 
of the larger species were still standing; the brown hues of 
autumn had begun to colour them ; and as I passed close to the 
fields, I observed that many stalks, no doubt those that had 
become ripe, had been cut off, leaving a stump in the earth of 
four or six inches in height. 

Along the borders of some fields, and of almost every garden, 
huge sunflowers reared their big round heads high above fences 
and crops. The seeds of these were not yet fully ripe, but were 
found on close inspection to be fully formed, and thickly packed 
together in their natural receptacle. A few plots of earth were 
ready prepared for the reception of seed, although for the parti- 
cular description for which they were intended it was impossible 
to ascertain. Other similar plots had been evidently sown with 
spinach; for the young plants of this winter favorite had shot up 
their two oblong leaves to a height of an inch or two, and in not 



200 TOPOGBAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

a few places this very useful vegetable had attained a stage of 
maturity in which it was being cut down and prepared for the 
market. 

By far the largest extent of land was under cultivation by 
Pekin cabbage which, to judge from present indications, is 
decidedly the great stand-by in the way of vegetables for the 
ensuing winter. On coming to a village, 1 observed an under- 
ground apartment, such as I have elsewhere described, being 
prepared seemingly for this vegetable ; but connected with the 
roof were what looked to me like a couple of chimneys com- 
posed inside of millet stalks, plastered outside with clay, and 
therefore one would think extremely likely to take fire ; whether 
these chimneys were meant to convey smoke from fires in the 
interior, or whether for purposes of ventilation it is impossible 
to determine. I can only presume that the former is the inten- 
tion with which they are placed where they are. 

Turnips with very small tubers and very large tops were plen- 
tiful. In some places there grew what had all the external 
appearance and taste of turnips in so far as leaves were con- 
cerned; but whose roots were of a long shape, extending into 
the earth to a distance of some six or eight inches. These were 
for the most part white, with a green circle on the rind towards 
the stem, but in no other respect resembling radishes. In 
other places grew what seemed to be turnips, altogether desti- 
tute of tubers. The leaves were not less than two feet long, 
narrow, of a dark green colour, and having a remarkably succu- 
lent stem. The general appearance of this vegetable was very 
familiar to me, for I have on many occasions seen it pickled or 
salted, and extensively used by the natives. Shalots and leeks 
were found in the fields in all stages of advancement ; at one 
part the young crop had just begun to break the surface of the 
soil. At another, the withered flower stalks that remained 
since summer showed that there had been some negligence as 
regards their removal ; and in others the crop was in progress 
of being taken up with a view to be sent to market. 

Vines, as they hung upon their now half-broken trellis -work, 
looked brown, from their leaves taking ©n autumnal hues, 
although some fresh green shoots continued to wave in the 
breeze, as if in utter ignorance of how very soon they must be 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 201 

lopped off or placed under the sod, in order that they may live 
again in spring. French beans, although for the most part 
now thrown more or less completely on the ground, still con- 
tinued to bloom nevertheless ; and, indeed, their fruit is nightly 
served up at mess. 

A few small plots of ground were under cultivation with an um- 
belliferous plant. It was still in its immature state, not more than 
eight to ten inches high, of a peculiarly powerful and offensive 
odour, and, so far as I could form an opinion at the time, was 
a species of coriander — one of the plants that had covered some 
plots of ground early in the season. Celery occurred in all 
sized beds, and in all stages of advancement, from three or four 
inches high, to the plant in as perfect a form as the want of 
knowledge as to its cultivation by the natives permits it to 
attain ; were they taught the simple act of planting the celery 
in " ditches," and bleaching it as done in England, this delicious 
vegetable would attain to a great size in this part of China. 

On numerous small, oblong, square pieces of the fields autumn 
wheat, sown in rows, had attained a height of two and three 
inches, looking still beautifully fresh and green ; a few of the 
fence-like trellis-walls for the long creeping stems of the 
dioscorea or kind of sweet potato, grown here, still stood, 
although only half erect, the leaves and stems looking as if 
the days of their youth had gone. A few plants of the brinjall 
had evidently been saved in order that their fruit might mature 
its seed. These were of the early and large globular kind ; 
others, however, were green and flourishing ; these were loaded 
with what is evidently the later variety of the fruit, it being of 
an oblong form, much smaller in size than the former, but of 
the same bright, glossy, blue colour, that it possessed in its early 
state. 

On other portions of the field patches of annual capsicums 
still grew fresh and green, as in the earlier parts of the season ; 
thes'e capsicums were of both a long and a globular form ; the 
former at first green, but becoming red as they approached a 
state of ripeness ; the latter were at first green, and subsequently 
assumed an orange tint. The stems of the old plants of both 
these descriptions of solanaceous plants, namely the brinjall and 
the capsicum, were in some places being dried, evidently with a 



202 TOPOGEAPHT OF TEIN-TSIN. 

view to be converted into fuel ; we all know, perhaps some of us 
from practical experience, what is the effect produced upon the 
inmates of a room when red pepper is thrown upon the fire : 
I wonder if any similar result accrue from combustion of the 
dried capsicum stems. One small plot of ground, not larger 
than about twenty feet square, had upon it, as a crop, a plant of 
the wormwood genus, apparently being cultivated for medicinal 
use, or to be preserved in a dried state throughout the winter ; 
another miniature field of even smaller size than this had upon 
it a crop of horehound, which was also apparently being raised 
for a similar purpose ; and, growing among some shrubs in a small 
garden in the heart of a village through which I passed, were a 
few individuals of the castor-oil plant. 

Growing from the sides of some of these cross pathways, and 
so situated as to be continually moist by water in progress of 
being conveyed along them, were several iris plants, their 
flowers long since faded, but their leaves still fresh and green 
as ever ; and in one particular place grew a natural fence, for the 
evident purpose of protecting from the cold north winds of winter 
whatever crop of a delicate kind might be sown there. The 
fence consisted of willow-twigs, that had in early spring been 
planted close together, and had now attained a height of not 
less that ten feet ; thus they were well calculated to serve the 
purpose of millet-straw fences, which, as elsewhere mentioned, 
were during last cold season very generally used to protect the 
crops from the severity of the northern breezes. 

Radishes, in different stages of growth, and of various kinds, 
were met with, and some plots of ground were being prepared for 
the evident purpose of receiving the seed of more. The kind most 
abundant was unquestionably the large green one, which grows 
to a height as much above the surface of the ground as it does 
below it. This species is an immense favorite with the natives ; 
they preserve the tubers or roots during the wirjter by putting 
them into deep pits, and then covering them up in a manner 
precisely similar to that adopted in Scotland, with a view to 
preserve turnips and potatoes for spring use. The red variety 
is less abundantly met with ; a third variety is pure white, with 
only a faint flavour of the radish ; and another variety that 
was still young, appeared to be altogether destitute of edible 



TOPOGRAPHY OP TEIN-TSIN. 203 

root, although its spreading, dark green leaves had all the cha- 
racter of those of a radish. The only other cruciferous plant 
which I met with during my excursion, was the nool-kool ; this 
I have never met with actually growing in beds, it has always 
been found being raised from the sides of the irrigation water- 
courses that intersect the fields, a free supply of water being no 
doubt necessary to enable it to develope the peculiar thickening 
of the stem in which its value consists. 

Passing through some villages I came upon a couple of men 
employed in grinding millet. The seed had been placed in a 
deep conical excavation in a large block of hard, carbonaceous 
stone, which stood in a kind of square, as if intended for the 
use of the entire village. One of the men, by means of a mallet, 
the head of which was lengthened so as to suit the depth of the 
place in which the grain was placed, was engaged into ham- 
mering it into meal. The meal, with which the husk was 
mixed, had a pink colour, appeared moist, and had much more 
the appearance of a kind of bran-mash, than of the material 
from which the daily bread of a people was about to be baked. 
In two other places, I observed the finer kinds of grain being 
converted into meal ; this is done in regular mills, but in mills 
that are moved neither by the power of wind or water. In a 
large native building, two or more grinding machines occupy 
different parts of the floor. These consist of the " nether mill- 
stone" securely fixed in a basework raised to a height of about 
a couple of feet or more ; the upper millstone is made to revolve 
upon this by means of an axle, from which a cross-bar extends, 
so as to permit a donkey or a mule to be yoked in it. A conical- 
shaped vessel, placed above the upper millstone, contains the 
" grit," permitting it to escape at a regulated rate through the 
summit of the inverted pyramid ; the grain is admitted through 
an aperture in the centre of the stone in much the same manner 
as it was formerly, or may be still where the ancient quern 
remains in use ; and thus, night and day, by means of relays of 
animals, the work goes on. At one corner of the apartment, 
most frequently near the door, the process of cleaning the flour 
or meal from the husk is affected ; a number of upright posts 
form a framework, by which a kind of sieve, secured all round 
by heavy woodwork, is slung ; a receiver for the grain is placed 



204 TOPOGRAPHY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

beneath, and the person engaged in this kind of work, remain- 
ing in a half-sitting posture, with his elbows supported by 
means of a bar, slung, for the purpose, works by his feet a kind of 
crank, from which connecting ropes extend to either end of the 
sieve, so that as he depresses the crank to one side the sieve 
moves that way, and so, also, to the other ; the passage of the 
flour through its apertures being accelerated by the simple 
process of its being made to impinge at each movement against 
one of the end beams. This, worked as it is by the natives, 
with very great energy, sounds, at first like the continual click, 
click, of an ordinary mill, such as we come across in excursions 
along some of the more retired glens of Scotland. 

On my way returning I passed one solitary field of soy bean ; 
the crop upon it was more than fully ripe; that from other 
similar fields had been all removed. 

Although not directly connected with farms or farming, I note 
that this evening, just as the sun was approaching the horizon, 
a flight of swallows suddenly appeared over head. As elsewhere 
noted, I had seen none of this genus since the 2nd of this 
month, on, or prior to which they must have migrated from 
here; The swallows that now appeared were evidently confused ; 
their flight was irregular, and, as if uncertain, every now and 
then an individual would utter its soft and delicate note ; indeed, 
it was this that drew my attention to them first ; and as they 
disappeared in the distance, their general direction appeared to 
be the west and southward. 

When returning home another flock of birds in migration 
swept with rapid and noisy flight over my head ; a long hori- 
zontal line seeming to make towards the east. These birds 
were easily recognised as the pterocles, or sand grouse, that, 
during the cold weather, become extremely abundant in this 
neighbourhood. 

A few remarks in regard to the aspect of the fields during the 
months of October and November occur in the meteorological 
reports, given in their fitting place, to which the reader is 
referred. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ZOOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Remarks on some of the animals met with in and near Tein-tsin, and on the 

sources of furs. 

In the remarks that are about to follow, I do not pretend to 
give more than a general and superficial idea of some of the 
animals most frequently met with in and near Tein-tsin. 

As already mentioned, I had unfortunately taken with me no 
books of reference, as, at the time when I left England, I had 
no expectation of having had to remain in China so long as I 
afterwards found that I had to do. This I deem necessary to 
reiterate, in order the more clearly to indicate that the sketch 
which I now propose to give, has no pretensions to a scientific 
account of the zoology of this part of China. 

In order that I may include the various animals that I had 
noticed according to some classification, and thus the better 
ensure those of similar natures being included together, I propose 
to follow the order laid down in the majority of works devoted 
to this department of natural history. This plan, if convenient 
for the sake of description, has this great disadvantage, namely, 
that in following it, I have to begin my remarks by bringing 
before the reader some of the most loathsome of creatures. The 
first of these is a class of so called worms, or entozoa, that 
inhabit our own bodies, living in, and deriving their, nourishment 
from the fluids contained within the intestines of man; of 
these the tape- worm is by far the most common, its germs being 
no doubt imbibed in the water from the river, into which, as 
already stated, filth the most loathsome is continually being 
thrown. Masses of similar filth lie about upon the streets, 
pigs prowl about, devouring whatever they can find ; pork is 



206 ZOOLOGY OT TEIN-TSIN. 

pretty generally used as food by the people, and thus, no doubt, 
this loathsome creature becomes introduced into, and developed 
in the human body. Among our soldiers its frequency was so 
great, especially during winter, that attention was pointedly 
drawn to the circumstance. Another entozoon, namely, what is 
called the large round worm, is common here also, but less so 
than the former. 

Leeches are abundantly found in a series of lakes and marshes 
situated about ten miles from Tein-tsin, to which officers went 
during spring and autumn for the purpose of shooting wild 
fowl. It is strange that these useful annelides have not been 
made use of by the native Chinese, some of whom expressed 
surprise when informed of the purpose to which in European 
surgery they were put. Of the crustaceans met with, the 
numbers are few, and comparatively unimportant. Shrimps 
and prawns are caught tolerably abundantly in the river, but 
are in flavour far inferior to those obtained in England. Like 
fish, those from the sea are in flavour far superior to those from 
the river. One species of crab is very abundant in Tein-tsin 
throughout the summer and autumn. It is comparatively small 
and thin, having at either side a prolongation of the shell 
horizontally, running to a point, so as to form a very imposing 
spine, calculated, one would think, to inflict a severe wound. 
These crabs are brought from the Gulf of Pecheli, where it is 
said they are caught in inconceivable numbers. They are 
hawked in basket-loads along the streets, and sold in the pickled 
state as well as fresh. Their venders seem apparently to con- 
sider that they and locusts are " birds of a feather," else it is 
difficult to conceive the reason they have for exposing crabs and 
Med locusts for sale at the same stall, as is the case during the 
early part of autumn. I have not met with any land crabs 
here ; the soil is, doubtless, not only too dry, but of too clayey a 
nature for them. 

During the dreary winter in this part of China insect life is 
dormant. It was not until the 19th of April that flies, these 
most common of all insects, began to move about our rooms, 
and even then in a slow, inactive manner. By that time the 
temperature had become so moderate that the lowest during 
the night was only 55°, and at 9 a.m. 59°- We may presume, 



ZOOLOGY OP TETN-TSIN. 207 

however, that insect life here takes longer time to recover from 
the torpidity of winter than is required in the more favoured 
climate of England. 

With the rapidly increasing temperature of summer, the 
numbers of flies increase ; the decomposition of heaps of ordure 
and refuse of every kind that crowd the streets, the walls, the 
out-of-the-way corners, in fact everywhere throughout the city 
and its neighbourhood, favouring the development of maggots 
into the perfect insect ; at least, during the month of July, and 
the early half of August, the myriads of these insects that 
crowd the table, and alight upon any part of the person that 
may happen to be exposed, constitute a plague only inferior to 
what we learn happened to the obstinate Egyptians. It was 
not possible for us to forget the nature of the places and objects 
upon which these unwelcome visitors might have rested shortly 
before alighting upon us, or, as they often did at breakfast and 
dinner, getting upon the morsel as it was about to enter the 
mouth. And this knowledge added much to the many other 
unpleasant impressions made by these tormentors. Mosquitoes* 
and sand-flies were later of appearing than flies, but during the 
latter part of summer were great nuisances ; the mosquitoes by 
far the greater of the two. 

So late as the 30th of May, although the temperature at 
9 a.m. had reached 73° Fahr., I noted the fact that these 
insects, so tormenting in India, had not yet made their on- 
slaught, and I congratulated myself accordingly. They rapidly 
increased in numbers, however, as the crops in the fields grew 
up. Clouds of mosquitoes took shelter in them ; the surface of 
water that had been for some time neglected, was literally alive 
with their young ; and so great were the numbers that assailed 

* I may mention under the form of a foot-note, that Mr. Fortune in hia 
' Residence among the Chinese/ describes the composition of a kind of tapers, 
which, when burnt in the room, are effectual preventives against mosquitoes re- 
maining in it. According to this author, there are three kinds of taper of this 
description. The first, consists of pine and juniper sawings, worm-wood leaves, 
and tobacco leaves, reduced to powder, with a small quantity of arsenic. The 
second, consists of long bags of paper, say half an inch in diameter, and two feet 
long, filled with the sawings of pine or juniper, mixed with a small quantity of 
nuwang (an unknown mineral) and arsenic. The third, is made of the wood of 
Artemesia Iitdica, but this gives out smoke, which is not agreeable to Europeans. 



208 ZOOLOGY 01? TEIN-TSIN. 

a person when walking among the crops so late as the 20th of 
September, that I noted the fact in my journal. 

These are not the only insects by which annoyance was occa- 
sioned, not only out of doors, but also within our houses. 
Such are the extremely filthy personal habits of the people 
here, that we thus readily account for the numbers of insect 
pests that sometimes, notwithstanding the greatest care on our 
parts, find their way upon our persons, and feast off us when we 
retire in the fond but vain hope of finding rest. 

Moths and tipulas flit about our rooms in the evening, spiders 
spin their webs in the corners, for here there are no housemaids 
to keep the apartments tidy ; beetles from time to time come 
humming over head, and flying right against the whitened wall 
fall heavily down, but renewing again and again their vain 
endeavours to escape ; cockroaches, large and small, run up the 
walls ; but occasionally a more objectionable creature than these 
makes its appearance : centipedes, although by no means com- 
mon, nor apparently of so large a size as they attain to within 
the tropics, come creeping from their places of concealment; 
and a creature no less' horrible in appearance, although naturally 
less noxious, is often found running over one's bed, or among 
his clothes in the darkness of the night ; this appears to be one 
of the thysanurse or fringe-tailed insects, and looks like a 
centipede with legs of enormous length, huge antennae from its 
head, and a number of long and projecting tails. The creature 
however, is not more than two or three inches long, including 
all its tails and antennas, and invariably endeavours to effect its 
escape when a light is produced. 

Out of doors, the actual number of species of insects met 
with are few, yet the species that do occur are innumerable 
as regards individuals. It is a curious sight, as we ride or walk 
across the barren places elsewhere alluded to as occurring on 
the vast plain that surrounds Tein-tsin, to see huge larvse of 
beetles, white and soft, but with black heads, crawling along 
the surface after the occurrence of a fall of rain during the 
sultry evenings of August. What could have disturbed these 
ugly looking things, and thus made them to leave their nests in 
their " present half-made up" state, it is impossible to say ; but 
it is not likely that they would long escape the birds and smaller 



ZOOLOGY OE TEIN-TSIN. 209 

animals that are ever on the look out for such tender morsels 
as they no doubt were calculated to form. 

A green beetle, of about three quarters of an inch in length 
and narrow in form, suddenly appears in June, crowding upon 
the leaves and branches of some leguminous plants ; nor will 
these insects take flight even when disturbed. Their elytra or wing 
cases would form handsome ornaments for ladies' dresses ; indeed 
they probably are the very insects which in the northern parts 
of this empire are collected for this purpose ; and here they 
occur for a few days in such numbers that there would be no 
difficulty in collecting them in almost any quantity. 

A meloe or blistering fly beetle is found exposed for sale in 
the market here, but whether procured in the neighbourhood 
or imported from a distance I have not ascertained. In size it 
is smaller than the one ordinarily seen in Europe and India, 
but in other respects is similar to it. A little later in the season, 
beetles may almost hourly be met with upon the plain, rolling 
before, or rather behind them the mass of clay or other material 
in which we may presume that their eggs have just been de- 
posited. It is amusing to watch the efforts of the creature 
on these occasions. Turning his back to the mass he is rolling, 
he pushes it most lustily, after rolling along with it down some 
" fearful precipice" that marks where a horse's foot had entered 
the ground when moist with rain, and then his efforts to ex- 
tricate his load and self, tumbling and pushing again and again, 
until at last he reaches the summit, and then onwards until 
heels overhead, he tumbles into another pitfall, and so on. 

Flitting or hovering over, or darting across the pools of water 
that collect after the heavy rains, the dragon-fly makes its ap- 
pearance, and in the places where water remains for some 
months, as for instance in canals and ponds for irrigation, we 
may in September find the casti-off case of the insect when in 
its pupa state ; for it is almost needless to observe^ it is in water 
that the metamorphosis of this insect takes place. A few butter- 
flies enliven the fields during the sunshine, and some moths 
pursue their silent aerial course after twilight has begun. Some 
of both these are sufficiently beautiful ; but neither in variety of 
species nor in size of individuals do they equal what is seen in 
India. 

14 



210 ZOOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

On the surface of these ponds and pools, numbers of hydro- 
metrse ran in circles precisely as we may observe at home on 
clear water ; and once I observed the large water beetle suddenly 
descend to the bottom of one of the masses of water exterior to 
the city that is maintained in a state of purity by" means of a 
plentiful growth of aquatic plants. 

Wasps, hornets, and bees are common ; the social wasp and 
the solitary one often selecting the eaves of our houses, or the 
lintels of our doors to build or excavate a nest in. The species 
of bee is very minute, is transversely streaked at intervals by 
buff-coloured bands upon a brown ground. It is said to yield 
excellent honey ; some of the officers in the late advance to 
Pekin had honey in the comb brought to them. It is also ob- 
tainable in the market, and of good quality but whether actually 
procured from this species of bee I am not aware. 

Of the class Orthoptera, there are several species, in addition 
to the cockroaches already enumerated. One species of Mantis 
is diligently searched for among the grass during the later 
period of summer, for the purpose of being given to pet birds as 
food. It is not a pugnacious creature, however, and cannot 
therefore be the species alluded to by Kirby and Spence as that 
which Chinese children keep in cages for the purpose of fighting.* 
Crickets are in all probability the insects here alluded to. They 
abound in this neighbourhood, and are frequently collected in 
order that they may be sold for this purpose. I have been told 
that large sums of money are frequently staked by rich Chinese 
upon the issue of a combat between two insects of this kind, 
and that many dollars will be given for one that stands its 
ground successfully against all comers. 

One of the ground species is a very great favorite, not only 
among boys at Tein-tsin, bat among the full grown, on account 
of its powers of so-called " song." On the 12th of July, I first saw 
some of these exposed for sale in small red cages, at stalls along 
the streets; and during the remaining part of autumn, a succession 
of species, or more probably of varieties, were one after another 
brought forward as the other disappeared. These, sometimes 
placed in neatly covered cages prepared from a small gourd 

* Vol. i, p. 275. 



ZOOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 211 

shell, are carried about even by men, being placed in their 
bosoms ; in almost every house, and shop and boat, one or more 
are similarly preserved, and fed during their brief period of life 
with a green leaf or fresh millet stalk. 

During the very hot part of the year, that is from June on- 
wards to the end of September, the trees are literally " alive" 
with the song of the cicada, the loud chirp of which repeated 
from scores of branches sometimes has a deafening eifect. Of 
course we all know the reason of the extreme jollity of these 
insects, the males of which are alone the musicians. 

" Oh for the cicadas' happy lives, 
For they have all got silent wives." 

Whether in this they are or are not fortunate is, after all, 
matter of opinion ; but there is no second opinion as to the 
amount of disturbance they create in a still evening, after the 
glare of the sun has began to decline. 

The numbers of locusts, apparently the true locust, that abound 
here would transcend belief, were they not seen. If we walk 
along the fields in autumn, several spring from the grass at 
each step we take. Baskets filled with them, dead as well as 
alive, are brought to market, and from the 4th of September, 
they seem to be esteemed a great gastronomic delicacy, for thence 
forward, heaps of them, fried, or rather boiled in oil, are ex- 
posed at almost every eating-stall we find in walking along the 
streets. I have never had sufficient courage to taste one myself, 
but we may presume them to be by no means unpalatable, from 
the fact of their being held in so great esteem as they are by 
the natives. 

Here, then, we have wild honey; here we have people eating 
locusts as a delicacy ; may it therefore not be possible to account 
for St. John having subsisted on similar food in the wilderness 
without having recourse to the idea of his having substituted 
for the insect locust the fruit of the Inca biglobosa, or locust 
tree, as is usually attributed to him. It must have indeed been 
but sorry fare either way. 

Of the insects that cause injury to green crops and growing 
shrubs are what seems to be the " turnip fly," and an aphis. 
The former commits great havoc among the tops of cruciferous 



212 ZOOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

plants, more especially radishes ; the latter destroy with great 
rapidity some of the smaller trees ; thus I have seen a peach 
tree killed by them in an extremely short time, and other plants 
more or less permanently injured. 

Ants, especially a small black species, abound ; these seem to 
use one regular pathway from their nest to their ordinary 
hunting ground, so that by observing their progress along this, 
one line may be seen proceeding in search of food, one line 
returning. In August, vast numbers of similar ants seemed 
suddenly to obtain wings ; these settled upon the flowers of 
some trees that were in full blossom, crowding so thickly as 
to very nearly conceal the natural colour of the petals. The 
Sophora japonica was in this respect an especial favorite with 
them. 

It does not appear that the termite or white ant exists in this 
neighbourhood; at least I have not met with it, nor have I 
heard that it has been met with ; neither does the silk moth 
occur here. Silk in fabric is extensively sold, and forms a 
great part of the dress of the more wealthy natives but it is 
all imported from places situated considerably to the south- 
ward. 

In the stagnant pools, and imbedded in the soft alluvium of 
which the country hereabout is formed, are three of the ordinary 
fresh-water shells ; two of these appear to be species of Planabis 
and Paludina ; the third is a bivalve, to external appearance a 
cardium, or closely allied species. In the market we meet with 
a few species of shell-fish of this description, that are evidently 
obtained from the sea ; these being cuttle-fish, mussels, a scollop, 
and cockles ; the latter the most numerous, and of a large size. 
They are usually preserved for some time in salt water, where 
it is a pretty sight to watch them as they open their shells, and 
project their light yellow " foot." 

Oysters are found in some parts of the Gulf of Pecheli, but 
are not so far as I have seen brought to the Tein-tsin market. 

Pish of various kinds, dried as well as fresh, are procurable 
in abundance ; of those used at table, the greatest favorites are 
soles and a kind of plaice. Eels are plentiful, and seem to be 
looked upon as a great delicacy by the natives ; and sturgeon is 
at times to be met with in the market ; but it is doubtful 



ZOOLOGY OE TEIN-TSIN. 213 

whether this fish is not brought from some distance, and not 
caught in the Peiho. 

In the early part of the season, great numbers of gold fish 
are exposed for sale in the streets ; these have peculiar tails, 
forming perfect monstrosities, the finny portion of it being 
developed in so peculiar a way as to give the appearance of 
three or even more tails. The Chinese blow glass globes for 
the reception of these fish, of which they seem to be very fond, 
as ornaments in their houses. 

As in the case of birds, so with fish ; there is a constant suc- 
cession of species here, according to season of the year, very 
few being obtainable throughout the entire year. 

The number of reptiles does not seem large. In summer an 
occasional gecko may be seen pursuing along the wall some fly, 
or moth, or mosquito. Snakes do not seem to be numerous, 
nor am I able to state whether the poisonous species are 
common. On the 19th of April one of these made its appear- 
ance, and was killed while in the act of descending from the 
roof of one of the buildings connected with the hospital. 

In shops, preserved skins of a python or boa are often met 
with, especially in those where musical instruments are manu- 
factured ; but it would seem that they are imported from the 
south, to be employed for the purpose of ornaments on these 
instruments. 

In the fields I have only met with one small lizard. Upon 
one occasion I met a boy who had a chameleon for sale ; it was 
of a small size, and the only one of the species I had seen. 

A small land tortoise, beautifully marked, is a great favorite 
here among boys ; and an aquatic species, with a tough leathery 
shell, would seem to be tolerably abundant in the river. 

We cannot resist surprise at the suddenness with which frogs 
make their appearance here, after the intense cold of winter, 
and then the intense heat of summer. No sooner does a heavy 
fall of rain in May and June moisten the parched earth, or give 
rise to small pools in the fields, than frogs may be heard to 
croak; and from thence, onward during autumn, they take 
shelter among the reeds and weeds that spring up in such 
places, depositing their spawn, which may be observed from 
day to day as it progresses towards the development of tadpoles. 



214 ZOOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Frogs would appear to be as highly esteemed as food by the 
Chinese as they are by the French. Their capture with this 
view becomes a regular pursuit of a number of boys. Their 
manner of taking these creatures is this — with bamboos and 
millet stalks, secured to each other by a piece of thread or 
grass-fibre, they extemporise a flexible spear-handle, which looks 
at first sight like a fishing rod. It is more or less flexible, 
according to the size of its individual component parts, and of 
a length not less than twelve to fifteen feet; at its further 
end it is armed with a single sharp iron spike. The boy care- 
fully watches at the side of a marsh or pool in which he knows 
his " game " resides, and, on hearing the animal croak, institutes 
a searching look, until he catches sight of the reptile ; he then 
slowly and gradually extends the spear towards it until the 
point reaches within a couple of feet or so. Meantime the 
intended victim is either heedless of the impending danger, or 
he is too much occupied with the business of croaking to give 
a thought to the sharp spike that probably the next instant 
transfixes him ; for the " spearer/' with a sudden dart, pierces 
him right through ; and, raising the spear in the air, so as to 
prevent his escape, carries him triumphantly to his young com- 
panion, who forthwith adds him to the bunch of croakers he 
already has; for these creatures are evidently rendered more 
than usually clamorous after having been transfixed in such a 
manner. 

The number of birds that remain in the neighbourhood 
throughout the entire year is very small ; including of those 
that are wild, not more than a few crows and magpies, in 
addition to some wretched sparrows, and in the fields a kind 
of snow bunting. With the returning spring, however, other 
species begin to appear, and thenceforward, every successive 
change in the atmosphere, brings with it an addition to the 
feathered race. 

Among the first birds to appear in spring are a few stray 
gulls that find their way inland, and an occasional white tern 
that may, early in March, be seen flitting and skimming over 
the surface of the river. Wild duck, teal, geese, and swan, 
began their return northward about the same time. On the 
25th of this month a very large flight of the latter was observed 



ZOOLOGY OF TELN-TSIN. 215 

passing towards the north- west; their order of flight having 
much the character of that of wild geese; that is like the 
letter V, the apex being forward, and one of the limbs of the 
figure considerably shorter than the other, thus ji . These birds 
were by no means mute, although certainly much less noisy 
than wild geese. On the same date a plover made its appearance 
on the fields ; its back dark gray, the tips of its wings white ; 
and shortly afterwards an occasional lapwing might be seen 
searching for its appropriate insect food among the soft fields in 
process of cultivation. And, as the summer advanced, flocks 
of gray plover, of pectincole, and dotterell, are met with upon 
the open plain, running along the ground, and not taking to 
flight until hard pressed by the stranger. 

Of the birds that are more especially found in the vicinity of 
water, the avocet is the first to visit the neighbourhood. A very 
beautiful individual of this species was seen on the 28th of 
March to alight in the shiny mud at the side of the river that 
had become exposed after the tide had retired, and which, 
heedless of my near proximity to it, commenced at once, with 
beak deep buried in the soft material, to preserve its peculiar but 
graceful zigzag hunt after the creatures upon which it feeds. 

Sand-pipers become plentiful, reminding one, by their peculiar 
cry and hurried flight, of similar familiar birds disturbed during 
trout-fishing excursions in the Scottish highlands. Curlew 
also appear, but comparatively rarely ; and in the market the 
species of tringa known by the name of the dwarf curlew may 
be obtained abundantly throughout the early part of summer. 

A specimen of the stilt (Himantopus) is from time to time 
met with, but this bird seems to be comparatively rare. And once 
or twice I have seen upon 'the grand canal an individual coot. 

The common gray heron makes its appearance in the latter 
part of summer, stalking along the banks of the river and 
canals ; and when disturbed, taking its flight to a distance of 
some hundred yards, and then alighting in the shallow parts ; 
and thus time after time, until a person becomes tired of fol- 
lowing it. 

It may be mentioned that the stork does not seem to be met 
with in this vicinity, notwithstanding that in this part of China, 
as well as in Japan, this bird is held to represent longevity, and 



216 ZOOLOGY OT TEIN-TSIN. 

hence the frequency with which it is represented on works of 
art ; indeed, it may be said to be in a manner held sacred by 
the people — that is, in so far as they can hold any creature 
sacred ; although their veneration for it is of a very different 
kind from that of the Egyptians to the ibis, or the Hindoo to 
the peacock. 

In the month of April the small bustard becomes plentiful in 
the market, and is an especial favorite at the dinner table. It 
may be that the Chinese consider that the English are, as 
regards their food, as gregarious as they themselves. This is 
the only way in which we can account for the fact of a roasted 
pelican having been served up at mess to the officers of one of 
the regiments in occupation of this city. No wonder that it 
was not esteemed a very great delicacy ! The bird is probably 
found in the marshy district, at the distance of some miles 
from Tein-tsin, but is not met with in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of that town. 

In the month of April an occasional hoopoe may be met with, 
the species being that which in India is so great a favorite, and 
which is also an occasional visitant to England. Here, how- 
ever, these birds, which were found by me feeding upon the 
banks of an irrigation canal were extremely wild, not per- 
mitting me to approach within many yards of them ; thus they 
differed in one respect as regards their habits from those that 
hop about the gardens and lawns, close to the very doors of 
Indian bungalows. 

It would be tedious and not profitable to enumerate the birds 
that temporarily alight here throughout the summer, a few only 
of the most interesting will therefore be noted ; with the return 
of warmth, a small species of lark may be met with abundantly 
in the fields, rising and fluttering in the air every now and 
then ; sometimes flitting by irregular starts downwards again^ 
yet chirping sweetly its peculiar song all the time ; at others, 
rising perpendicularly, and, having attained its height, thence 
darting onwards to some distant part of the plain, whence it 
may be seen soon afterwards rising and singing undisturbed, 
and away from annoyance. Finches of numerous species and 
sub-genera appear, and are brought for sale to market ; of these 
the larger-billed species, that like the coccothraustes, is the 



ZOOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 217 

greatest favorite among boys, by whom they are purchased 
extensively to be put in cages. There are also the smaller 
species, like the avec-de-vats of Java, and of the west coast of 
Africa. Grackles and fly-catchers, in great variety, are also 
brought to market, being netted in the fields ; a small, green 
fly-catcher, having buff-coloured featherless zones around the 
eyes, being by far the greatest favorite of the whole. Fly- 
catchers and individuals of the wheat-ear or saxicola genus, 
also are abundant in the neighbourhood of water, and wherever 
the soil is moist. The white-necked crow, a magnificent bird, 
has been elsewhere mentioned as making its appearance early in 
April. It seems to be a scarce bird, not more than two or three 
being ever seen at the same time. Throughout the intense 
heat of the summer, it seemed to withdraw to a more moderate 
climate, returning once more to us in September. 

On the 3rd of June, while riding along the banks of the 
river, at a distance of several miles from Tein-tsin, I heard the 
long familiar note of the cuckoo. Shortly afterwards, the 
British species of this bird was to be found alive in the market. 
Indeed, a person interested in ornithology, may readily obtain a 
knowledge of what birds are " in season" by a visit in the early 
mornings of that busy place. Among other familiar forest- 
birds were woodpeckers and the wryneck. After the summer 
rains have begun to fall, a beautiful, dark-coloured tern makes 
its appearance, hovering in flocks over the canals. Now it is 
that sportsmen proceed snipe-shooting, these birds apparently 
only coming into season ; and as autumn approaches quail 
become plentiful in the fields. That these latter had for some 
time previous been obtainable at no great distance, is evident from 
the fact of numbers of them having been brought for sale by the 
natives, who are said to stake large sums of money on the 
result of a fight between two males of these birds, to which 
sport, as well as fighting with the ordinary game-cock, they are 
very partial. 

The birds of prey are numerous as regards individuals, but 
not so as regards species ; of the lower order of these, one or 
two specimens of the neophron, or " Turkey-buzzard" were met 
with in the early part of the season. The gray-kite, and occa- 
sionally the red-backed kite, with grayish-white underparts, 



218 ZOOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

are met with. Falcons are not only plentiful, the smaller kinds 
breeding in the neighbourhood, but they, and especially the 
peregrine and the kestril, are carefully trained for the purpose 
of the chase, nor is it thought worth the expenses of food to 
retain a trained bird from year to year. After the hawking 
season is over, that is, when the cold weather has ended, there 
being no further use for the birds, they are kept no longer. 
In early autumn, others, old as well as young, are captured, and, 
being tamed by the ready and effective process elsewhere 
described, they are so quickly trained that by the mouth of 
December, when the season for this kind of sport sets in, they 
are ready to be employed in the chase. They are readily trained 
by the natives ; the process is briefly this : the bird, having 
been first rendered perfectly tame, is deprived of food until very 
hungry ; the trainer then, having secured his foot by one end of 
a line, the remainder of which, to a length of a good many 
yards, is artistically retained in his hand, proceeds to some field, 
the bird, properly hooded, being all the while on the wrist of the 
falconer, which is rendered secure against injury from the talons 
by a thick leather glove or gauntlet. He at the same time has in 
his possession a dead bird, and this, having first unhooded the 
hawk, he throws to a distance of a few feet. The latter, seeing 
the delicate morsel, alights after it, but he is only permitted to 
taste it. Thus, by throwing the bird further and further, the 
hawk is soon taught to extend its flight ; and then from dead 
birds, living ones, and lastly hares, are substituted, until its 
education is complete. 

Of nocturnal birds of prey, owls, large as well as small, are 
numerous ; a magnificent specimen of the great horned owl 
was on one occasion seen in the market, where it was exposed 
alive for sale, and, here, also, from time to time, the smaller 
species have been met with. 

Of the gaping birds, the night-jar or goat-sucker is very 
common ; gliding silently through the air, close to the surface 
of the more barren portions of the fields, soon after the sun has 
set. Swallows have been incidentally mentioned elsewhere, and 
thev occur here in extensive flights during the entire summer ; 
the first of them having been seen by me on the 9th of April, and 
the last on the 8th of October. For some time after its appear- 



ZOOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 219 

ance, the bird was mute ; it did not continue so long, however. 
On the 17th of June, I noted that for some days back, in the 
cool of the evening, a swallow, to all appearance the Hirundo 
rustica, perches on a rope near my door, and chirps a song 
sweeter 'than I had hitherto thought it capable of. From this 
time onwards until early autumn, this delightful little visitor 
continued to return, evening after evening, to its favorite spot, 
where for some time it would warble its soft notes, undisturbed 
by the people, who every few minutes passed by at a distance 
from him of less than thirty yards* 

With the approach of winter, the summer visitants take their 
departure^ and those that delight in cold weather make their 
appearance. Duck, more especially fin-tailed, shoveller, and 
mallard, arrive from the northward. Teal become abundant in 
the market: wild geese are sold for a trifle; an occasional 
partridge is met with, and magnificent pheasants are brought 
down from the hills of Tartary. In riding across the plain at 
this season, immense flights of the pterocles or sand-grouse sweep 
with noisy flights over our heads, as they arrive to take up their 
winter residence. Rooks begin to congregate in large flocks j 
as they fly, the note of the jackdaw among them is easily de- 
tected, and on the bare fields, from which the crops have been 
removed, flights of a small bunting — no doubt the local repre- 
sentative of our home snow species — rise in such numbers that 
they literally at times look like clouds. These, as already men- 
tioned, are captured in great numbers throughout the winter 
and form a most delicate dish at table. 

It is a decidedly remarkably circumstance that the natives of 
this part of China, although as a class careless and indifferent 
to suffering among their fellow-men, and seldom, if ever, affec- 

* Gilbert White, in his still popular 'Natural History of Selborne,' remarks 
that among the birds that sing as they fly, is the swallow (Sirtmdo dontestica) in 
soft sunny weather (p. 138). At p. 191, he remarks " The swallow is a delicious 
songster, and in soft sunny weather sings both perching and flying ; on trees, in 
a kind of concert, and on chimney tops." He further (p. 210) gives the date of 
arrival of swallows at South Zele, in Devonshire, in the year 1774, as the 25th 
of April. 

In works upon natural history, we are informed that the Mirtmdo rustica ap- 
pears in England about April 10th, and remains about six months. The co- 
incidence between these dates and those noted by me at Tein-tsin is remarkable 
and interesting. (See Patterson's ' Zoology,', p. 361.) 



220 ZOOLOGY OP TE1N-TSIN. 

tionate in their families, as the civilised Christian is, are, as 
a class, extremely partial to pet birds. It is no uncommon 
thing to see an adult Chinaman, with cage in hand, sunning his 
little favorite, or heating the clumps of grass with tamarisk 
bushes upon the plain for insects, with as much eagerness as a 
boy would do in England. A great number of the birds thus 
kept in cages have been bred in captivity ; but the majority 
have been caught by nets and snares, and tamed. The Chinese 
practise two plans for taming birds, both seem equally 
successful, and although more or less cruel while the process 
is actually taking place, are of such short continuance as to 
probably be, upon the whole, much less painful than our 
more protracted, but more merciful system. Birds as they 
alight or remain temporarily in this part of China, are, as 
already mentioned, netted in great abundance. They are 
immediately brought to market in baskets covered over by net- 
ting, and in these, not unfrequently, injure themselves in their 
struggles to escape, if, indeed, they had not already sustained 
more or less hurt. Being purchased, it matters not how wild 
they are, they are readily rendered perfectly tame. By one pro- 
cess a bird is dipped over head and ears into a bucket of cold 
water, immediately after which, the poor, half-drowned thing 
clings to the warmth of the hand while it trims its feathers, 
and thenceforward remains as tame as tame can be. By another 
process, a thread or string being tied around the creature's neck, 
it is permitted to struggle and fret itself, until, exhausted by 
fear and its exertions, it becomes glad to take shelter on its 
tormentor's hand. The birds that appear to be most esteemed 
by the natives are a brown song-thrush, which, in early spring, 
pipes its notes as if in imitation of our own home mavis, the 
ordinary yellow canary, a small green linnet, a drymirca, a 
species of the oriole, and a whitish coloured shrike. The latter 
neither sings nor pipes, but seems to afford amusement by its 
peculiar habits. It is usually retained on a perch, consisting of 
a slender piece of wood, having at the top a cross-bit upon which 
the bird settles, a thread attached to its foot and to the perch 
guarding against escape. It is the especial amusement of the 
possessor of a bird of this description to teach it to catch in its 
T>eak, when in the act of falling, beetles, or other insects, or 



ZOOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 221 

morsels of meat thrown high up in the air, so as to descend as 
close past his perch as possible, the perch being for this purpose 
stuck in a wall or in the folding of a door. 

But by far the most beautiful of the bird pets, and beyond all 
comparison the sweetest songster, is a species of what is evi- 
dently one of the Sylviadse. This bird, which has all the habits 
of the genus, is distinguished by a beautiful patch upon its 
breast, of metallic red, or metallic blue. It is about the size of 
our own robin, but in sweetness and extent of song equals the 
nightingale. 

What is here called the mocking bird, and called by the 
Chinese wa wee, has all the characters of an alanda. Like the 
lark genus it feeds entirely upon grain ; the breadth of shoulder, 
the half open wings, and its general attitude are precisely 
similar ; so also is its colour, but its size is perhaps half as large 
again as our British species. The beak is somewhat more 
arched, and the hind toe less prolonged. Like our bird, too, 
this is fond of standing upon a rounded elevation placed for that 
purpose in the bottom of the cage. It occasionally chirps a 
short song ; but its accomplishment does not lie so much in this 
as in the wonderful facility with which it imitates any of the 
more common sounds, as, for instance, the barking of a dog, 
the mewing of a cat, or the crying of a child ; and so universal 
a favorite is it, that in almost every shop and private house, the 
cage of the wa wee hangs outside the door or immediately 
within. 

Pigeons are great favorites, and the varieties as numerous as 
they are in India. The carrier is frequently made use of for the 
purpose of conveying information between distant places, and 
the Chinese throughout the winter season seem to take a 
pleasure in attaching a light musical instrument, made of 
bamboo, to the tail of these birds in such a manner as that, 
without interfering with their flight, it produces a peculiar 
whistling sound as the air is thus made to pass through it. The 
pigeons, instead of taking alarm at the noise thus created, seem 
themselves to enjoy it. 

Of fowls, large and small " Cochin China " and bantam 
are in immense numbers there. Eggs that have been buried in 
earth for a year or two are esteemed a delicacy at the tables of 



222 ZOOLOGY OF TBIN-TSIN. 

the rich ; chickens are some of the chief dishes at the numerous 
cook-shops along the streets, and cock-fighting is, as already men- 
tioned, a very favorite pastime among the men ; thus, therefore, 
poultry are valuable for ornament, for amusement, and for food. 

Never in any country where I have been have I seen eggs in 
such abundance as they are in this part of China ; and what is 
perhaps as remarkable as their abundance is the fact that they 
are obtainable in greater quantity, and of better quality during 
the cold of winter than they are in summer. This must no 
doubt be from the circumstance that the natives have some 
method of preserving them with which we have not yet become 
acquainted. They must also have a method of incubating these 
eggs that we have not been able to find in this neighbourhood, 
but which is well known to exist in some other parts of the 
empire. 

On the 27th of May I came accidentally upon people con- 
veying large baskets, full of small chickens, to market. The 
birds were evidently not more than a very few days old ; hun- 
dreds, literally hundreds, of them, were sprawling over one 
another in these baskets, but my ignorance of Chinese prevented 
me from obtaining any particulars in regard to them. 

It may be well to observe that geese and ducks thrive 
extremely well, and are abundant at Tein-tsin, but turkeys 
are not to be met with. 

Of quadrupeds the number of species met with at Tein-tsin 
are few. In fact the bare, arid nature of the country around it 
during the greater part of the year, and the extremes of heat 
and cold to which the climate is liable, are circumstances pre- 
judicial to the existence of mammalia in a wild state. 

There do not appear to be any animals of the chase of the 
larger kinds in this neighbourhood. The fox and a burrowing 
species of hare seem to be the only two to be found. These 
remain throughout the year; and during the winter season, 
when the fields are perfectly bare, afford good sport, being 
usually hunted by both dogs and hawks at the same time; thus 
they have but very little chance of escape left them. 

On the field an occasional hedgehog is met with during 
the summer; but these animals retire or become dormant as 
soon as cold approaches ; field mice and dormice are frequent, 



ZOOLOGY OP TE1N-TSIN. 223 

while within doors, their cousins, the common rat and mouse 
are no less so. 

Bats fly ahout in great numbers in the early evenings of 
summer and autumn, but none of a large size appear to be 
found in the neighbourhood ; among the nocturnal animals tbat 
make havoc among pet pigeons and poultry is a stoat; this 
creature manages to find its way along the eaves of houses, and 
is extremely destructive to the young birds. 

Several quadrupeds, which although apparently not found in 
the immediate neighbourhood, as brought from a little distance 
either for the purpose of exhibition or for sale ; among these is 
the squirrel, of which two species have been met with ; the one 
red backed, with its under parts white, and tail large and bushy, 
similar to the European one ; the other, the small striped one, 
identical in appearance with the one so familiar to every person 
who has resided in India, as constantly gambolling on trees in 
the neighbourhood of houses. 

One species of monkey has been brought in from the district. 
It is small, in its disposition remarkably gentle, and speedily 
becomes attached to its owner ; the consequence is, that it is a 
great favorite. 

A small bear has occasionally been observed, but as this 
species of quadruped was being exhibited, and, as in Europe, 
made to perform various antics and tricks, it may possibly have 
been originally brought from a great distance. 

The badger is, in all probability found in the near vicinity; 
this animal has been met with, evidently soon after having been 
captured ; but the natives who had it in their possession were 
either too hurried or too frightened to give any account of the 
how, or the when, or the where, of its capture. Wolves, if we 
may judge from the abundance and cheapness of fur made from 
their skins in the shops, must be very common at no great 
distance from Tein-tsin. Eurs of all kinds are abundant here, 
those of the wolf and fox being next in frequency to that of the 
sheep, which is the most abundant of all. One kind of fur 
derived from the sheep, however, is not only comparatively rare, 
but also very expensive ; namely, what is called Astracan fur. 
It is said to be prepared from the skin of the unborn lamb, 
the ewe being necessarily sacrificed in order to obtain it. The 



224 ZOOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

most valuable kind of this is of a pale gray colour ; the next 
in value black, and the least valuable piece white ; the wool of 
all being beautifully curled, but short. 

Tiger skins, and those of leopards, are also abundant, being 
used for mats, and for the purpose of being thrown over couches. 
The animals from which these are taken are believed to be 
found in Mongolia and Thibet, but must from their locality be 
exposed to very intense cold in winter. It is known, however, 
that on the Himalayas a tiger, in no way different in appearance 
from that of Bengal, is met with prowling about for prey 
amidst the deep snow. 

The most valuable furs are the sable and the ermine; both 
these are abundantly brought from Siberia. Seal skin, brought 
from the direction of the Amoor is also plentiful, but expensive. 
The cheapest description of fur is that of squirrel skin, said to 
be brought from forests situated in the direction of Pekin, but 
at what distance we have not been able to ascertain. 

Of the quadrupeds used as food, the pig, the ox, and the 
sheep, occur abundantly. The first of these are reared in 
flocks ; a keeper tends them in the fields where they live upon 
whatever they can pick up. In the evening they are driven 
home, where a mess of what looks like oil-cake, with grain 
boiled in' water, awaits them ; others, however, and by far 
the greater number have to pick up their food as best they may 
upon the streets ; and so filthy is the nature of what they there 
find, that it had better not be particularised. 

In the midst of all the dirt, pigs are prolific in an equal pro- 
portion with what is attributed to the biped under similar cir- 
cumstances. Heaps of little pigs, and heaps of little children, 
may often be seen here wallowing in close proximity in the 
same slimy mud. 

Pork is less abundantly eaten here by the natives than it is 
in the south, and, perhaps, it is not to be wondered at ; yet still 
it forms by no means an inconsiderable article of their food. 

Oxen are small and shaggy, not by any means unlike those of 
the highlands of Scotland. They are indiscriminately used 
with donkeys, mules, and ponies, for the purpose of draught; 
and furnish beef which is tolerably abundantly eaten by the 
people of Tein-tsin. 



ZOOLOGY OT TEIN-TSIN. 225 

It may be mentioned, that milk is not used for the purpose of 
food either here or in the south of China. It appears, however, 
to be held in high esteem in Mongolia, where it is abundantly- 
used. After a little time, the people finding that a ready sale 
for milk could be obtained among the foreigners, it was regu- 
larly brought to market ; but its quality was found to be so very 
inferior, and its flavour so very slight, that it never was much 
used, even by us. We may presume that the herbage obtainable 
in China is not calculated to impart to milk those properties 
which render it in England and Europe generally so great a 
luxury at table. 

Sheep are reared in small numbers, but large flocks are 
regularly brought down from Mongolia. The mutton is ex- 
ceedingly superior in quality, although the animals obtain no 
other food than the scanty and scrubby herbage which, during 
some part of the year, scarcely covers the surface of the ground, 
though during the brief summer season it grows luxuriantly. 
The sheep are almost all white ; a few have black faces ; their 
limbs are long, and tails rounded, containing many pounds of 
fat, as do those of the sheep of Cabul and those of Syria. They 
differ in this respect from the large-tailed sheep of the Cape of 
Good Hope, that whereas the latter have the whole length of 
tail included in the rounded mass of fat, those of Tein-tsin have 
this peculiar deposition upon the upper two thirds of it, the 
lower third being free; and what gives it a very peculiar appear- 
ance is a half turn which it has. 

Flocks of sheep are each morning taken out upon the fallow 
portions of the plain in order to graze ; the flock is led by one 
of the shepherds, as mentioned in Scripture of the Syrian 
sheep, but here the stragglers are kept up by a second shepherd 
who brings up the rear, aided by a dog in every respect similar 
to the common shepherd's dog of Scotland. In the intensely 
cold weather, sheep and oxen are fed in the house ; so, indeed, 
are horses and mules ; for this purpose millet stalks, chopped 
very small, are extensively used ; and if we may judge from the 
excellent condition in which animals so fed usually are, it 
must be allowed that this species of fodder is extremely 
nutritious. 

The breed of horses here is very small and shaggy. The dis« 

15 



226 ZOOLOGY 01 TEIN-TSIN. 

tinguishing characters of these animals are short legs, stout 
round body, "fiddle" heads, and long hair. The Chinamen 
are perhaps as grooms inferior to any other race of people 
among whom the horse is known ; and, as a result, the Tartar 
breed of horses, which alone is found here native, bear upon 
them all the marks of utter neglect. Notwithstanding their 
ungainly look and general appearance of neglect, however, they 
are not only robust and powerful, but extremely fleet ; true they 
do not gallop ; they do not appear to know how to gallop ; they 
run with a gait not unlike that of a pig, but in this way manage 
to shuffle along so quickly, that it puts a good horse at full 
gallop upon his mettle to catch them up, and it is said that the 
Tartar cavalry, mounted upon animals like these, literally out- 
ran their pursuers during the late actions in this neigh- 
bourhood. 

A small, wretched-looking race of donkeys are used partly for 
draught in the fields ; and during our residence there were fre- 
quently hired out to soldiers, who, mounted upon them, took 
excursions into the country around. These donkeys were par- 
ticularly useful in this respect, for the soldiers had but few means 
of recreation, and being able for a few cash to hire donkeys, a 
ride even upon these humble steeds served frequently to pass a 
few hours that would otherwise have hung very heavy upon 
them. 

A peculiar custom in respect to donkeys prevails here, as well 
as in some other parts of the world; the nostrils of all are 
deeply slit, with the view, as the people believe, of giving 
admittance to a greater supply of air to the lungs during severe 
exertion than would be possible by nostrils in their natural 
state. Donkey drivers upon the Himalayas similarly slit up the 
nostrils of their animals, and for the same supposed purpose ; 
and the same custom is said to be practised in Syria. By far 
the most favorite draught animal in this part of China, however, 
is the mule. As has just been mentioned, the breed of both 
horses and donkeys is small. Strange, however, the mules are 
in size and make remarkably fine ; some are not less than fifteen 
hands in height ; being easily kept clean, their skins are won- 
derfully sleek. For the purpose of drawing the travelling carts 
of the country, mules are almost solely used, and the higher 



ZOOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 227 

orders of the followers of state officers more frequently ride 
them, when proceeding in processions of ceremony, than they do 
horses. 

A few remarks upon cats and dogs must wind up this imper- 
fect chapter upon the animals of the north of China. Both these 
animals serve other purposes, no doubt, but are also used as 
food, although only by the very poorest classes of the people. 
The native cat is somewhat similar to the Japanese species, inas- 
much as they are almost destitute of tail; this appendage is 
noticed in them to a length of three to four inches, and has the 
additional peculiarity of the distal vertebra being turned to one 
side at right angles to the one next it, so as to give the appear- 
ance to the tail of being tufted at the end. Cats are proverbial 
everywhere for their prowling disposition, and their noisy prac- 
tices at night ; in both these peculiarities those of the north of 
China are second to none. 

Crowds of hungry dogs, lean and mangy, prowl about the 
streets in all directions ; as a rule, they will make their escape, 
barking or howling as they run, from an European ; but from 
their extreme numbers, they are so much in the way, that some- 
times a person coming upon them suddenly gets bitten ; hydro- 
phobia is by no means an uncommon occurrence in consequence; 
this result would not be a matter of wonder, when we shall have 
considered the horrible nature of the food of these animals ; but 
it is a somewhat strange circumstance, that although this disease 
arises sometimes from the bite of the wretched animals that 
prowl along the streets, yet it is still more frequent after the 
bite of the pampered little wretches called Pekin dogs, from 
which the now famous King Charles's spaniels are believed to 
be descended. 

That wretched beggars sometimes pick up, and carry away for 
the purpose of food the carcasses of dogs that have died from 
disease, I have personally witnessed, and that the young of the 
same animals are sold for a similar purpose I have frequently 
heard stated confidently. There can scarcely be even among 
the lower animals, a more filthy feeder than the Chinaman; so 
that it can be readily imagined that to him a puppy dog would 
be quite a bon bouche. The great majority of dogs that prowl 
about the street appear to be owned by no master, they there- 



228 ZOOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

fore have to live upon what garbage they can find ; objects, there- 
fore, of very filthy nature, are greedily eaten by them ; and so 
very omnivorous do they become through necessity, that they 
may sometimes in summer be seen devouring pieces of water 
melon, and other succulent fruit that have been thrown away. 
This I have personally seen, but I have also seen a scene far 
more repulsive, and one that led me to believe that, in some 
places at least, the herds of dogs, that render an approach to 
them disagreeable, if not dangerous, are maintained for a very 
dreadful purpose. On the 24th of May, in riding towards the 
country, I had occasion to pass through one of the most crowded 
burial places in the neighbourhood of the town. As I was in 
the act of doing so, I suddenly met a dog carrying in its mouth 
the dead body of an infant, of the age apparently of only a few 
weeks. The head had either been gnawed off, or cut off; one leg 
and both arms were also deficient, they probably having already 
formed the repast of some canine scavenger. The body seemed 
perfectly free from decomposition, and therefore, we may pre- 
sume that death, by whatever cause induced, could but very 
recently have taken place. My companion and myself stood for 
a little, to observe the horrible exhibition ; several Chinese were 
near, and as we pulled up for an instant, they laughingly re- 
marked to each other, "The English are looking at it." 
This incident, then, trifling as it was in itself, spoke loudly of 
the cruelty, and want of consciousness of how valuable life is, 
which characterise the people; for even if in this instance we 
cannot impute to them the murder of the infant, it is impossible 
to resist the conclusion, that the body almost immediately after 
death had been so carelessly disposed of, as to render it easy for 
the dogs to obtain possession of it. After this, it was not 
possible for us to resist the inference, that where dogs abounded, 
dead children might also be found were minute search in- 
stituted. 

In addition to the two descriptions of dogs already alluded 
to, namely, the Pekin dog, with high rounded forehead, short 
muzzle, and short legs ; and the sheep dog, resembling exactly 
the " colly," or sheep dog of Scotland, there are several others 
to be met with at Tein-tsin. Of these, the rarer and more 
valuable is a description of greyhound, from the shoulders and 



ZOOLOGY OE TEIN-TSIN. 229 

flanks of which long hair descends in tufts. It is in its general 
characters very similar to what in India is called the Rampore 
greyhound, and like it is used only for the chase. 

A breed, precisely like that of Skye terriers, is also found 
here, being that described by Mr. Oliphant as the Shan-tung 
terrier. Its hair is long and shaggy over its body ; its eyes are 
almost hidden by that on its face, and in length of body and 
shortness of legs it exactly resembles the famous breed of Scot- 
land. Then, again, we have what is here called the Canton 
dog; it is considerably larger than the one just described, is 
thickly covered with long hair ; the tail so much curled over the 
back as to occasion the impression that it is about to start 
spontaneously from its attachment ; the head is broad behind, 
but tapering very much towards the muzzle ; the eyes placed so 
peculiarly far forwards, and directed upwards in such a manner 
as to give to the face the general character, in a small degree, of 
that of the lemur. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSLX. 

Winter cold — Periods of cold — Quarrying ice — Ice pits— Dryness of atmosphere— 
Causes of coldness — Kegnlarity in the weather — Greatest cold — Returning 
warmth — A dust storm — Its effects upon the sick — Ice on the river breaks 
np — Vegetation appears — Hot winds — Electricity — Hot season — Clearness 
of the atmosphere — Comet — - Period of maximum heat — Temperature 
moderates — Bain — Rapid fall of temperature — Concluding remarks. 

The geographical position of Tein-tsin, as given by the Royal 
Engineers is, in north latitude, 39° 9'; east longitude, 117° 16'; 
it is about thirty miles distant from the sea; the nearest moun- 
tain range about 100 miles southward from it. In consequence 
of the extremely level nature of the country, the height of the 
city is n6t more than eighteen feet above the level of the sea ; 
the tide therefore rises to a height of several feet in that part of 
the Peiho river and imperial canal which passes through Tein- 
tsin to form their confluence. 

In endeavouring to give the following abstract of meteorological 
observations, I must observe that the readings of the instruments 
were very carefully registered by surgeon Dr. Lamprey, of the 
67th regiment, under whose charge the public instruments were 
placed; and that from the monthly reports of this medical 
officer, furnished to me, I am able to deduce the following 
remarks upon the climate of this part of China. These instru- 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 231 

ments* were placed in the most favorable position for the pur- 
poses of observation that could be found in a crowded city such 
as Tein-tsin was. They were sheltered as far as possible from 
radiation and solar heat ; the thermometers were in the open 
air, but the barometer was within doors, its reservoir situated 
about twenty-nine feet above the sea level. 

The primary object in view in taking an account of the 
meteorological conditions was to trace the bearing these had upon 
the phenomena and prevalence of particular diseases. Hence in 
the following tables and remarks, this is brought more or less 
prominently forward. 

* The instruments by which the observations at Tein-tsin were taken, were 
all from Negretti and Zambra. 

The minimum thermometer bore the number 1461. 
The hygrometer had no number. 
The maximum thermometer bore the number 2262. 
The barometer — a portable one — had the number 389. 



232 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN, 



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234 CLIMATOLOGY OE TEIN-TSIN. 

The following analysis of the observations taken shows that, 
as regards temperature — 

The mean maximum was 

„ „ minimum 
Actual mean .... 

The highest degree attained during the month (it 
occurred on the 4th) was 50 - 

The lowest degree reached (it happened on the 31st) 
was 3'0 

The mean monthly temperature was .... 28 - 

The greatest range during the month was . . . 47"0 

The mean daily range of the thermometer during the 

month ......... 16 - 2 

The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 
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meter was 22-5°, wet 17 , 5° ; and one day the state of 
the hygrometer was not noted. 

During nineteen days, on which the presence of ozone 
in the atmosphere was perceptible, the average de- 
gree of it according to scale was .... 2 - 

On twelve days its presence was not perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 
was dry and cold. 

No rain fell throughout the whole of it. 

Snow fell upon two days; the total fall amounting 

only to inch 0"042 

The prevailing wind was pure north. 

The directions from which the wind blew being : 
northerly, 10 days; southerly, 7 days; easterly, 7 
days ; and westerly, 3 days. 

The monthly rate of mortality among the British 

troops would amount for the year, per cent., to . 516 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 235 

among the British, were as follow, viz. (including all 
hospitals) : 



Fever, per cent, of strength . 


. 0-72 


Pulmonic diseases .... 


. 0-56 


Diseases of stomach and bowels 


. 1-44 


Rheumatic diseases 


. 0-18 


Liver diseases .... 


. 0-05 



The general character of the weather throughout the month 
is described as fine, pleasant, and bracing; though the ther- 
mometer denoted a low range, the sensations did not indicate 
excessive cold. 

On the night of the 8th of this month, a slight fall of snow 
is said to have taken place, and again on the 13th, the amount 
on both occasions being only -042 inch. 

On the 20th of the month, the temperature of the air at 
2 p.m. was 25° Fahr. ; at 9 p.m. it had descended to 17°. A faint 
breeze prevailed from the northward ; there was no snow upon 
the ground ; the sky was clear, except that a few stratous clouds 
hung about the horizon. 

On 22nd, the self-registering thermometer showed that during 
the preceding night the temperature had descended to 5 "5°, and 
at 3 a.m. it only reached 22°. The air was still, the sky clear, 
but the sensations did not indicate the amount of cold that 
actually prevailed. The temperature had undergone a rapid 
descent since the middle of the month. Towards the latter end 
of November, the river had become partially closed by ice; 
but a break having taken place, the season became for a short 
time mild again, the river reopened, and traffic upon it that had 
been interrupted was again begun, and continued for a few days. 
Upon the latter date, however, we learn that a sudden fall took 
place in the temperature. It so happened that a small schooner 
the property of Mr. Dent — the first to arrive under the treaty — 
had succeeded in making her way up the river, notwithstanding 
that the ice was rapidly increasing upon it, and reached that 
city on the 20th, just in time to be completely closed in for the 
remainder of the winter season. 

On the 23rd the ice upon the river was sufficiently strong to 
bear sleighs, and thenceforward passengers, and a considerable 



236 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

amount of traffic were conveyed in this way, all the boats being 
permanently fixed for the winter. So rapidly did the ice block 
up the river at Taku, that a detachment of troops having arrived 
there, and having had to be landed in two parties, one half 
only could be brought on shore. Before the gunboat by which 
they landed was able to return to the shipping, the ice had ac- 
cumulated to such an extent as to completely oppose a barrier 
to all further communication, and the result was that the re- 
maining portion of the detachments had to return to Hong 
Kong in the vessel by which they had come to the north. 

By the 30th of the month of December, the minimum range of 
the thermometer is recorded to have reached 11° Fahr. ; at 10 a.m. 
the thermometer only indicated 17°. A cold north wind prevailed, 
the sky was hazy, and the sensations indicated a very severe 
degree of cold. On the night between the 30th and 31st, the 
minimum thermometer indicated 3° Fahr. ; at 3 p.m. the mer- 
cury stood at 18° Fahr. In the morning it was found that the 
moisture from the respiration had partially become frozen upon 
the moustache. Ice had to be broken from the block and 
melted, so as to be converted into water for the bath ; and not- 
withstanding that a fire was lighted in my room, a thin film of 
ice formed in a few minutes upon the surface of the water that 
had been put in a tepid state into the bath tubs. Water standing 
in a basin not more than a yard from the fire became during 
the day converted into ice ; but then, it must be observed, our 
grates were not quite so well adapted to throw out heat as those 
in English drawing-rooms are. 

Even already meat and game had become firmly frozen; 
joints had to be thawed before being cooked; bread was so 
hard as to require great force to cut it, unless used while fresh 
from the oven. Oils and several other articles in the medical 
stores became masses of ice, bursting their bottles during ex- 
pansion. Porter and ale became frozen in the casks in which 
they stood, and in some instances were solidified in bottles as 
they lay in our cellars. 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



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CLIMATOLOGY OT TEIN-TSIN. 239 

An analysis of observations taken during the month gives the 
following results, namely : 

Toff a.m. To3b.m. To 9 p.m. 
The mean maximum temperature was 21 - 7 28-7 26'8 
„ „ minimum „ . 10'8 17 - 16 - 9 
The actual mean „ . 16-2 228 21'8 

The highest degree attained during the. month, viz., on 
the 24th, was 38*0 

The lowest degree reached, viz., on the 14th, was . - 8 

The mean monthly temperature was .... 20 - 2 

The greatest daily range throughout the month, viz,, 

on the 1st, was ....... 27 - 

The smallest was on the 9th inst. .... 60 

The greatest monthly range was .... 38'8 

The mean daily range of the thermometer during the 
month was ........ 17*8 

The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 

twenty days of the month was .... 65 - 

On two days, the amount was not noticed. 

On nine days, the degree of dryness was so great that 
Glaisher's tables did not indicate it. 

The average of these gave for the dry bulb, 28 s ; for 
the wet, 21° ; but the variety shown and represented 
in the tables was so great, that on one occasion— the 
26th inst. — while the dry reached 31°, the wet was at 
18° : thus indicating a remarkable degree of dryness 
with low temperature. 

During twenty-six days, on which the presence of 
ozone in the atmosphere was perceptible, the aver- 
age amount according to scale was . . 2 
On fine days its presence was not perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 
was dry and cold. 

No rain fell throughout the month. 

Snow fell on two days, amounting, according to the 

gauge, to inch 0103 

The prevailing wind was from the north. 

The directions from which the wind blew were as 



Pulmonic diseases . 
Diseases of stomach and bowels 
Rheumatic diseases 
Liver diseases 



240 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

follow : namely, northerly, on 12 days ; southerly, 6 ; 
easterly, 6 ; westerly, 3 ; and on 4 days the atmo- 
sphere was calm. 
The monthly rate of mortality among the British 

troops would amount for the year to, per cent. . 7 - 80 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases, 
among British, was as follows (including all hospitals) : 
Fevers, per cent, of strength . . . 150 

4-06 
2-07 
0-54 
0-36 

The general characters of the weather during January, is de- 
scribed as fine, dry, and bracing. During the month a trivial 
case of frost-bite occurred in a soldier of irregular habits who 
was for his irregularities committed to the cells. While walking 
in the open country the face and ears suffered acutely from the 
dry, cold winds ; and the Chinese took into general use padded 
caps for the protection of the latter organs. 

On the 11th of the month it is recorded that the minimum 
temperature of the preceding night had been 10° Fahr.; at nine 
the thermometer indicated 17°; at seven p.m., 22"5°. On this 
occasion we had a slight fall of snow ; the total amount being only 
•089 inch. The air was close, the flakes fell soft, like so much 
down. They were readily seen to consist of six -rayed stars, each 
ray feathered, as represented in some of the elementary works 
on meteorology, and in accounts of some voyages to the arctic 
regions. Towards evening they became irregularly round, as if so 
many small fragments of ice, yet the sensations alone indicated 
mildness of temperature. 

Some information in reference to the divisions of the winter 
season by the Chinese themselves having come under my 
observation, and as it may be interesting in a scientific point 
of view, I will simply transcribe as nearly as possible the 
translation of the original document as given to me by Dr. 
Lamprey. 

According to the 'Royal Chinese Almanac/ published hy 
authority at Pekin, the 11th of January (1861) is the first day 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 241 

of their twelfth month, and fourth day of their third period of 
cold. Each period consists of nine days, and they reckon nine of 
these periods. It therefore follows, according to their calendar, 
that the first commenced upon the 20th of December, and that 
the last will end on the 2nd of March. 

The present season is said to be the coldest, but subsequent 
experience showed that in this respect the calculation of the 
Chinese is not quite correct. The present, however, is the period 
when ice is principally collected and stowed away for summer 
use. A brief account of the process may not be uninteresting- in 
this place. 

Numerous parties of men are now busily engaged digging - 
huge blocks of ice from the thick coating that covers the river. 
The blocks that are quarried out are each ahout two feet and a 
half long, one and a half broad, and their general thickness 
ahout a foot ; for their upper surface being covered more or less 
deeply with obnoxious matters, a layer of three to four inches is 
broken off by means of the picks before final removal of the block 
itself. Other men, by means of ropes, on each of which was a 
running noose, the more easily to secure the quarried blocks, 
were busily engaged in dragging them up the bank by means of 
inclined planes placed for the purpose, or dragging them along 
the narrow streets towards the houses in which they were finally 
packed away. 

The construction of one of these pits, visited by me, was very 
simple. It may be simply said to have consisted of four walls 
of mud, very thick at the base, and becoming somewhat narrower 
towards the top > a drain stretched away from about the centre of 
the base, evidently for the escape of water that might percolate 
from the solid blocks. The length of the edifice was consider- 
ably more than a hundred feet ; the breadth upwards of fifty ; 
men were busily occupied stowing away in this huge pit the 
blocks of ice as they were brought — for it will be observed that 
as yet the roof had not been put on ; the, top of the wall being 
several feet above the level of the street, the ice had to be 
drawn up an incline, as it had in the first instance been from 
the river to the summit of the bank. All the blocks being cut 
as nearly as possible of the same size, they fitted together so 

16 



242 CLIMATOLOGY 01 TEIN-TSIN. 

well when placed in their proper position, as to form an almost 
perfectly compact mass. 

It was explained to me that this pit had been already filled 
to a depth often feet; upwards of three feet still remained unfilled. 
It was evident that so soon as this should be packed full of ice, 
a roof would be placed over all, and thus the whole closed in. 

As elsewhere mentioned, I had long afterwards an oppor- 
tunity of seeing one of these pits, and found that it was exca- 
vated to a depth of several feet in the ground, so that it was in 
reality deeper than I had at first supposed ; I had also occasion 
to remark that in some pits of similar construction, fruits of 
various kinds had been preserved among the contained ice. 

I may here observe that throughout January and February, 
more especially the former, the operations of quarrying and 
housing the ice are here busily pursued. In moonlight nights the 
scene upon the river is then animated and picturesque in the 
extreme. The absence of sunlight is considered a great advan- 
tage. Crowds of people then pursue their occupation upon the 
river, some digging the ice, some carrying it away ; and the 
clear rays of the moon, uninterrupted as they are in this clear 
atmosphere by a single cloud, throw a glare upon the scene that 
renders it as beautiful as it is strange. 

It is of course necessary that the people thus engaged should 
be completely protected from the cold ; they are accordingly so 
thickly enveloped in furs and quilted clothes, that their breadth 
and proportions generally remind one of the pictures of Esqui- 
maux so familiar to all readers of books of travel. 

Their feet are well protected from the cold by huge leather 
cases lined with fur and straw, and secured upon them by means 
of thongs of leather or rudely made tapes ; a warm hood en- 
velopes the head, and mits, as uncouth in proportion, and com- 
posed of similar materials to the " sandal shoon," protect the 
hands. 

On the 12th of January, I note that the thermometer had 
during the night descended to 5° Fahr., that at 9 a.m. it stood 
at 5° Fahr., and at half-past three o'clock in the afternoon was 
only at 14-5°- The sky was clear, the breeze scarcely per- 
ceptible; snow lay fine and white upon the ground, although 



CLIMATOLOGY OE TEIN-TSIN. 243 

its depth was extremely trivial. So intense was the cold on 
this occasion, that as we walked along not only did the 
moisture of the breath become deposited as icicles upon the 
moustache, but even descended to our beard. One of our party 
had the tips of his eyelashes covered by small icicles of hoar 
frost; yet, with the active exercise we were at the time in- 
dulging in, we felt comfortably warm. We had ample proof, 
however, that the severity of the climate had already begun to 
tell injuriously upon the health of both officers and soldiers, 
who had previously served much in hot climates. 

On the 13th, a severe storm of wind came on ; first, from 
various points of the compass, latterly becoming steady from 
northward. Dust and snow were blown about, penetrating 
into our rooms through the various crevices that existed in the 
flimsy fronts, which, as already noted, consisted chiefly of thin 
deals of pine, covered over inside with paper. The thermometer 
at three p.m. had only reached 14° Fahr.j but the sensations indi- 
cated even a greater degree of cold than that shown by the instru- 
ment. It may seem strange to those of my readers accustomed 
only to the climate of Ed gland that dust and snow should be 
drifted about by the same storm. So extremely dry is the 
climate in the north of China during the greater part of the 
winter season, that almost all the moisture that had been con^ 
tained in the upper stratum of soil, becomes so completely 
removed by evaporation that the particles of earth are not 
united as they would be by means of ice in a more moist atmo- 
sphere ; thus, on the occasion of wind-storms, not only are they 
perceptibly affected by the electricity then set free, but are like 
other loose objects liable to be carried hither and thither by 
the passing breeze. 

On the 14th, the temperature was marked as having on the 
previous night descended to zero ; and at nine a.m. it was only 
7° Fahr. There was now comparatively little wind, and con- 
sequently the sensations indicated a greater degree of warmth 
than what had prevailed on the previous day. Walking was 
now most enjoyable, and there is no doubt that, for those who 
are able to indulge in it, it is by far the most healthful exercise 
at this season. Riding, unless after hounds or hawks, is for 
the most part dull, and particularly apt to induce coldness of 



244 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

the feet or a severe chill of the system generally. By the 
26th of January, the note was recorded in the meteorological 
report that the minimum degree of cold during the preceding 
night had been 17°; at 9 a.m. it was 01-5°, and at 4 p.m. 29°. 
During the preceding few days, the minimum range of the 
thermometer had descended less and less low, but no corre- 
sponding increase took place in its upward range. The indication 
of cold by sensations alone depended more upon the prevalence 
and direction of wind than upon mere temperature as indicated 
by the thermometer, a northerly wind being, as might be 
expected, the coldest. 

It may be observed in this place that the degree of winter 
cold at Tein-tsin is much greater than ought to be the case, if 
we take into consideration only its latitude and elevation above 
the sea. To account for this circumstance, we must bear in 
mind the facts that the country northward from it is for a 
very great distance little more than an arid plain, devoid alike 
of forests and the larger kinds of vegetation ; thus it the more 
readily parts with the warmth imbibed during the hotter periods 
of the year, and interposes no barrier to the cold blasts that 
come sweeping down from the high mountains of Thibet and 
Siberia. 

It must not be supposed that a permanent rise took place in 
the temperature from the time just mentioned. Several descents 
subsequently took place, and, as we shall see as we proceed in 
this account, some to even a lower degree than has yet been 
recorded. The line of daily mean temperature would, if pro- 
jected, exhibit a succession of variations of greater or less 
extent, both horizontally and perpendicularly, but henceforward 
with a general upward tendency. The variations not only in 
this respect, but also in the other observable meteorological 
conditions are so regular in their occurrence from year to year, 
that the natives, who consider themselves to be more " weather- 
wise" than their neighbours, assert positively that they are 
able to predict these changes almost to a day. 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



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CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSLKT. 247 

The following are some of the results obtained from these 
observations, namely : 

The mean maximum temperature was 

The mea'h minimum 

The actual mean .... 

The highest degree attained during the month was, on 

the 23rd 46-0 

The lowest degree, reached on the 12th instant was 

(minus) ........ 1*5 

The highest daily range occurred on the 2nd, and 

amounted to . . . . . . . . 29'0 

The smallest daily range was observed on the 25th. It 

was ......... 8 - 

The mean daily range of the thermometer was . . 18 - 5 
The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 21 

days of the month was . . . . . . 67 "0 

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On five days the dryness was so great that Glaisher's 

tables did not indicate it. 
The average state of the hygrometer during these five 

days would give for the dry bulb 29"6, and for the wet 

240 • the greatest difference being on the 17th of the 

month, when the former was at 35°, and the latter at 

28° Fahr. 
During twenty-six days on which the presence of ozone 

in the atmosphere was perceptible, the average 

amount was ........ 5"0 

On two days its presence was not perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 

was dry and cold. 
No rain fell throughout the month. 
Snow fell on three days, amounting, according to the 

gauge, to, inch ....... 0065 

The wind during the month was variable; thus, it was 

northerly on 8 days, southerly on 7, westerly on 3, 

easterly on 4, and calm on 6. 
The monthly rate of mortality among the British 

would amount for the year to, per cent. . . - . 2 40 

* From twenty-six days' observation. 





1-20 




2-85 




1.23 




0-54 




0-23 



2-18 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among the British was as follows (including all hospitals) : 

Fever, per cent, of strength 
Pulmonic diseases 
Diseases of the stomach and bowels 
Rheumatic diseases . . , 
Liver diseases .... 

The month of February set in with a minimum temperature 
of 8'5° ; at 9 a.m. the thermometer indicated 20°, and to the 
sensations this temperature felt mild. In the afternoon, how- 
ever, a cold, cutting wind set in from the north ; the horizon 
became obscured by impalpable dust, giving to the sun the 
same lurid glare that is so familiar in Upper India during the 
prevalence there of the hot winds. Yet, as we walked out at 
Tein-tsin on the present, how very different were the sensations 
from what they used to be in India under the circumstances 
mentioned. 

A very material rise had taken place in the temperature by 
the 4th of February ; the minimum then marked was 20° Fahr., 
at 9 a.m. 23°, and at noon 30° Fahr. A slight fall of snow had 
taken place during the previous night, and a few flakes con- 
tinued to fall during the forenoon. A few white, filmy clouds 
appeared in the sky, and the sensations indicated that a very 
favorable change had taken place in the state of the weather. 

For some time back the number of people to be met with 
upon the street had considerably diminished, many persons 
being, no doubt, deterred by the severity of the weather from 
leaving their houses unless under some pressing necessity ; now, 
however, it was apparent that the streets were once again be- 
coming crowded as before ; bustle and activity, which had for a 
short time decreased, were now recommencing, and the favorable 
weather, added to the near approach of the New Year festival, 
brought many out in search of pleasure and amusement, as is 
said to be sometimes the case among western nations on similar 
occasions with them. 

On the sixth of the month, with a minimum temperature of 
22°, and at 2 p.m. 29° Fahr., snow fell gently, in small, fine 
flakes, which, as they collected to some slight depth on the 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 249 

ground, gave to the foot in walking the impression that a 
tendency to thaw existed; the atmosphere felt mild to the 
sensations, yet there was a considerable amount of sickness 
among both officers and men of the force, especially among those 
who had served during considerable periods in hot climates. 

The following day a thaw actually set in for a time, indicating 
the correctness of the impressions just noted as having been 
conveyed. Shortly afterwards, however, another fall of snow 
took place, being the heaviest that occurred during the season. 
By the 11th the minimum had again descended, reaching as 
low as 4° Fahr., and at 9 a.m. being at only 6° Fahr., a fog 
hung over the earth, and the sensations gave an impression of 
intense cold. On the 12th the thermometer indicated the 
greatest cold that had been reached during the winter. The 
minimum during the previous night had been 1° Fahr. below 
zero in the dense suburbs where we were stationed ; and we 
were informed that on board the gunboat " Slaney," which 
had been grounded in the river about, seven miles from the 
town, the lowest degree marked on the same occasion had 
been 5° Fahr. The temperature on this occasion, at 9 a.m., was 
only 6° Fahr., the sky clear, the atmosphere dry, the sensations 
indicating great cold, and the actual cold sufficient to occasion 
the deposit of a thin pellicle of ice, during the few minutes I 
was occupied in taking my bath, upon tea that had been brought 
to me hot immediately prior to commencing my ablutions. 
Here we have no means of maintaining a fire alight in our bed* 
rooms throughout the night. It is, therefore, by no means 
pleasant to awake and find one's^ breath congealed into hoar 
frost upon the blankets and furs among which we had endea- 
voured to "tuck" ourselves up as protection against the 
intensity of the cold that prevailed. 

A thin coating of snow still lay upon the ground, giving to 
the immediate neighbourhood of the city a very peculiar 
appearance, where the succession of natives' graves — some 
conical, some dome-shaped, others an oblong square — rose up^t 
short intervals as so many white mounds. 

From this time the increase of temperature was rapid. On 
the 17th the minimum noted was 20° Fahr. ; and by 9 a.m. the 
thermometer stood at 25°. The sensations indicated a pleasant 
degree of warmth; and during the forenoon the contents of 



250 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

the streets, which had hitherto been a mass of solid ice, began 
to thaw; a peculiar haze had in the early part of the day 
obscured the sky, and about noon a high wind set in from the 
southward, continuing throughout the remainder of the day to 
blow with considerable force. 

During the few following days the range of the thermometer 
continued to vary considerably, but its upward range increased. 
On the 19th, and though the minimum temperature had again 
descended so low as 8° Fahr., and that at 9 a.m. was only 
19"8° Fahr., the day became exceedingly agreeable. The wind 
had quite ceased ; the haze already mentioned had cleared 
away, and the afternoon sun shone out with considerable 
power. The snow had almost all disappeared; small pools 
were forming here and there upon the ground. The ice upon 
the river is in many places covered with water to the depth of 
an inch ; sleighs are becoming decidedly fewer than they were 
a short time ago, and people are beginning to move about their 
boats, breaking the ice immediately around those that became 
bound by it in the river, and repairing those that had been 
drawn up for security into the primitive-looking docks that 
have been elsewhere mentioned as occurring at intervals along 
either bank of the river. 

So rapid was the thaw, that on the 20th of the month the 
streets had become ankle deep with mud, and other matters of 
an even more objectionable nature, rendering a walk through 
the town a matter anything but agreeable. 

By the 22nd the minimum had increased to 25° Fahr., and 
in the afternoon the temperature in the shade was 43°. The 
atmosphere conveyed to the sensations what is so well known 
at home as a " spring feeling." Thaw was progressing rapidly. 
Flocks of birds that had in the earlier part of the winter mi- 
grated southward, were now seen pursuing their return flight ; 
and what was of considerably more personal importance to us> 
was the fact that those among us who had suffered in health during 
the cold period, began now to experience an improvement. 

By the 27th of this month, the temperature in the sun and a 
sheltered situation had become agreeable to the sensations. 
The wind, however, continued cold ; but so great had the effect 
of the solar heat already become upon the river ice, that it had 
decreased in thickness from upwards of fourteen inches to seven. 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



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CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 253 

The subjoined contains an abstract of the observations taken. 
Thus we learn that the — 

To 9 a.m. To 3 p.m. To 9 p.m. 
Mean maximum temperature was . 41 - 9 54 , 6* 51*0 
Mean minimum .... 29-8 36-3* 377 
Actual mean 35-8 45'4 44"3 

The highest degree attained during the month was . 68*0 
The lowest degree reached was ..... 18 - 
The mean monthly temperature was . . . . 41 • 8 
The greatest range during the month was . . . 50 - 
The highest daily range occurred on the 21st. It was 335 
The smallest, namely, on the 3rd, was . . 11 '5 

The mean daily range of the thermometer was . . 24'2 
The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 

twenty-eight days was 46'0 

On two days the state of the hygrometer was not noted. 
During twenty-eight days on which the presence of 

ozone in the atmosphere was perceptible, the average 

amount was ........ 3'0 

On three days its presence was not perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 

was that of rapid change from cold to heat. 
Rain fell on two days ; the total amount, according to 

gauge, being, inch 0'695 

Snow fell on two days, the amount in inch . . . O090 
The prevailing wind was from south. It was northerly 

on 11 days, southerly on 10, easterly on 7, westerly 

on 1, and calm on 2. 
The monthly rate of mortality among the British during 

the month would amount for the year, to per cent. 3 - 12 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among the British was as follows (including all hospitals) : 

Fevers, per cent, of strength . . .1-62 
Pulmonic diseases ..... 1'09 

Diseases of stomach and bowels . . . 1-48 
Rheumatic diseases . . . . . - 50 

Liver diseases ...... 0-53 

* By interpolation. Observations wanting on two days. 



254 CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSLNT. 

March set in with a slight fall of snow ; the minimum tem- 
perature marked was 26° Fahr., and at 9 a.m. 30-8° Fahr. On 
the following day a high wind from the south set in, rendering 
the sensations given by the atmosphere unpleasant, and the 
reverse of bracing. An occasional slight fall of snow during the 
3rd and 4th indicated that the atmosphere was gradually be- 
coming more humid. The ice had now become completely 
covered with water from the gradually melting of its upper 
surface, and traffic had entirely ceased upon it. 

On the 7th of the month a dust storm occurred, which 
deserves a somewhat detailed notice. Early on the forenoon 
of that day a high wind set in from the northward ; the sky 
became in appearance what the Chinese describe as brassy, 
that is, it assumed the yellow lurid hue so familiar in the upper 
provinces of India, as preceding what is then called " a devil," 
or revolving dust-storm. 

It did not appear that the wind which prevailed had at any 
time a circular motion ; in fact, the electrical phenomena were 
what alone deserved especial notice. The electrometer indicated 
that a rapid current of positive electricity was moving from the 
atmosphere towards the earth ; its intensity being so great that 
a chain of sparks was apparent when the extremities of the 
atmospheric and terrestrial portions of the conductor were 
brought into near proximity to each other. Whenever the 
extremity of the former was brought into contact with the 
surface of the earth, a very interesting phenomenon became 
apparent, the dust was repelled from the end of the wire, or, as 
it were, blown away, leaving a course, as the wire was coiled 
along, as clear from sand as if the dust had been carefully 
brushed away. It particularly deserves to be noted, however, 
that the dust was not simply repelled direct onwards, or to 
either side; on the contrary, the current thus created had a 
distinct tendency upwards, but it was not possible to say 
whether it at the same time acquired anything approaching to a 
circular movement upon its own axis. The scale upon which 
the experiment was made was too small to give more than very 
partial results. 

With a view to ascertain how far the diseases of the troops 
might have been affected by this storm, Dr. Bindon, the medical 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 255 

officer in charge of the General Hospital, was requested to 
examine the state of the patients immediately after its occur- 
rence, and the following are some of the results of his 
inquiries : 

1st. As regards bowel diseases. — Sixteen patients in hospital 
affected with these, experienced distinct aggravation of their 
symptoms ; sixteen were not affected in either way ; two 
cases were admitted from barracks; two patients in hospital 
died during the day of the storm. 

2nd. Intermittent fever. — Only one patient suffering from 
this form of disease seems to have been at all affected. He had 
no regular paroxysm, but suffered during the day from general 
febrile disturbance, with great prostration. 

3rd. Paralysis and rheumatism. One of the patients affected 
with these diseases suffered during the day from more severe 
rheumatic pains in his extremities than ordinary, and from 
general febrile disturbance. 

There is no doubt but that the human body is powerfully 
affected by the electrical condition of the atmosphere. This is 
alluded to as follows by Sir Ronald Martin : 

" It has been long known that animals waste and perish when 
they have been deprived of their positive electricity by being 
attached to the opposite pole of a galvanic battery. When the 
human body, on the other hand, has been for some time exposed 
to an atmosphere of a negative electricity, it is believed by 
many to become thus incapable of resisting the various causes 
of disease, as the exhalations from the earth, the force of 
epidemics," &c. 

On March 11th the minimum of the thermometer marked 
was 32° Fahr. At 9 a.m. the mercury stood at 40° Fahr. ; a 
northerly breeze prevailed ; and on this day, as already men- 
tioned, the ice upon the river suddenly broken into fragments, 
and floated down the stream. 

On the 15th of this month the first shower of rain fell that 
had occurred since October. It was not preceded by wind, nor 
by any evident perturbation of the atmosphere. A great fall 
occurred during the night; and it may be remarked that for 
some time afterwards from this, nothing could be more agreeable 
than the climate here ; in fact, so rapid had been the increase 



256 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

of temperature, that already we felt the heat actually unplea- 
santly great. 

On the 17th the remark appears in my journal that the 
feelings now conveyed by the atmosphere are precisely similar 
to those experienced in England on a fine spring day. A few 
clouds began to collect in a previously clear sky, and presently, 
the whole coalescing, a slight fall of rain took place, attended 
by gusts of wind from the southward. The rain increased on 
the following day, so as to render the streets almost impassable, 
so deep was the mire and gutter ; while in consequence of the 
defects of drainage, and sloping nature of the streets, the water 
accumulated in some of the more hollow places to a depth 
of upwards of two feet, that is, so as to reach the girths of 
horses. 

On the 23rd the minimum marked was 36°, the maximum 
during the day 67°, but a temporary fall taking place, the 
minimum on the 27th had descended to 29° Fahr. At 9 a.m. 
the temperature was 37°, the sky became hazy, and another 
slight fall of snow occurred. 



CLIMATOLOGY OT" TEIN-TSIN. 



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CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 259 

By the subjoined abstract we hear that the — 

To 9 a.m. To 3 p.m. To 9 p.m. 

Mean maximum temperature was . 59*8 731 70-0 

Mean minimum „ . 46-2 55'0 54-3 

Actual mean „ . 53'0 64-0 63*1 

The highest degree attained during the month was . 87*0 

The lowest degree marked was 35*0 

The mean monthly temperature was .... 60*0 

The greatest range duriDg the month was . . . 52 - 
The highest daily range occurred on the 21st. It was 43*2 
The smallest daily range, viz., on the 23rd, was . . 11*0 
The mean daily range of the thermometer was . . 266 
The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 

twenty-three days of the month was . . . 37'0 
On two days the state of the hygrometer was not noted. 
On five days the hygrometer indicated a greater degree 
of dryness than the tables gave us the means of cal- 
culating. The average difference during these was 
from 77° Fahr. for the dry bulb, to 52-2° for the wet 
one. The difference between these two has varied 
from 22° to 27°. 
On eighteen days, during which the presence of ozone 
in the atmosphere was perceptible, the average 
amount was ........ 3*0 

On twelve days there was no ozone perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 

was great dryness, and frequent dust-storms. 
Rain fell on one day only ; the amount being, inch . 003 
The prevailing winds were southerly. 
The directions from which they blew were northerly . 
on 11 days, southerly on 13, easterly on 3. On no 
occasion during the month did the breeze come from 
the west, and on 3 days the air was calm. 
The monthly rate of mortality among the British would 

amount for the year to, per cent. .... 5*64 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among British was as follows (including all hospitals) : 



260 CLIMATOLOGY 01 TEIN-TSIN. 



Fevers, per cent, of strength 


1-25 


Pulmonic diseases 


. 0-94 


Diseases of stomach and bowels . 


. 1-28 


Rheumatic diseases 


. 0-29 


Liver diseases .... 


. 0-35 



The month of April set in with a mildness of temperature 
that was particularly pleasant to the sensations. The lowest of 
the thermometer was 35° Fahr. ; at 9 a.m. it stood at 50°. 
Vegetation, which had been hitherto backward, now was ap- 
pearing rapidly and luxuriantly. Sickness had much diminished, 
and the climate had attained a degree of moderation which, 
although highly appreciated, did not unfortunately last long. 

Dust-storms which, during the month, occurred very fre- 
quently, first commenced on the 3rd, from the eastward. The 
temperature was on this occasion 56° Fahr. at 9 a.m., yet the 
sensations produced by the breeze were unpleasantly cool. 

By the 14th of this month it was noted that the minimum 
temperature had risen to 45 - 6° Fahr. ; at 9 a.m. it was 60°; the 
weather had, indeed, become already unpleasantly warm, so that 
a walk at 4 p.m. could not be indulged in without occasioning 
some feeling of discomfort. 

Dr. Lamprey records that on the 16th and 21st of the month 
we experienced some approach to the hot winds of India. On 
these occasions the breeze came from the south-west, and so 
remarkable was the difference between the indications of the 
wet and dry bulbs of the thermometer, that on the first occasion 
this amounted to 19° Fahr., and on the latter to 27°. 

In order to contrast this with what is observed in England, I 
quote from ' Drew's Meteorology/ page 138, that " the greatest 
difference in the reading of the dry and wet bulb thermometers, 
which the author registered during seven years of observation 
at Southampton, occurred April 19th, 1854, at 3 p.m., when 
the dry bulb thermometer reading was 69°, and the wet bulb 
53°; difference 16°." 

On the 21st a very marked change took place in the weather. 
The minimum temperature was 43 - 8° Fahr., at 9 a.m. 66° Fahr. 
Early in the forenoon the sky, from having been clear, became 
lurid and hazy; the atmosphere was loaded with impalpable 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 261 

dust ; a hot dry wind set in from the westward ; the barometer 
fell considerably; the sensations were unpleasantly affected; 
the presence of positive electricity was made apparent by 
the electrometer. We now experienced all the sensations so 
familiar to us in India during the prevalence of the hot winds 
in that country ; and it is, perhaps, deserving of mention that, 
although no more than five weeks have elapsed since the ice 
broke up, a supply of this article at dinner was highly appre- 
ciated. The natives, however, did not delay the use of this 
agreeable addition to their drinks so long as we did. They had 
begun its use almost as soon as they had ceased to collect it, 
and native drinks thus cooled were to be obtained at many of 
the temporary restaurants that occur at different parts of the 
streets. 

In regard to the phenomena by which a dust-storm was 
attended, its rise was generally sudden, and was indicated by a 
disturbance in the state of the electrometer. The direction of 
the wind immediately before the occurrence of these storms was 
usually the south-west, whence it came in gusts and eddies, 
raising in its course small clouds or revolving pillars of dust, as 
in India, until shortly afterwards the entire atmosphere became 
obscured, and the storm prevailed with greater or less intensity. 

Notwithstanding, however, .that the weather during April was 
frequently broken with storms of this description, it was, upon 
the whole, an agreeable month. 



262 



CLIMATOLOGY OT TEIN-TSIN. 



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264 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

From the subjoined abstract we learn that the — 

To 9 a.m. To 3 P.M. To 9 P.M. 

Mean maximum temperature was . 69'0 81 - 7 75'9 
Mean minimum „ . 55"7 62-8 617 

Actual mean „ . 62-3 72'2 68-8 

The highest degree attained during the month was . 94*0 
The lowest reached was . . . . . . 41 - 

The mean monthly temperature was . . . . 67 "7 

The greatest range during the month .... 53 - 

The highest daily range, viz., on the 15th, was . . 39"5 
The smallest daily range, viz., on the 22nd, was . . 9'0 
The mean daily range of the thermometer was . . 26"2 
The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 

twenty-eight days was ...... 48 - 

On one day the state of the hygrometer was not noted. 
On two days the degree of dryness was beyond what is 

derivable from Glaisher's tables. The average state 

of the hygrometer for these is, dry bulb 90°, wet 58 - 7°. 
On twenty-eight days, during which the presence of 

ozone in the atmosphere was perceptible, the average 

amount was ........ 3 - 

On three days there was no ozone perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 

has been variable, but generally balmy, and with a 

pleasant, moist atmosphere. 
Rain fell on eight days ; the total amount, according to 

gauge, being, inches ...... 2 - 585 

The prevailing winds south-east. 

The directions from which the winds prevailed were 

northerly on 4 days, southerly on 13 days, westerly 

on 1 day ; on 12 days its direction was not noted. 

On 1 day the air was calm; no easterly wind is 

recorded. 
The monthly rate of mortality among British would 

amount for the year to, per cent. .... 2-04 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among British was as follows (including all hospitals) : 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 265 



Fevers, per cent, of strength 


. 1-52 


Pulmonic diseases 


. 0-20 


Diseases of stomach and bowels . 


. 0-96 


Rheumatic diseases 


. 0-43 


Liver diseases .... 


. 017 



The month of May set in with a minimum temperature of 
49° Fahr. ; at 9 a.m. it had reached 66° Fahr., and during the 
day attained a height of 85° Fahr. ; a dry, hot wind prevailed 
from the south, although the intensity of its heat was much 
under that of the corresponding wind which prevails in India 
during the same period of the year. This wind having con- 
tinued three days, a favorable change took place at the ex- 
piration of that time ; the sensations, as well as the hygrometer 
indicating the presence in the atmosphere of an increased 
amount of vapour, which, in the course of a short time after the 
occurrence of a storm of thunder and lightning, fell as a slight 
shower of rain. 

From the 5th to the 12th a slight fall of rain took place 
almost daily, although the amount was too trivial to be mea- 
sured by the pluviometer. The weather during this time was 
agreeable, giving to the sensations the impression conveyed by 
what is called " a balmy" day in England. On the 13th the 
minimum temperature noted was 50"5° Fahr., and at 9 a.m. it 
had risen to 74° Fahr. The sky had in the early period of the 
day been clear ; towards afternoon the breeze increased from the 
northward, quantities of dust were drifted about, the electro- 
meter was violently agitated, a chain of sparks was disengaged 
between the extremities of the conductors when brought near to 
each other. Nor was this storm without its effects upon the sick 
in hospital, for according to Dr. Lamprey, some haemorrhage 
took place from a wound in one case, tetanus occurred in 
another, and erysipelas in a third. 

The pernicious effect exerted by this storm upon vegetation 
is mentioned in the chapter upon fields and agriculture. 

On the 16th the wind was remarkably hot, and the dryness 
of the atmosphere extreme ; thus, the dry bulb thermometer 
indicated 92'5°, the wet bulb 60° Fahr., the difference between 
them thus amounting to 325° Fahr. 



266 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

The temperature remained high until the 22nd, when it fell 
to 62° at 9 a.m. ; a heavy shower of rain occurred, and the wind 
being at the time strong, the sensations indicated an unpleasant 
amount of cold. A slight increase in temperature afterwards 
took place, but during the remainder of the month the weather 
remained agreeable. 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



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CLIMATOLOGY 01" TEIN-TSIN. 269 

From this abstract we learn that the — 

To 9 a.m. To 3 p.m. To 9 p.m. 

Mean maximum temperature was . 79'3 90 - 9 87"7 

Mean minimum „ . 66*7 74-1 72"5 

Actual mean „ . 73-0 82-5 80-1 

The highest degree attained during the month was . 107 - 
The lowest reached was ...... 53"0 

The mean monthly temperature was . . . . 78" 5 

The greatest range during the month was . . . 54"0 
The highest daily range, viz., on the 12th, was . . 42*0 
The smallest daily range, viz., on the 19th, was . . 15'0 
The mean daily range of the thermometer was . . 27*5 
The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 

twenty-four days was ...... 45 - 

On two days the state of the hygrometer was not noted. 
On three days the amount of dryness was greater than 

what Glaisher's tables afford the means of calculating. 

The average for these was, for the dry bulb 92°, for 

the wet 66-3°. 
On one day the state of the hygrometer was above the 

temperature noted in Glaisher's tables, viz., dry 105°, 

wet 76° Fahr. 
On twenty-four days, during which the presence of 

ozone in the atmosphere was perceptible, the average 

amount was ........ 2'0 

On six days there was no ozone perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 

was hot and dry, with occasional hot winds. 
Rain fell on six days, the total amount being, according 

to gauge, inch ....... 1*795 

The prevailing winds were southerly. 

The wind was northerly on 3 days, southerly on 12, 

westerly on 12. On 3 days the atmosphere was calm. 

On no occasion did the breeze come from the east. 
The monthly rate of mortality among British would 

amount for the year to per cent. .... 2 - 77 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among British was as follows (including all hospitals) : 



. 336 


. 0-24 


. 2-98 


. 0-35 


. 0-24 



270 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

Fevers, per cent, of strength 
Pulmonic diseases .... 
Diseases of stomach and bowels . 
Rheumatic diseases .... 
Liver diseases ..... 

The month of June set in disagreeably; on the 1st the 
minimum temperature was 53'5° Fahr., at 9 a.m..71"8° Fahr. 
During that day a dry, hot wind sprang up from south-west. 
This was temporarily interrupted by a slight shower on the 
night of the 1st; but it was evident from the rapid increase that 
was taking place in the state of the thermometer, that the hot 
season had now set in with severity. On the 6th, from a mini- 
mum of 59° Fahr. during the night, the thermometer in the 
shade during the afternoon reached 95° Fahr., and on the suc- 
ceeding day it had reached 98° Fahr. The natives now began to 
inform foreigners who questioned them upon the subject, that 
great as the heat now was, it would soon be exceeded. They 
were correct when, early in the cold season, they intimated to us 
the nature of the weather that was before us ; we therefore 
could not refuse to give to their predictions now a certain amount 
of confidence ; nor was that confidence undeserved, as we subse- 
quently had good reason to become aware. 

Between the 9th and 16th of the month hot winds were very 
prevalent; indeed, the average temperature of the period, 
including the 11th to the 17th of the month, was 102° Fahr. 

On the 14th the lowest noted was 69° ; at 9 a.m. the tempe- 
rature was 83° Fahr. The sky clear — a hot breeze from the 
south prevailed ; hot as the weather was, however, it was up to 
the present time much less so, both absolutely and as regards 
the impressions made upon the sensations, than in India at the 
corresponding period. The 16th was still hotter. The ther- 
mometer, during the afternoon, attained 106° Fahr. ; and at six 
o'clock, p.m., stood at 100°. A very convenient contrivance 
for cooling the room was now adopted by most of us. A large 
mass of ice was placed upon some cross pieces of wood placed 
over a bath tub in the centre of our sitting-room. By sitting 
close to this during the day, we were able to enjoy a tolerably 
pleasant temperature ; and in the water that percolated from it 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 271 

during the day and succeeding night we were able to enjoy the 
luxury of a cold bath on the following morning. 

The natives had now adopted a style of dress suited to the 
climate. Furs and padded dresses had long previous been dis- 
carded ; the style of costume had become thinner and thinner, 
and now their dress was generally nothing more than a pair of 
thin drawers. Some wore a gauze kind of jacket, but others 
were completely undressed to the waist ; the women, however, 
were always modestly and becomingly dressed, the upper part of 
their person being always covered in a manner from which some 
ladies of European nations might, with advantage to themselves, 
take an example. 

A heavy shower of rain having taken place, it was remarked 
that the atmosphere attained a degree of transparency greater 
than it had hitherto done ; a range of hills that had up till the 
present time been hidden, became distinctly visible, being 
thrown into bold relief against the horizon as the sun descended 
behind them. The map of China informed us, that the range 
was that near Ting Ching. These were upwards of eighty miles 
from Tein-tsin ; and we learned that a great part of the game 
that was to be met with in the market during winter, as also 
the very inferior description of coal that was then used, were 
originally brought down from this range. 

For a time, the atmosphere became unpleasantly moist to the 
sensations, although the hygrometer did not indicate any great 
degree of humidity. The floors of our houses consisted in most 
instances of no better material than bricks, laid down more or 
less loosely ; the apartments occupied by us not only were ren- 
dered extremely damp, but the emanations from the earth below, 
rising freely through this imperfect floor, became not only 
offensive, but pernicious to health. A damp heavy odour per- 
vaded the houses, and the saline efflorescence from the soil 
became deposited in acicular crystals, like so much hoar frost. 

Thus the weather continued till the end of the month ; the only 
circumstance to be noted being that, on the 29th, at 6'30 p.m., 
a dust storm suddenly came on from north-north-west. Thunder 
and lightning succeeded ; the latter, on one occasion, entering a 
barrack-room, and striking a handle of a sword, which was 
instantly fused. A heavy fall of rain soon afterwards followed. 



272 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 





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274 CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

The following abstract shows that the — 

To 9 a.m. To 3 p.m. To 9 p.m. 
Mean maximum temperature was . 87"6 97'5 93'5 
Mean minimum „ . 73-8 83-4 79'1 

Actual mean „ . 807 90-4 86-3 

The highest degree attained during the month was . 108*0 

The lowest reached was 61 "0 

The mean monthly temperature was .... 85'8 
The greatest range during the month .... 47"0 
The highest daily range, viz., on the 2nd and 16th, was 30 - 
The smallest daily range, viz., on the 26th, was . . 12 - 
Mean daily range of the thermometer during the month 22 - 9 
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twenty days was 55 - 

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noted. 
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average reading of the dry bulb on these was 101 "6°, 

of the wet 81-2°; the difference being thus 20-3. 

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dry was 102-5°, wet 78°, difference 24-5°. The least 

on 23rd, when the dry was 102 - 5°, wet 92 - 5°, difference 

10°. 
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was T6 

On seven days there was no ozone perceptible. 

The general character of the weather was excessively 

hot and exhausting. 
Rain fell on seven days, the total amount of rain, 

according to gauge, being, inch .... T035 
The prevailing winds were southerly. 
The wind was northerly on 6 days, southerly on 13, 

easterly on 3, westerly on 7, and on 2 there were 

calms. 
The monthly rate of mortality among British would 

amount for the year to, per cent 12-36 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



275 



The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among British was as follows (including all hospitals) : 

Fevers, per cent, of strength .... 5 - 73 

Pulmonic diseases ...... - 35 

Diseases of stomach and bowels . . . 7*22 

Rheumatic diseases ..... 038 

Liver diseases ...... 0*41 

Heat apoplexy ... ... 1*57 

July proved to be not only the hottest month, but the most 
fatal to our troops of any through which we had already passed 
or that were still before us. On the 1st, the minimum of the 
thermometer was 81° Fahr., the degree of saturation of the atmo- 
sphere 57°. The sky was clear, the sensations during the day 
indicative of great heat. In the evening an agreeable breeze 
set in from south-east ; and it may be remarked, although not 
directly bearing upon the subject of climate, that on the evening 
of this day, a comet was first observed. It continued from this 
time nightly to make its appearance, receding further and 
further with extreme velocity, until finally lost to sight in the 
distance after August 10th, on which date I was last able to 
obtain a faint glimpse of it. 

During the first week of this month, the heat was very great ; 
on the 7th, the minimum at night was 80°, at 9 a.m. 91° Fahr. 
Next day a slight fall of rain took place, and there was a short 
respite in the severity of the weather. It was only, however, 
as a temporary lull before the final outburst of the sun in all 
his power. 

For the most part, the atmosphere conveyed an impression of 
dampness to the sensation, and this circumstance tended to 
render it extremely trying to the health of the troops. From 
the 13th the few clouds that till then had dotted the sky, 
became gradually fewer in number. On the 16th with the wind 
from north, a dust-storm suddenly arose, attended as usual with 
perturbations in the electrometer. In a few minutes it was 
succeeded by a shower of rain. The occurrence of this dust- 
storm deserves to be noted here, as it was the only instance of 
one happening during this month. Our most severe period, 
and also our most fatal one was from the 17th to 23rd. The 



276 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

heat was then so severe that the mean temperature for the 
period was 96° Fahr. A clear, cloudless sky, permitted the rays of 
the sun to pour down in their full intensity. On three occasions 
the mercury in the thermometer reached 108° Fahr. ; the atmo- 
sphere at 9 a.m . gave for these days an average of 50°. During 
the latter dates, the sensations indicated that a favorable change 
in the climate was about to set in. On the 24th, the maximum 
range of the thermometer had descended to 96° ; and from this 
time forward the general progress of the line of temperature 
was downwards, although occasional fluctuations took place, as 
described when noting the conditions of climate during other 
periods of the year. 

On the last day of July, the thermometer is recorded as 
having descended to a minimum of 70° Fahr., and at 9 a.m. to 
have stood at 81° Fahr. ; white, filmy clouds being at the time 
scattered at intervals over the firmament. 



CLIMATOLOGY 01 TEIN-TSIN. 



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CLIMATOLOGY 0¥ TEIN-TSIN. 279 

Prom the following abstract we learn that the — 

To 9 A.M. To 3 p.m. To 9 p.m. 

Mean maximum temperature was . 834 900 87*2 

Mean minimum „ . 70-0 77-5 75-4 

Actual mean „ . 767 83-7 81-3 

The highest degree attained during 1^he month was . 0*100 

The lowest degree reached was 6C*5 

The mean monthly temperature .... 80 - 5 

The greatest range during the month . . . 39 - 5 

The highest daily range, viz., on the 6th and 10th, was 29'0 
The smallest daily range, viz., on the 22nd, was . . 22 - 
The mean daily range of the thermometer during the 

month 205 

The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 

twenty-eight days was 60"0 

On three days the difference between the dry and wet 
bulb was greater than what are calculated for in 
Glaisher's tables. For these three days the average 
reading would be, for the dry bulb 91 1°, and for the 

wet 69° ; thus indicating 300 

On twenty-two days, during which the presence of 

ozone was perceptible, its average amount was . 2'0 

On nine days no ozone was perceptible. 
The general character of the weather was much milder 
than July had been. The presence of more moisture 
in the atmosphere, the occurrence of clouds and rain, 
were agreeable to the sensations. 
Rain fell on twelve days, the total amount being, ac- 
cording to the gauge, inches .... 675 
The prevailing winds were northerly. 
The wind was northerly on 14 days, southerly on 5, 
easterly on 2, westerly on 10. On no day during the 
month was the air calm. 
The monthly rate of mortality among British would 

amount for the year to, per cent. . . . . 6 - 48 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among British, was as follows (including all hospitals) : 



280 CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

Fevers, per cent, of strength . . . . 3'71 

Pulmonic diseases 0-40 

Diseases of stomach and bowels . . .5*42 

Rheumatic diseases - 27 

Liver diseases 065 

Only three cases of heat apoplexy occurred. 

The month of August set in agreeably ; the minimum tem- 
perature was 62°, at 9 a.m. 77° Fahr. ; the amount of vapour in 
the atmosphere 70°. The wind was from north by west, sky 
cloudy and threatening ; during the evening a fall of rain took 
place, but much less heavy than might have been anticipated 
from the indications that preceded it. 

On the 3rd a fog occurred at 6 p.m., and continued till about 
ten o'clock the same evening. On the 4th the minimum was 
73° ; the thermometer at 9 a.m. 76° Fahr. Sky overcast ; the 
wind north ; a storm of thunder and lightning set in during 
the afternoon, and was very speedily succeeded by rain. The 
temperature was now rendered so temperate that on the fol- 
lowing day the brigade was able to parade for exercise — a 
matter that would have been impracticable had we been in India. 

From this time to the middle of the month, the temperature 
was pleasant ; the sky for the most part cloudy, occasional 
trivial falls of rain taking place, and the minimum temperature 
going down to 68° and 69° Fahr. ; that at 9 a.m., ranging from 
79° to 84° Fahr. 

Judging from what had taken place after the middle of 
February, which may, as regards the position of the sun, be looked 
upon as the opposite of August, we naturally looked for a rapid 
descent of temperature subsequent to the 14th of the latter 
month. On that day the minimum temperature was 74°; but 
by the 17th, it had descended to 65°. ; and at 9 a.m. was only 
69°. Heavy raiu was falling at the time, the wind blew gently 
from the north, and the sensations were most agreeable so long 
as we did not expose ourselves directly to the weather. We 
had indeed good reason to congratulate ourselves upon the 
favorable change that had taken place in the season. Weather 
of the same character as that just described prevailed to the 
23rd of the month on which date I had to leave the station. I 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 281 

was accordingly unable to note the various changes that took 
place during the remainder of the month, but may observe that 
the meteorological register that was kept up most carefully, in- 
dicated a gradual decrease of temperature, the occurrence of 
cloudy weather, and some very severe falls of rain towards the 
end of the month. 

From the report by Dr. Lamprey I learn that rain occurred 
at frequent intervals during this month, the total fall amounting 
to 6 - 75 inches. The degree of moisture in the atmosphere was 
now enough to moderate its temperature as compared with the 
preceding month, as also to saturate the ground, which con- 
tinued in a damp condition throughout the greatest part of it. 

The only occasion during this month upon which the presence 
of electricity was noted occurred on the 7th, when the wind 
came on in gusts from north-north-east, with occasionally a flash 
of lightning and a slight fall of rain. On these occasions, the 
gold leaf of the electrometer is said to have vibrated to it. On 
the 28th, the wind was from the south-west — that is, the " hot 
wind quarter f yet the sensation of heat was not on this oc- 
casion great, the thermometer at the time indicated 94°, there 
being only a difference of 5-3° Fahr. between the readings of the 
dry and wet bulbs ; hence, of course, the absence of a <c hot" 
wind. No dust-storm occurred during this month, 



282 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



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284 CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

An analysis of the observations taken gives the following 

conclusions : 

To 9 A.M. To 3 p.m. To 9 p.m. 
Mean maximum temperature was . 70 - 6 75-2 74 - 6 
Mean minimum „ . 57'1 627 63-2 

Actual mean „ . 63-8 689 68-9 

The highest degree attained during the month was . 92 - 
The lowest degree reached was ..... 40 - 
The mean monthly temperature was .... 67*2 
The greatest range during the month was . . . 52 - 
The greatest daily range, viz., on the 30th, was . . 28 - 
The smallest daily range, viz., on the 6th, was . . 12'0 
The mean daily range of the thermometer during the 

month was . 21'6 

The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere on 
twenty-nine days was ...... 54 - 

On one day the state of the hygrometer was not noted. 
On nineteen days, during which the presence of ozone 

was perceptible, its average amount was . . .TO 
On eleven days no ozone was perceptible. 
The general character of the weather was agreeable, 
the rays of the sun were hot, but in the shade the 
temperature was pleasant ; the sky was partially ob- 
scured by clouds. 
Rain fell on eight days, the total amount being, ac- 
cording to the gauge, inches 2 - 52 

The prevailing winds were northerly. 
The winds were northerly on 14 days, southerly on 8, 
easterly on 4, westerly on 3, and on 1 the air was calm. 
The monthly rate of mortality among British would 

amount for the year to, per cent 6*48 

The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases, 
among the British (including all hospitals) was as follows : 
Fevers, per cent, of strength . . T74 

Pulmonic diseases ..... 0'32 

Disease of stomach and bowels . . . 3 - 31 
Rheumatic diseases . . 0-40 

Liver diseases ...... 0'27 

No cases of insolation occurred. 



CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSITST. 285 

A considerable fall in temperature was noticed in the early 
part of the month, particularly at night, when blankets had to 
be taken into use. By the fourth the thermometer had reached 
a minimum of 64° Fahr. ; at 9 a.m. the temperature was 71° 
Fahr. The wind was northerly, the sky overcast. A large 
amount of water lay about in all directions, indicating how 
heavy had been the fall. The country in the neighbourhood had 
been converted for a great part into a swamp, and it was evident 
that this was the middle of the rainy season. We naturally 
judged that an especial degree of good fortune had attended the 
military operations of last year, in so far as weather was con- 
cerned. Had the season then been attended by the amount of 
rain that now had evidently fallen, it would not have been 
possible to have prosecuted the advance towards the capital. 

As the rise in the thermometer in the early part of the season 
had been remarkable, so was now its fall. By the 14th of 
this month the lowest range had gone down to 58° Fahr., 
while at 9 a.m. the mercury stood at 67° Fahr. The sky was 
cloudy, a faint breeze prevailed from the south, and the im- 
pressions made upon the sensations were agreeable. 

On the 27th the minimum had descended to 51° Fahr. ; the 
temperature at 9 a.m. was 60°, the sky hazy, the wind south 
by west, the climate exceedingly agreeable. Sickness, which 
had during the intensity of the hot weather prevailed to a great 
degree, still continued, although in somewhat diminished degree, 
the cases of severe illness that had been admitted in June, July, 
and August, still filling up the wards; the actual numbers 
admitted, however, were gradually diminishing. 

On the last day of this month the minimum was found to 
have descended to 52° j at 9 a.m. , the temperature was 62° 
Fahr. ; the sky had become clear ; a breeze prevailed from west 
by north, and it was evident that the cold weather was not far 
distant. 

Subsequent to my arrival in England I have received from 
Dr. Lamprey the meteorological records for the months of 
October and November, which I am accordingly enabled to add 
hereto, and in doing so, to record my obligations to this medical 
officer for his polite attention. 



286 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 





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CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



287 



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288 



CLIMATOLOGY Ol? TEIN-TSIN. 



From the observations taken we have the following parti- 
culars : 



Mean maximum temperature was 
Mean minimum „ 

Actual mean 



To 9 a.m. To 3 p.m. To 9 p.m. 

. 59-5 69.3 67-8 

. 438 53-4 52-1 

. 516 61-3 599 



The highest degree attained during the month was 

The lowest degree reached was . 

The mean monthly temperature was . 

The greatest range during the month 

The greatest daily range, viz., on the 14th, was 

The lowest daily range, viz., on the 27th, was 

The mean daily range of the thermometer was 

The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere 

during the entire month was 

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ozone in the atmosphere was perceptible, the average 

amount was 

On seven days its presence was not perceptible. 

The general character of the weather during the month 

was clear and bracing. 
Rain fell on only one day, the amount being, inch 
The wind was chiefly south-westerly. 
The directions from which it prevailed were northerly 

on 5 days, southerly on 10, easterly on 2, westerly on 

11, on 3 the air was calm. 
The monthly rate of mortality among the British would 

amount for the year to, per cent 



77-0 
37-0 
57-5 
40-0 
330 
110 
24-1 

54-0 



1-5 



0-40 



2-41 



The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among British (including all hospitals) was as follows, viz. 

Fever, per cent, of strength . . . 0'75 

Pulmonic diseases - 15 

Diseases of the stomach and bowels . . 306 

Rheumatic diseases - 34 

Liver diseases 055 



Dr. Lamprey has kindly forwarded to rac his report upon the 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 289 

meteorology of Tein-Tsin, during this month, and from this 
report I extract the following particulars, viz. : 

" The month of October was characterised by a tolerably 
equal temperature of a fine bracing character, not unlike, in 
many respects, the weather experienced in England during the 
same month. The average for the month was 10° Fahr. less 
than last month. 

" During the month, the fur shops made a great display of 
their wares, and the Chinese began to wear their thick, padded 
garments. After the first of the irionth swallows were no longer 
seen ; many migrating birds made their appearance on their 
way south — wild swan, geese, ducks and teal, were sold in the 
market. Insects were still abundant, but insect life gradually 
diminished towards the end of the month. 

" The trees began to drop their leaves, and many of the less 
hardy species became completely bare. Harvest operations were 
actively carried on during the month, and in many places the 
soil was reploughed and sown with winter wheat ; pears, apples, 
and grapes were stowed in an ingenious way in the empty ice- 
houses. The underground vaults were being got ready for the 
white cabbage and other vegetables. As yet there was no 
appearance of snow or ice. Rain fell on only one day, viz., 
the 27th ; the fall then amounted to - 40 inch. 



19 



290 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN'-TSIN. 



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292 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



The analysis of the observations gives the following results. 



viz. 



Mean maximum temperature was 
Mean minimum „ 

Actual mean 



To 9 A.M. 

. 46-9 
. 346 
. 40-7 



To 3 P.M. 

50-4 
37-5 
43-9 



The highest degree attained during the month was 

The lowest degree reached was . 

The mean monthly temperature was . 

The greatest daily range, viz., on the 9th, was 

The lowest daily range, viz., on the 24th, was 

The mean daily range of the thermometer was 

The average amount of vapour in the atmosphere during 

twenty-nine days was ...... 

On one day it was not noted. 

During eleven days on which the presence of ozone in 

the atmosphere was perceptible, the average amount 

was ......... 

On thirteen days its presence was not perceptible. 
On six days observations for it were not recorded. 
The general character of the weather during the month 

was cold and windy. 
Raiu fell on three days, the total amount being, in 

inches ......... 

The prevailing winds were northerly. 

The directions from which the wind came were northerly 

on 11 days, southerly on 7, easterly on 1, westerly 

on 6, and on 5 the air was calm. 
The monthly rate of mortality among the British would 

amount for the year to, per cent. .... 



To 9 B.M. 

50-6 
38-4 
44-5 

68-0 
25-0 
42-5 
30-0 
11-0 
19-4 

64-0 



1-0 



1-46 



1-20 



The rate of admissions on account of climatorial diseases 
among British (including all hospitals) was as follows, viz. : 

Fevers, per cent, of strength . . . 0-55 

Pulmonic diseases 1-81 

Diseases of the stomach and bowels . . 2'06 

Rheumatic diseases 0"35 

Liver diseases 0\20 



CLIMATOLOGY 01? TEIX-TSTN. 293 

According to Dr. Lamprey's report, the temperature during 
this month gradually merged into the cold of winter. On the 
8th ice half an inch thick was found on water exposed to the 
air during the night, but it was not until the 24th that ice 
and hoar frost first began to appear ascendant phenomena. No 
snow fell during the month. 

Rain fell on the 11th, 13th, and 23rd ; the total amount 146 
inch ; on the second of these dates, a thunderstorm with wind 
from the south. 

On the 7th a strong gale from the west, came on with much 
dust, but the state of the atmosphere was not noted. 

No grouse (sand) have as yet made their appearance ; swan, 
and other water fowl were sold in the market ; hares became 
abundant, the season for hawking having commenced. Vege- 
tables preserved underground are abundant in the market. 
The natives have taken into general wear furs and sheep-skin 
coats. 

In conclusion, I would offer the following brief observations. 
It may possibly be that even now the question may be put by 
some readers of the detailed account herein given of the meteor- 
ology of China, and especially of that part of the country 
where Tein-tsin is situated, of what use are all these minutiae. 
What good purpose do they serve, either as regards sanitary 
considerations, or as regards military arrangements ? To quote 
Sir Ranald Martin, " In a military point of view the knowledge 
of the pathogenic march of the seasons in different parts of the 
globe, and of the relation of the sanitary condition of armies 
with the different meteorological influences, is of immense 
interest, and has not yet received the attention it deserves." 
This is true in an especial manner in regard to China, where in 
all probability we have entered upon a policy which will neces- 
sitate the movement in different directions, during many years 
to come, of considerable bodies of troops ; and it is evident that 
in regard to such movements, a knowledge of the climate is very 
necessary ; while, in order that suitable arrangements may be 
made for probable sick, it is no less necessary that the connec- 
tion of particular diseases with certain atmospheric conditions 
should be known. 



294 CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

In some parts of the world this connection of particular dis- 
eases with certain climates has been fully investigated ; thus — 
In the ' Indian Annals of Medical Science/ No. 11, for January, 
1859, we learn that M. Von A. Muhry, in his investigations of 
hill climates, divides them into zones, according to temperature, 
and the same might probably be done in flat countries, accord- 
ing to temperature of locality ; thus — 

1. Lower or hot region, with a mean temperature of 72 - 5° to 
81-5°, presents as phenomena of disease, torpidity and adynamic, 
with tendency to derangement of digestive organs, especially 
liver and intestinal canal, also spinal marrow and skin. 

2. Middle or temperate range. This is divided into a 
cooler and a warmer, viz., from 41° to 54'5°, and from 54 to 
72 - 5°. Here the phenomena of disease fluctuate according to 
the season. Their character is in winter inflammatory, in 
summer it is more torpid ; the organic tendency, too, is in winter 
rather to the respiratory, in summer to the digestive organs. 

Sir Ranald Martin also remarks, in discussing the subject of 
climate, that the terms hot, warm, cold, cool, as applied to the 
surrounding air, are regulated by the sensations produced ; and if 
the heat be carried off as fast as it is generated, but no faster, no 
particular sensation is felt, the bodily powers being neither stimu- 
lated nor exhausted. Supposing, then, that no extraordinary 
exertions are made, the equilibrium is maintained when the 
thermometer stands at 62° Fahr., or thereabouts, and this point 
in the scale is therefore called temperate. He then goes on to 
say that all degrees above this to 70° Fahr. are reckoned warm ; 
all above 70°, hot. So also, from 60° to 50°, the temperature 
is cool ; below that, cold. 

In the course of the foregoing observations on climate, I have 
alluded to some of the popular divisions into periods of the cold 
and of the hot season. It may now not be uninteresting to give 
similar information in regard to the division of the whole year. 

According to the Chinese almanacs, published at Pekin, in 
latitude 40° N., in their first moon, which corresponds nearly 
to our month of February, the ice is said to melt, the wild fowl 
to fly northward, and the foliage of plants and trees to be 
renewed. In the second, peach trees blossom, swallows return, 
and there is much thunder and lightning. In the sixth, the 



CLIMATOLOGY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



295 



weather grows hot, and the period of heavy rains comes on. In 
the 9th, wild fowl return to the south, the chrysanthemum 
flowers, trees turn yellow and shed their foliage. In the twelfth, 
lakes and rivers are covered with ice, and the ground is frozen 
(Sir John Davis, vol. iii, p; 77). The general correctness of this 
summary becomes very apparent after a perusal of the remarks 
and observations in connection with these subjects now given. 

In reference to ozone, it may be observed that " Dr. Faraday 
considers it to be oxygen in an allotropic state, that is, with a 
capability of immediate and ready action impressed upon it. Its 
discoverer is disposed to view it as a bisoxide of hydrogen ; as yet, 
the mode by which oxygen passes into ozone is inexplicable." 

" Schonbein has proved by experiments, that air containing 
d0 ' 00 of ozone can disinfect 540 times its volume of air produced 
from highly putrid meat ; that is to say, such a foetid atmo- 
sphere may be completely purified by a quantity of ozone equal 
to -3-, 34 ' i 000 ofits volume. Now, in bad localities it is evident that 
we may expect the test to show little or no ozone, while, as 
Faraday found at Brighton, the pure air from the ocean abounds 
with it." (Drew's ' Practical Meteorology.') 

A careful record was kept from day to day of the amount, as 
indicated by prepared paper, of this recently discovered agent in 
the atmosphere; the object in view being to ascertain what pro- 
bable connection it may have had with the occurrence of severe 
disease. The results are as follow, viz. : 

Month. 

December 
January 
February 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November 



Days on which 


Amount of 


Annual rate of 


ozone existed. 


ozone. 


mortality per ct 


19 


2 


5-16 


26 


2 


7-80 


26 


5 


2-40 


28 


3 


3-12 


18 


3 


5-64 


28 


3 


2-04 


24 


2 


2-77 


24 


1 


1236 


22 


2 


6-48 


19 


1 


648 


24 


1-5 


2-41 


19 


1 


1-20 



296 



CLIMATOLOGY OT TEIN-TSIN. 



It is evident that these particulars, if they prove anything at 
all — and it is not clear to me that they do — prove the very oppo- 
site of what, according to theory, would be expected from them. 

The following comparison is instituted between the mean 
temperature of each month at Greenwich, and as observed at 
Tein-tsin ; the former being taken from Drew's Meteorology, 
the latter from our own record, viz. : 









Difference of Tein-tsin 


Month. 


Greenwich. 


Tein-tsin. 


as compared to 
Greenwich. 


January , 


85-7 


20-2 


— 15-5° Fahr. 


February 


38<2 


23-8 


— 14-4 


March 


40-9 


41-8 


+ 0-9 


April . 


45'7 


600 


+ 14-3 


May . 


52-6 


67-7 


+ 15-1 


June 


58-0 


78-5 


+ 20-5 


July . 


61-3 


85-8 


+ 24-5 


August 


60-5 


80-5 


+ 20-0 


September . 


56-3 


67-2 


+ 109 


October 


493 


57-5 


+ 8-2 


November . 


42-4 


42-5 


+ 0-1 


December 


38-8 


28-0 


— 10-8 



The above, especially if examined in connection with the chart 
which follows, will convey a very correct idea of the points of 
difference between the climate of England and that of Tein-tsin. 
By that chart it will be seen how applicable to the latter is the 
appellation of an " extreme climate." In winter it descends far 
below what we are accustomed to see in England ; while in 
summer it rises further above the English mean than it had 
previously sunk below it. 

As compared with the temperature line in the south of China, 
it will be observed by the chart that a very great difference 
exists : thus, while at Canton the mean temperature of July is 
precisely what it is at Tein-tsin, the temperature of January at 
the latter place is about 31° under what it is at the former. 
There is another great difference between the climates of the 
two places, however, which this chart does not show : it is the 
general moisture of the air at Canton during at least half the 



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CLIMATOLOGY OF TEIN-TSIN. 297 

year, and the comparative dryness of it at Tein-tsin ; and to this 
circumstance is no doubt attributable in a great measure the 
different phenomena of disease at the two places. 

The line of temperature at Hong Kong is unfortunately defi- 
cient, in consequence of the want of continuous observations. 
From the small portion given, however, we observe that the 
actual summer heat there is considerably under that of the 
other two places. Here, again, it is not the temperature that 
decides the type of endemic disease ; it is the humidity of the 
atmosphere, the infrequency and uncertainty of a breeze, and 
no doubt, also, local emanations from the soil, which is still 
being broken open for the purpose of forming sites for houses 
there. 



CHAPTER IX. 

HYGIENE OF TEIN-TSIN. 

Remarks upon the distribution of the troops in the city of Tein-tsin, and the 
hospital established for them. 

The British expeditionary force having effected the capture 
of the Taku forts, rapidly advanced to Tein-tsin, and encamped 
upon the large plain which extends southward from that city ; 
a temporary hospital having on September 8th, 1860, been 
established in a series of native buildings in the vicinity of the 
camp, known as the Temple of Oceanic Influences.. 

On the 12th of the same month a small portion of the force 
advanced towards the Chinese capital; the sick belonging to it 
being left behind, and taken into the recently established hos- 
pital. Tents were also pitched for the accommodation of men 
who might be expected to become ill ; and thus, when on nego- 
tiations being broken off, and the army making a general 
advance upon Pekin, the whole of the sick were readily pro- 
vided for.* This advance, it may be well to note, began on 
September 28th. 

The hospitals remained as originally found until the return 
of the force after the purposes of the expedition had been 
effected ; a brigade being left behind at Tein-tsin, during the 
time that the body of the army was actively engaged in the 
front. Arrangements being speedily made for despatching 
regiments whose services were no longer required in the north 
of China, the force was soon reduced to the strength deemed 

* This information I obtained from medical officers who were on the spot at 
the time. 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 299 

sufficient to hold Tein-tsin during the ensuing winter, or until 
the necessity for military occupation of that city should, in the 
opinion of the responsible authorities, cease. 

By this time the cold weather was rapidly setting in ; it was, 
therefore, deemed advisable, upon sanitary as well as upon other 
grounds, that the troops who were left behind for the winter, as 
well as the sick belonging to them, should, with as little delay 
as possible, be moved into the city. 

The annexed map of Tein-tsin — for which I am indebted to 
the courtesy of Captain Gordon, Royal Engineers — will give a 
very correct idea of the manner in which the British and native 
Indian troops were located in different parts, as well as of the 
position of the series of buildings occupied as a hospital for the 
white portion of the force. Residences of native gentlemen, 
and of the more wealthy tradesmen, were appropriated for the 
accommodation of the effective troops, who had to be divided 
into detachments of very various " strength," according to the 
size of the building available for them; one large "yamun," 
the property of a salt merchant, being taken up for the purpose 
of a general hospital. Rent was duly paid for the buildings 
thus occupied 'by the force, and such alterations made in them 
as were calculated to fit them up according to our ideas of what 
was necessary for soldiers. As a temporary measure, the doolies 
that had been in use by different regiments were fitted up on 
trestles, so as to be converted into very comfortable beds for the 
sick, so that they were, in these respects, well provided for. 

In consequence of the shortness of the time allowed for 
fitting up the numerous buildings throughout the town, into 
which it became necessary to quarter the troops, workmen had, 
for some time after they entered them, to be employed making 
the alterations that were necessary, in order that the men should 
suffer as little as possible from a winter of as yet unknown 
severity j for accounts had been so various in this respect, that 
no one knew what to expect, whether the mildness of a Devon- 
shire winter, or the severity of that season in Siberia. 

The various characters of the buildings that were thus trans- 
formed into barracks were somewhat strange ; thus we had to 
adapt for the purpose dwelling-houses, mercantile establish- 
ments, public halls, and temples dedicated to different purposes, 



300 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

as, for instance, to Confucius, to the idols of the Buddhists, and 
one even to his satanic majesty. These, from the nature of the 
buildings, were not by any means easily fitted up for soldiers. 

A few brief remarks upon the nature of the principal altera- 
tions that were necessary will not, it is hoped, be deemed out 
of place. For instance, the native Chinese use no carpets on 
their floors as we do ; in lieu of these they wear shoes or boots, 
the soles of which consist of felt, and are of sufficient thickness 
to prevent the possibility of cold or damp penetrating to the 
foot. The floors of the houses consist of flags, or bricks, or, 
very often, of nothing but mud, and have, according to our 
ideas, a look of great discomfort. Nor is this their only dis- 
advantage; they have, indeed, several, one of which is, that 
they are, during the winter months, excessively cold. These 
defects were accordingly as far as possible remedied by having 
thick layers of matting placed upon them. 

Fireplaces, properly so called, do not exist in the dwelling- 
houses of Chinese. An open charcoal burner, placed in the 
centre of the room, gives out a degree of warmth which does 
not extend far on either side, but at the same time sets free an 
amount of carbonic acid gas sufficient to impregnate the air of 
the entire apartment. Chimneys, grates, and other descriptions 
of fireplaces, according to our ideas, were accordingly erected. 
Wood, more or less green, was the fuel at first served out, 
100 pounds being allowed daily for each fireplace. It was now 
found, however, that a change in the quantity of fuel was 
necessary ; in fact, that the arrangements in this respect had to 
be placed upon an entirely new footing. The daily allowance of 
fuel was therefore ordered to consist of fifty pounds of wood, 
fifty pounds of country coals, and five pounds of charcoal, for 
each fireplace; the number of fireplaces depending upon the 
size of the particular room. On an average, it may be stated 
that throughout the winter season these rations of fuel were 
daily issued to every eight or nine British troops. These rations 
were issued to each guardroom, and two rations daily to every 
ten or twelve Seikhs. From this it will be easy to obtain an 
idea of the enormous amount of fuel consumed, and conse- 
quently that had to be obtained by the commissariat for the use 
of the troops. 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 301 

Instead of sleeping-places, such as we are accustomed to see 
in use, the natives of this part of China use a contrivance as a 
bed which to us looks more like an oven than a bed, only that 
the people lay themselves down to rest upon, and not in it. At 
the end. of the sleeping-apartment furthest removed from the 
door, is placed the " cang/' or sleeping-place ; it consists of a 
raised edifice of brick, extending from side-wall to side-wall, is 
about two feet high, and fills up the space to about the length 
of a full-grown person from the gable wall. The interior of 
this is so arranged that a flue is made to traverse it backwards 
and forwards several times, being connected at its exit with a 
chimney formed in the wall, and at the opposite extremity with 
a small fireplace in the front, and generally near one eud of the 
cang. By this front opening fuel is introduced, and, being 
ignited, the celestial lays himself down to rest for the night. 
The very bedding of the Chinese is of a different nature to 
what we are accustomed. It for the most part consists of 
several layers of mats, furs, and quilts, upon which he lies 
down ; his coverings being of the same nature, with the excep- 
tion of the mats. The fire within the cang sends a current of 
heated air along the tortuous flue which traverses its interior ; 
the warmth soon extends through its various coverings, and thus 
rendered comfortable for the night, the natives, packed as thick 
as they can lie, give themselves up to slumber. 

For some time our soldiers had to sleep upon these bed- 
places, but as they were not heated in the manner just described 
as being adopted by the aborigines, they were found to be very 
damp; they moreover occupied more superficial space than 
could well be spared, and their removal was therefore decided 
on. Boards, with or without trestles, were supplied to the men, 
and upon those the soldiers slept. During the day they were 
easily put out of the way by being piled along the wall of the 
apartment, thus giving the greatest extent of space to the men 
that circumstances would admit. 

The conformation of the houses themselves was of a kind 
very different to what, according to our ideas, is essential to 
comfort. For the most part they consisted of a succession of 
small, inconvenient rooms, connected by numerous narrow 
passages ; the different buildings themselves, of which the better 



302 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

class of domestic residences, warerooms, and temples consist, 
being separated from each other by yards of greater or smaller 
extent, and more or less elegantly ornamented, according to the 
wealth of the particular establishment. 

It has often been remarked by visitors to China that the 
residences of the people/for the most part, are not of a greater 
height than one story. According to the philosophy of the people 
it is not proper that one man should raise his head above his 
neighbours. They therefore avoid adding additional stories to 
their houses, or building them in the first instance of a greater 
height than what has just been mentioned. As the worldly 
means of a native increase, he increases if possible the super- 
ficial extent of his " yamun " or residence. He does not, it is 
true, raise his house above that of his poorer neighbour ; he 
simply squeezes him out of his place, or renders him extremely 
uncomfortable in it. 

The arrangements of not a few establishments such as these 
had to be materially altered ; walls and partitions were ac- 
cordingly displaced or removed, and the aspect of the entire 
place altered in various respects, so that the owners of the 
premises must on many occasions have had considerable difficulty 
in recognising their own residences. Temples and public halls 
had fewer walls than private residences or mercantile establish- 
ments ; their interior was much less subdivided into small com- 
partments ; the front was always open from end to end or pro- 
tected from the outer world by no more substantial partition 
than lattice work. In order, therefore, to fit these places up for 
our men, it was necessary to supply at least One wall to each, 
and sometimes to erect partitions across the immense space 
that one of their halls covered. Alterations such as these 
could not be effected at once. Day after day, during upwards 
of three months, the engineer department was busily occupied 
in effecting them ; yet economy was as far as possible observed ; 
and it does not appear that the whole of the alterations necessary 
for the comfortable location of our force cost our Government a 
greater sum than £2000. 

Under no circumstances do the qualities of commanding and 
other officers make themselves known for good or for evil so 
much as when, as was the case at Tein-tsin, provision had to 



HYGIENE OT TEIN-TSIN. 303 

be made rapidly, and yet with very imperfect means, for pro- 
tecting troops from the effects of a winter of an as yet unknown 
degree of intensity. Under no circumstances, either, does the 
degree of cordiality that exists between commanding officers 
and surgeons of regiments become so apparent, as in circum- 
stances like the present, to exert a favorable influence or the 
opposite upon the comfort and well-being of their men ; nor is it 
difficult for a person who has had some experience of regimental 
life to tell from the general state of barracks, clothing, and food 
of soldiers what amount of deference is paid to the suggestions 
of the medical officer. 

As a general rule, there seemed to be every desire on the part 
of individual officers to render the soldiers as comfortable as 
circumstances permitted, both as regards their barrack accommo- 
dation, their clothing, and bedding ; there were some respects, 
however, in which it was considered that further improvements 
might be effected; and as a preliminary measure, medical 
officers were called upon to report upon the following points, viz. : 

1. Are the accommodation, means of ventilation, and heating, 
as they concern the troops, satisfactory ? 

2. Are the sleeping berths, bedding, and clothing sufficient ? 

3. Are the quantity and description of meat, both salt and 
fresh, sufficient and good ? 

4. What is the kind and quantity of vegetable Used by the 
men at dinner with their meat ? 

5. How many nights have the men in bed ? 

6. Is their clothing when on night duty sufficient ? 

7. Are their cooking-places good and sufficient ? 

8. Is the state of the latrines satisfactory ? 

9. How are the barracks and their vicinity kept clean ? 

10. Medical officers were requested to report upon any other 
sanitary matter not enumerated that they wished to bring 
forward. 

Reports were soon afterwards received from the surgeons of 
regiments upon the matters above enumerated, in so far as they 
referred to their own corps ; from these a summary of the re- 
quirements was drawn up, and submitted to the officer com- 
manding on the spot, namely, Brigadier- General Staveley, C.B., 
who, upon the present occasion, as upon all others, employed 



304 HTGIENB OF TEIN-TSIN. 

every means in his power to render the state of the troops under 
him as faultless as the circumstances of our position would 
admit. 

Had some of our sanitary references and theorists, unacquainted 
with the exigencies of actual service, visited our barracks during 
the early period of winter, they would no doubt have seen much 
that was not in accordance with their ideas of what was neces- 
sary, although more practical men would have found in the 
arrangements made a great deal that was most creditable to 
the officers who were immediately concerned in planning and 
executing them. 

Thus, persons who imagined that as 600 feet of air per 
man is declared to be necessary for the health and well-being of 
the troops, so therefore soldiers must, under all circumstances, 
have this amount, would have been sadly shocked to find that 
in some instances our soldiers during winter had not half that 
quantity. Various circumstances combined to bring about this 
state of affairs. In the first place, it was deemed to be advisable, 
in a political sense, not to dispossess of their buildings a greater 
number of the natives than could be avoided ; in the second 
place, it was found that the intensity of winter advanced so 
rapidly that it was necessary to prepare, at once, the buildings in 
which they were being located ; and in the third place, the 
scarcity of timber was so great that difficulty would have been 
experienced in obtaining a sufficient quantity to fit up barracks 
for the men, were they to have the regulated space allowed 
them in accordance with regulations. 

As a general rule, the soldiers had each upwards of 350 feet 
of cubic space ; a very few only, in consequence of peculiar con- 
struction of their apartments having somewhat less than that. 
Such, however, was the openness of the houses in which they 
were, that during the winter, when the thermometer during 
night was often considerably below zero, the air found egress in 
gusts through crevices and chinks, and through the ill-fitting 
woodwork, in a manner that gave to the men considerably freer 
ventilation than was agreeable to their feelings or beneficial to 
their health. We know that in tents and huts less cubic space 
is required for sanitary purposes than in buildings of a better 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 305 

description ;* and the one-storied houses in which our men 
were located were for the most part most assuredly not of a 
nature to prevent ingress of air than huts of European manu- 
facture would be. 

The formation of latrines is at all times a matter of great im- 
portance, and became especially so in a place where the winter 
climate was of such severity as at Tein-tsin ; yet somehow or 
another it happens, or rather did happen until very lately, that 
neither as regards convenience, comfort, or cleanliness did these 
places obtain that amount of attention throughout the army 
that they required. The native Chinese, it may be observed, 
do not make use of them ; hence contrivances of some kind had 
to be prepared for our soldiers, and for this purpose materials 
were scarce, and ill adapted. Deal boards and timber had been 
almost entirely expended for such purposes as making doors and 
partitions, and in providing bed^-boards for the soldiers. Little 
was left for any other purpose, neither was it possible at the 
time to obtain more in the neighbourhood. The consequence 
was that latrines had to be fitted up in many instances, with no 
stronger description of material than matting. The protection 
that this afforded to the men Was very inadequate ; we were all 
aware of the fact, but then it was unavoidable. We were in the 
town as an army of occupation, and being so, there were many 
discomforts and inconveniences which, although unknown in 
garrisons and quiet quarters, were in our present circumstances 
unavoidable, and perhaps their bare enumeration may not be 
uninteresting to those who take an interest in the life of the 
soldier. 

As connected with the hygiene of the troops, it may be here 
mentioned that during the winter season, so intense was the 
cold, that with a view to remove as much as possible the necessity 
for men to go from their warm beds into the cold air, urine 
tubs were allowed to be placed in their barrack rooms, care 
being taken to have them removed in the morning, and properly 
cleaned. Some of the more theoretical among the medical 
officers deemed it necessary to record their objection to so 

* " In huts, or pavilions, especially if they be of one storey high, less cubic 
space is necessary than where numbers are massed together." (Miss Nightingale) 
' Notes on Hospitals,' p. 9>) 

20 



306 HYGIENE OF TEIN-TSIN. 

obviously necessary an arrangement ; these objections, however, 
were overruled ; yet it appears to me that the objection forms 
an example of that want of discretion and tact in making due 
allowances for particular circumstances in as far as they render 
necessary some degree of modification in the stringency with 
which general regulations are to be applied. 

Let us, for instance, consider the results that must necessarily 
follow in a climate like that of Tein-Tsin in winter, where the 
troops are deprived of what are certainly in themselves both 
unseemly and not always very clean utensils. The tempera- 
ture generally sank to 10° Fahr. ; not unfrequently to 5° and 
6° ; and on several occasions went down below Zero. For a 
short time it was found that men deprived of the tubs in their 
barrack rooms at night, had to go a distance of not less than 
thirty yards to the latrines. It is not to be supposed that these 
men took either the time or trouble to dress themselves warmly ; 
they left their warm beds imperfectly clothed, rushed through 
the piercing cold air, stood for a time shivering with cold, in the 
latrine, then, rushing back to their rooms, returned to bed so 
chilled that natural warmth was often not restored in less time 
than an hour, sometimes not so soon. 

The more delicate among the men, those who had already 
been the subjects of organic disease, and those predisposed to 
attacks of illness, obviously ran more risk by exposure such as 
this to become affected with illness of a severe nature than they 
would do had such exposure not been rendered necessary. 
Measures were therefore taken to remove the cause of such ex- 
posure, the supposed use of tubs in the rooms being as nothing 
when compared with the obvious evil occasioned by the want 
of them. 

Incidental remarks relative to food and clothing of the troops 
are introduced in the division of this report which treats more 
especially of disease and its statistics, and to these remarks the 
reader is referred. In this place it may be mentioned that 
while the British troops were in the field their daily rations were 
as follow : 



HYGIENE OF TEIN-TSIN. 



307 



Biscuit 

Tea 

Salt 

Rice 

Fresh meat 

Sugar 

Pepper 

Rum 



lib. 
ioz. 
i oz. 
3 oz. 
14- lb. 
2oz. 

T 0Z - 

i gill- 



l|lb. 
lilb. 



So soon as the troops entered Tein-Tsin, and thenceforward, 
their daily rations were as follow, viz. : 

Fresh beef . 

Bread 

Tea . . . . joz. 

Sugar . . . . 3 oz. 

Rum . . . . \ gill. 

On two days a week, in lieu of fresh meat, the soldiers were 
allowed one pound and a half of salt pork, and three ounces of 
rice. 

It is in the present day fashionable to condemn the practice of 
issuing to soldiers a daily ration of spirits. Many well-meaning 
men would have them restricted to coffee, tea, ginger beer, and 
so on. The amount of comfort afforded by any one of these 
would be very poor indeed in a place such as the north of 
China, where for the first and second milk is not obtainable, 
and where the intense cold requires some more powerful fuel 
to enable the vital powers to maintain the animal warmth than 
what ginger and " such small beer affords." Under such cir- 
cumstances, I would, for my own part, allow the disciple of 
" total abstinence" to indulge in his beverages. For my own 
part, I would prefer something both hot and somewhat more 
potent ; acting, therefore, on this impression, I should have been 
sorry to have seen the soldiers deprived of their daily ration of 
spirits. 

The only respect in which it was deemed necessary to suggest 
improvement in the dietary was as regards the item of vege- 
tables. Abundance was at all times procurable in the market, 
but here, as well as elsewhere, the soldier seemed averse to take 
the trouble of procuring a supply for himself, Unless forced to do 



308 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 



so. Orders were accordingly issued by the officer commanding, 
to the effect that each man should be provided with a ration 
of succulent vegetables at dinner. There is no doubt that a 
continued neglect of this very necessary precaution would before 
long have induced a scorbutic diathesis among the troops, if 
not an actual outbreak of that disease. 

The daily rations of the native Indian troops consisted of the 
following articles, viz. : 



Rice or wheaten flour 


. 21b 


Dhall .... 


. 4 oz 


Ghee .... 


. 2oz 


Spices .... 


. § oz 


Curry stuff 


. i oz 


Salt .... 


. i oz 



Half a pound of meat per man was allowed to them on 
two days per week in addition to these articles, and in addi- 
tion to all these the men were in the habit of purchasing 
fowls, ducks, fish, vegetables, and fruit according to their own 
desires. 

In addition to the ordinary articles of clothing included in 
the regimental kit of a soldier, the men engaged in the expedi- 
tion to the north of China, were liberally supplied by govern- 
ment with such as were likely to be necessary during the cold 
weather to which it was expected they were to be exposed. 
Those regiments that came on from India had these extra arti- 
cles of clothing served out to them before leaving that country ; 
those that proceeded to China from England had them issued 
to them at Hong Kong ; nor was any difference made between 
native Indian and British soldiers in this respect. Similar 
description of articles were served to both; only that those 
given to the blacks were made in accordance with the pattern 
usually worn by them. These articles were as follows, viz. : 



1 Blanket. 

1 Great coat. 

1 Cloth uniform coat. 

1 ditto trousers. 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 309 







2 Flannel shirts. 






2 pairs of drawers. 






2 „ woollen socks. 






1 „ long boots. 






1 „ ankle boots. 


When 


the 


cold weather had set in with its full intensity, 


a still further 


supply of warm clothing was served out to the 


men, each person being gratuitously furnished with the following, 

T7T7 • 


V In, « 




1 Fur coat. 

1 „ cap. 

2 Blankets. 

2 Flannel shirts. 
2 Pair flannel drawers. 
2 „ woollen socks. 
2 „ „ gloves. 
1 „ long boots. 



Sheepskin great coats were issued in such proportion as to 
enable each man while on sentry or picket to be provided with 
one ; palliasses were in some instances given to the men, and 
in others additional mats and rugs were supplied to them in 
order to render them the more comfortable when in bed. 
Stoves of various construction were placed in the garrison and 
regimental cells, so that the warmth of them might extend even 
to the divisions of these places. 

Some of the regimental surgeons recommended that during 
the winter season the soldiers on sentry duty should be relieved 
every hour throughout the night : this arrangement would have 
rendered their period of rest even shorter than it was under 
ordinary circumstances ; the troops themselves were averse to 
it ; nor did any ill effects arise from the two-hourly relief being 
continued during the period of our occupation. The system of 
night patrols through the city was, during the winter, re- 
stricted as far as circumstances admitted ; the soldiers for picket 
duty being, however, kept in readiness to turn out at any 
moment. 

Cleanliness in the barrack rooms and yards was at all times 
rigidly enforced ; these places being swept clean by the men 



310 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

themselves, and the refuse carried away by an establishment of 
coolies entertained by quarter-masters of regiments. The 
amount of filth, however, that existed in the immediate vicinity 
of the barracks, and throughout the town generally, was so vast 
as to defy any attempts that could be made for its effectual 
removal. 

On the approach of the hot season succeeding the first winter 
of occupation by the troops, information was received to the 
effect that Tein-Tsin was not to be evacuated ; measures had 
to be taken with a view to have the buildings already occupied 
by the troops altered so as to become fit places for them during 
the ensuing summer. The principal measures that were required 
in order to effect this, were to give ample means of ventilation 
and to increase the cubic space allowed to the men. The former 
of these was effected by breaking out ventilators in the back 
walls and in the roofs of the buildings ; the second, by hiring 
for the time being additional temples and private residences, so 
as to give to the men, on an average, one third more accom- 
modation than they had occupied during the cold weather. 

Nor was this all that had to be done. Early in summer our 
hopes were depressed by being informed that certainly a con- 
siderable portion of, and perhaps the whole force would be re- 
quired to hold the city throughout a second winter. A third 
series of alterations in the buildings occupied by the troops was 
thus rendered necessary; obvious faults, which circumstances 
had in the first instancer_endered unavoidable, had now to be 
rectified, and many details to be fulfilled which the experience 
we had gained had taught us were necessary. It thus became 
necessary that I should review the whole of the circumstances 
of our location, in so far as these bore upon the health of the 
troops, and suggest such arrangements as were deemed to be 
necessary ; other administrative medical officers may be simi- 
larly situated, and therefore it may not be inappropriate if for 
their benefit I transcribe the report furnished by me on the 
present occasion to the officer in command, and which was as 
follows, namely : 

" Having received the orders of the Brigadier- General com- 
manding to submit my views regarding sanitary measures 
deemed necessary in the event of this force being retained in 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 311 

its present station during the ensuing cold season, I beg to 
offer the following suggestions : 

"1. I consider that during the severity of the winter, the 
troops would be better accommodated and more comfortable in 
the city and in its suburbs than in huts built upon the open 
plain. Irrespective of other considerations, there is a difference 
of at least four degrees of temperature between the city and the 
country during winter, the city being so much the warmer ; 
and this is a matter of great consequence when the reading of 
the thermometer is at and below zero, as we may, from the 
experience of last winter, expect it to be next. I think that the 
men may with every propriety occupy their present barracks, 
and other Chinese buildings of the same description, if a few 
arrangements now to be noted be made. 

" 2. I think that prior to the setting in of the intense cold 
it would be advisable that the fronts of barrack rooms should be 
built of brick to a height of four feet at least from the ground ; 
or, if this be not practicable, that successive layers of matting be 
secured over the wood and paper which at present principally 
form the fronts, having windows placed of sufficient size to afford 
an ample supply of light to the inmates ; that wherever wood- 
work is found to be defective it be repaired, so as to prevent the 
ingress of currents of cold air, and that porches be built to 
doors that directly face prevailing winds. 

" 3. That space should be so apportioned as that each room 
shall contain not less than 500 cubic feet per man. That where 
practicable, some of the very large rooms be divided by strong 
partitions, by which means greater warmth will be secured 
to their occupants than can be the case in their present condi- 
tion. 

" 4. That where the floors of rooms occupied by men are 
formed of earth they be paved with tiles, or other materials 
adapted for the purpose; and that those that are now on a 
lower level than the surrounding soil be raised to one above it. 

" 5. That stoves should be as far as possible supplied to the 
barrack rooms, and where this cannot be done, that fire-places 
be constructed of a description to throw out more heat than 
the present ones do, their number being apportioned to that of 
the inmates of particular rooms. I would beg to note that a 



312 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

very economical and efficient substitute for regular stoves were 
to be seen during last cold season in the hospital of the 
French. 

" 6. Small ventilators pierced through the walls at the eaves 
would during the winter be sufficient, a considerable draught of 
air being necessarily produced through fire-places and doors. 
The large ventilators will not be required. 

" 7. I consider that boards and trestles should be supplied to 
each individual soldier ; that not less than two feet should inter- 
vene between these bed-places ; that each man should with pro- 
priety be supplied with a wadded quilt to place under him, in 
addition to the proportion of bedding that was allowed last 
year. 

" 8. I think that the introduction of dining tables and forms 
into barrack rooms, in proportion to the number of occu- 
pants, would add much to their comfort. 

" 9. That in lieu of the present imperfectly protected latrines 
buildings should be erected for this purpose throughout the dif- 
ferent barracks ; these buildings to have regular doors and 
windows, and to consist of materials sufficiently strong to resist 
the weather, and afford the men complete shelter. The erection 
of separate urinals, the proper fitting up of bath rooms and 
ablution rooms, with an ample supply of warm and cold water, 
would undoubtedly tend much to both the health and comfort of 
the men. If a Chinese bath house could be rented during the 
season, the expense of building establishments of the kind might 
be avoided. 

" 10. The means employed last cold season, and still in use, 
for maintaining cleanliness in barracks and their vicinity, namely, 
the removal of filth by Chinese coolies, pioneers, and prisoners, 
appear to be sufficient. 

"11. I am of opinion that it would be desirable to make such 
alterations in the kitchens of the men before next cold season, 
as that the cooking ranges should not smoke to the extent that 
has been complained of, and that, where necessary, the mat- 
sheds, of which most of the kitchens consist, be replaced by 
buildings of stronger materials. 

" 12. That the size of guard-rooms be ample for the probable 
number of occupants ; and that sufficient boards, with or with- 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 313 

out trestles, be supplied, so that prisoners brought in might uot 
have to lie down upon the floors. It is also desirable that 
means of warming effectually the cells should be introduced, 
where this has not already been done. 

" 13, As regards the hospital, it will become necessary that, 
before the cold season sets in, the ventilators now being placed 
in the roofs of buildings be closed, and such smaller ones re- 
tained in the walls as now exist. In all the wards not supplied 
with Winchester stoves and heaters, I would recommend that 
fire-places be built, and that the present ones be put into an 
efficient state. 

"14. With reference to the buildings that I have specially been 
ordered to inspect, I beg to report as follows, viz. : 

" a. Treaty Joss House. — The lower floors of this building 
might, I think, be occupied by troops during winter in as far as 
sanitary considerations are concerned ; but in the event of their 
being so, I am of opinion that the more central of the buildings 
within that enclosure ought to have verandahs of matting or 
other material, bound around them, so as to afford to the 
inmates shelter from the cold wind. I am of opinion that the 
upper storeys are too much exposed, to render it practicable that 
sufficient protection could ,be obtained in these apartments. I 
would notice the circumstance, that some of the walls of these 
bnildings appear to me to be in an unsafe condition, but of this 
the engineer officer is the only judge. 

"b. The Temple on the river bank now in progress of being 
fitted up, is, in my opinion, in every respect eligible as a summer 
or winter quarter for troops. 

"c. The building over the east gate of the city. The whole 
of this might be occupied by troops during the continuance of 
warm weather. And were the building encircled by a fence of 
matting, so as to form a verandah, the lower storey might, I am 
of opinion, be, without injury to the health of the troops, occu- 
pied also during winter, as the wind during the cold months 
seldom prevails from the direction in which the building faces. 
Of the upper storey, however, I have some doubts, unless means 
could be taken to enclose it also by mats, and this, from its con- 
struction, would seem to be difficult. 

"d. I think that the corresponding building over the south 



314 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

gate might with every propriety be occupied during the warm 
weather ; but in consequence of its direct exposure to the cold 
winds that prevail during winter, I do not think that any part 
of it could be occupied during that season without injury to the 
health of the men ; moreover, it seems to be very much out 
of repair. 

"e. ' The Chamber of Horrors.' The buildings themselves 
forming this temple are, in my opinion, extremely well adapted 
for accommodation of troops. The neighbourhood is the only 
cause of objection, and it appears to me that it might be 
cleaned, and afterwards measures taken to preserve it in that 
state." 

It is presumed that the present is a fitting place to give a few 
particulars in regard to the city of Tein-tsin itself, irrespective 
of what has elsewhere been stated in regard to the topography 
of this part of China. 

The city and its suburbs extend to a distance of not less 
than three miles along the right or south bank of the river, 
including in its extent the point of junction of two smaller 
canals and the imperial one with that river ; on the north side 
of the river, where the French were located, so dense do the 
suburbs become, that they form there what may be considered 
to be a supplementary town to the principal one. 

As may be seen by the plan already alluded to, the city proper 
and the suburbs are continuous with each other ; there is no 
essential difference between them as regards the style of building; 
in both, in the style of their streets, and general characteristics. 
Suitable buildings in both city and suburbs are occupied in- 
differently by the troops, as is most convenient. 

The general form of the city is a parallelogram, surrounded, 
as already said, by walls of brick, which are in a very crumbling 
condition. With the exception of two spaces of considerable 
size at the south side of the city, which even in winter bore 
unequivocal marks of being covered by water during a con- 
siderable part of the year, and were, at the time, used for the 
double purpose of " necessaries" for the natives, and as places 
wherein they deposited the coffins of their dead; and two smaller 
spaces of similar description, situated one at each angle on the 
north side, the entire space within the walls was densely occu- 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 315 

pied by the mud huts which formed the principal part of the 
city : these huts, which were almost all of one storey high, had 
sloping roofs, some consisting of no other material than the 
same description of mud which formed their walls ; others, how- 
ever, were rendered more waterproof by being covered with a 
layer of composition made of clay, oil, and hair ; plumbago 
being also mixed up with it, apparently for no other reason than 
to give it the peculiar light blue colour that is so general in the 
roofs of houses in the north of China. 

Four principal streets intersect the city, each protected by a 
gateway capable of defence against a native enemy. These 
streets are of tolerable width, and are paved with flags ; drain- 
age, however, although not entirely wanting, is so imperfect as 
to be next to useless. Branching off at intervals on either side, 
are numerous narrow lanes that seem to form a perfect labyrinth, 
so complicated is their arrangement. Few foreigners wish to 
enter these, being as they are dens of dirt, of vice, and disease ; 
none of them are paved — their inhabitants are absolutely filthy 
in their habits, and totally devoid of either delicacy or modesty 
— hence the side streets are little better than receptacles of filth 
of the most odious description. 

Outside the wall, a somewhat broad and rather deep ditch 
extends and completely surrounds the city. In the cold weather, 
it was filled with the same description of matter that occurs in 
such profusion throughout the streets. During the continuance 
of frosty weather, comparatively little inconvenience was expe- 
rienced from its presence; but during the hot and rainy seasons, 
the effluvia that arose from it were offensive in the extreme, and 
could not have been otherwise than pernicious to the health of 
the troops. The facts must be borne in mind, that the two 
longer walls of the city were exactly a mile in length, the shorter 
ones about three quarters of a mile, and the population not 
fewer than 400,000 ; and it will be readily conceived how im- 
possible it was for us, situated as we were, to cleanse the place ; 
in fact, so deep were the obnoxious accumulations, that the 
more discreet plan was believed to be, not to pry too deeply into 
them. The supply of water was at all times abundant, having 
been furnished by the river Peiho as it passed through the 
suburbs of the town ; a few wells were to be found in the yards 



316 HYGIENE OP TEIN-TSIN. 

of some of the houses, water being obtainable at a depth of a very- 
few feet from the surface. The degree of saline impregnation 
with which it is tainted, however, is so great, as to render it use- 
less for any other domestic purpose than those of ablution, or for 
irrigation of fields. The river water, although comparatively 
slightly tainted with saline matters, is so to a certain degree, 
and is in other respects so odiously dirty when first drawn from 
the stream, as to be excessively offensive to the eye of a 
foreigner. These circumstances probably, in part, if not en- 
tirely, account for the custom the natives have of boiling the 
water they intend to use as drink, and generally infusing in it a 
small quantity of tea leaves. These, by their astringent pro- 
perties, may serve the same purpose to them that areca nut does 
to the natives of India, and counteract to some degree the 
tendency to intestinal disorder which the use of impure water 
always gives rise to. 

It is difficult by description alone to convey an adequate idea 
of the nature of the buildings at Tein-tsin that together were 
occupied for hospital purposes ; the annexed plan may, however, 
in some degree diminish this difficulty. The entire number are 
contained within a walled enclosure, the front or east wall of 
which is 169 paces in length, the north 74, the west 178, and 
the south only 48. In front, the gate marked A, opens direct 
upon the main road, by which the greater portion of the traffic 
between the city and Taku takes place. 

The river Peiho runs in a very tortuous course nearly parallel 
to this road, from which, immediately opposite the hospital, it is 
only separated by a single line of mud houses of one storey in 
height, such as form the mass of dwellings throughout the city. 
It will be observed by the plan, that a great degree of regularity 
exists in the manner of arrangement of the individual buildings 
occupied as a hospital ; at the same time, there is observable 
among them a very incongruous variety : thus the general 
arrangement resolves itself into a succession of spaces, all of 
which are waited by means of narrow and somewhat intricate 
passages. The individual buildings vary much in size and 
general form, so that no two of them are capable of ac- 
commodating the same number of sick. They are, moreover, 
so placed, that while one series of the rooms are not exposed to 



HYGIENE 01 TEIN-TSIN. 317 

the sun at all, others are so in too direct a manner. In the 
winter season, it was very evident that those not exposed to the 
sun were much colder than the ones that were more favorably 
situated; and this circumstance was observed, as might have 
been expected, to act unfavorably in regard to the manner in 
which recoveries took place among the patients that occupied 
them. During the hot season, on the contrary, the temperature 
was extremely oppressive at times in the apartments that directly 
faced the sun, and it became necessary to raise for their pro- 
tection a series of shades such as are used by the Chinese them- 
selves, and which consist of a series of upright beams, the 
height equal to that of the houses to be sheltered, matting being 
stretched across the top, and so arranged by means of pulleys 
and cords as to be readily folded up when necessary, so as to 
admit of ventilation. 

The space thus appropriated for sick was considered to have 
been capable of accommodating about 250 patients ; and this 
number, it was calculated, would not in all probability be ex- 
ceeded, as all that had hitherto been said in reference to the 
climate of this part of China described it as remarkably salu- 
brious. On the setting in of the intense cold of January, how- 
ever, the number of our sick underwent so great an increase, 
that the capabilities of the original hospital was insufficient. 
Accordingly, the series of buildings in the smaller diagram of 
the annexed plan were fitted up for sick soldiers, and thence- 
forward were in constant occupation. It will be observed by the 
plan, that a portion of the buildings in question were converted 
into a hospital for sick Chinese. This portion was, how- 
ever, kept altogether separate from that occupied by soldiers by 
a brick wall. 

It would be difficult for a person not on the spot, and unac- 
quainted with the nature of Chinese houses, to understand the 
great amount of alterations that were necessary before they 
could be fitted up for hospital purposes : much more had to be 
effected in the way of alterations than was necessary in the 
buildings occupied by effective soldiers ; and all that had to be 
effected was so, under the superintendence of Staff- Surgeon 
H. V. Bindon, to whom much praise is due for the zeal he dis- 
played, and for his great attention to the work. 



318 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

It will doubtless sound strange to the ears of persons accus- 
tomed to the establishment of hospitals, when I mention that in 
ours at Tein-tsin we had no drains ; and it will doubtless sound 
stranger still, when I mention that the building was all the 
sweeter in consequence of the want of them. One exception I 
must mention, as it was found after we had occupied the place 
for a couple of months, namely, a drain to carry off the surplus 
water from the wash-house ; but what I specially meant was, that 
we had none for the conveyance of any other description of soil. 
A number of Chinese coolies were employed, who every morning 
and evening carried away and threw into the river whatever soil 
and slops had collected ; a certain amount of inconvenience was 
certainly experienced after a heavy fall of rain, inasmuch as 
there being in some parts a very imperfect fall to carry it off, it 
for a time was thus able to collect in pools, but they soon too 
were dried up by the coolies, who carried away the surplus 
water. 

The footing upon which this hospital was formed, and for 
some time managed, was that of a general hospital. According 
to this system, medical officers attended the sick in particular 
wards, altogether irrespective of the particular regiments to 
which the soldiers belonged ; nor did medical officers necessarily 
attend the sick of their own regiments. As might be expected 
by any person acquainted with the interior economy of regi- 
ments, a system like this could not work long ; accordingly, it 
had soon to be abandoned, and the establishments were then 
placed upon the footing of consolidated regimental hospitals, 
of which perhaps the best example in England is to be met with 
at Devonport. 

Under the latter system, medical officers of regiments 
attended their own men — thus mutual interest was preserved 
between them ; medicines for all were, however, prepared in a 
general surgery, provisions were cooked in one kitchen, and all 
issues made from one store. 

Articles of ordinary diet ; as, for instance, meat and bread, 
were obtained by the purveyor from the commissariat depart- 
ment ; other articles, as eggs, fowls, vegetables, fish, and some 
more, were procured by the purveyor from a contractor who 
agreed to furnish them at a fixed rate ; and tea, cocoa, milk, and 



HTGIENE OF TEIN-TS1N. 



319 



" medical comforts" generally were obtainable from tbe stores 
of the purveyor. 

In China generally, but more especially in the north, milk 
is not used by the natives ; the consequence is, that this article 
of food was only procurable in very small quantity and of infe- 
rior quality : all, therefore, that was employed for hospital pur- 
poses had to be obtained in a preserved state from England, and 
fortunately for the sick it retained its flavour remarkably well ; 
so well, indeed, that when mixed with tea, and given in pud- 
dings, it was nearly as delicate as if it had been "fresh from the 
cow;" and even when given in the quantity prescribed for 
what is called milk diet, it was not found to disagree with the 
patients. 

That every consideration was paid to the probable require- 
ments of the sick, in providing the stores, with an ample supply 
of medicine comforts, will be apparent from the following list of 
articles of this nature that were provided for the strength of 
about 3500 men, who formed the force left in military occu- 
pation of the town. It will, moreover, be convenient, the more 
clearly to indicate the measures taken to maintain this supply, if 
I note the quantities in store at the commencement of winter, 
on the last day of March, 1861, and what were on the latter date 
applied for, viz. : 



Articles in store. 


Dec 


, I860. 


March 31st, 1861. 


Required. 


Ale . . . 


dozen 


915 


dozen 


574 


dozen 


400 


Porter . 


» 


115 


tt 


— 


33 


200 


Port wine 


t> 


420 


J7 


339 


„ 


100 


Sherry . 


tt 


31 


tt 


31 


„ 


— 


Brandy 


tt 


46 


„ 


82 


„ 


— 


Champagne 


pints 


16 


pints 


16 


,» 


50 


Milk . 


» 


18,800 


» 


2374 


gallons 


3500 


Sugar . 


lbs. 


4,863 


lbs. 


1548 


cwt. 


50 


Tea 


„ 


684 


„ 


245 


lbs. 


800 


Calf's-foot jelly 


dozen 


29 


dozen 


10 


dozen 


60 


Arrowroot 


lbs. 


792 


lbs. 


577 


lbs. 


168 


Soap 


• tt 


962 


tt 


679 


» 


560 


Soft soap, kegs of 32 lb 


3. each 


63 


• S3 


60 


it 


— 


Seed potatoes . 


lbs. 


241 


tt 


— 


tt 


— 


Mustard 


„ 


354 


tt 


347 


tt 


— 


Salt . 


. „ 


423 


tt 


5 


cwt. 


10 


Sago 


tt 


200 


• tt 


841 


lbs. 


168 


Essence of beef, ilb. tii 


is, number 4881 


number 


3660 




— 



320 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 



Articles in store. 


Dec 


, I860. 


Match 51st, 1861. 


Required. 


Preserved meats 


lbs. 


6019 


lbs. 


6019 


lbs. 


— 


„ soups 


„ 


405 


93 


— 


33 


— 


„ vegetables ■ 


„ 


668 


39 


— 


• a 


— 


Soda 




700 


barrels 


6 


• tt 


— 


Pearlash 


93 


700 


>i 


3 


• 39 


— 


Oatmeal 


99 


308 


lbs. 


224 


99 


— 


Coffee . 


,, 


140 


» 


99 


„ 


50 


Vinegar 


dozen 


8 


pints 


6 


. dozen 


10 


Lemonade 


» 


52 


dozen 


28 


„ 


500 


Soda water 


» 


132 


» 


159 


»» 


500 


Gin 


33 


— 


>s 


4 


91 


— 


Cape wine, for quinine 


pipes 


10 


pipes 


10 


33 


— 


Barley . 


lbs. 


1453 


lbs. 


128 


cwt. 


22 


Butter . 


93 


10J 


„ 


10J 


» 


— 


Candles 


93 


1458 


>> 


104 


lbs. 


500 


Opening knives 


number 


26 


number 


26 




— 


Lime juice 


pints 


401 


pints 


209 


pints 


540 


Cocoa and milk tins 




220 




582 




— 


Preserved fowls 


number 


364 


number 


364 




— 


Rice 


lbs. 


360 


lbs. 


30 




— 


Condensed egg . 


» 


26 


» 


26 




— 


Flour . 


99 


111 


it 


6 




— 


Colza oil . 




— 




— 


galls. 


100 


Pepper . 


lbs. 


78 


a 


78 


- 


— 



During our residence at Tein-tsin we ascertained that many 
articles could be got better and in a fresher state on the spot 
than from our stores, where a supply in a preserved state had 
been procured ; thus, vegetables, flour, fowls, and some others, 
were after a time obtained from the contractor. An attempt 
was also made to obtain milk, but it failed, although there is 
reason to believe that, before long, we should have been able to 
succeed even in this respect. 

A bare enumeration of articles is no doubt uninteresting ; yet, 
as the object of all experience is, or ought to be, to form a guide 
for conduct on future occasions, I am induced to add to the 
above list of purveyor's stores the following one of those supplied 
by the barrack department, for the purpose of fitting up the 
buildings occupied as a general hospital. It will be seen that, 
in respect to them, as in regard to other matters, great care 
was bestowed by Dr. Muir, C.B., that nothing should be over- 
looked that tended to the comfort of the sick. The list is as 
follows, viz. : 



HYGIENE OF TEIN-TSIN. 



321 



Barrack Stores in General Hospital) Tein-tsin. 



Baths, slipper . 


4 


Gowns, blue serge 


400 


open 


5 


Shirts, flannel 


600 


foot 


6 


Socks, pairs . 


1200 


„ hip 


4 


Slippers, brown leather 


600 


Baskets, hand, large 


17 


Trowsers, blue serge . 


500 


„ „ small 


10 


Waistcoats, blue serge 


400 


„ bottle, half dozen 


10 


Mittens, pairs 


— 


Basins, earthenware, small foi 




Cholera belts 


730 


washing sores 


60 


Candlesticks, flat 


52 


„ wash-hand 


216 


Choppers, meat . 


2 


„ soup, enamelled 


130 


Corkscrews 


10 


Bedsteads, iron . 


. 200 


Cocks, brass, bib, driving 


12 


Beds, hair 


. 200 


Combs, hair 


170 


Blankets, hospital patients' 


2016 


Cups, spitting . 


121 


Bolsters, hair 


200 


Clocks . 


4 


Case slips for hospital patients 




Coppers, field, small 


3 


hair bolsters 


200 


Tripods for ditto 


3 


Pillows, hair, small . 


200 


Dishes, hot-water, with covers 


16 


Bugs, hospital 


298 


Meat-tins, 18-inch 


49 


Sheets, cotton 


. 746 


„ 13^-inch. 


105 


Pillows, feather 


50 


Baking-tins . 


17 


Palliasse cases, straw 


. 198 


Egg-cups, pewter 


100 


Bolster, ditto 


98 


Etnas, tin 


10 


Bugs, barrack 


50 


Forks, carving, large 


12 


Boxes, pepper . 


9 


„ small 


6 


„ salt 


3 


„ dinner . 


500 


Brushes, flesh . 


17 


Filters, water, in wicker 


11 


„ hand, scrubbing 


20 


Funnels, tin 


30 


hair 


120 


Forms, 4-feet 


20 


long sweeping, wit! 




Frames, close-stool, zinc 


8 


handles 


20 


„ „ wooden 


12 


„ shaving 


10 


Bedhead utensils, tin . 


300 


„ shoe, set 


12 


Gridirons 


3 


„ whitewash, box 


12 


Glasses, wine 


10 


>y - dry-rubbing, with bloc! 




Hammers 


8 


tin handle . 


12 


Hasps and staples 


24 


Pall . 


1 


Inhalers . 


10 


Boards, knife 


15 


Infusers, tea 


14 


inventory 


33 


Kettles, tea, iron 7-quart 


10 


Cans, soup, 3-gallon 


9 


„ „ 4-quart 


3 


„ beer, 2-gallon 


20" 


„ „ 2-quart 


2 


„ water, 3-gallon . 


26 


Knives, carving, large . 


12 


„ milk, 3-gallon 


— 


„ „ small . 


6 


Caps, night 


500 


„ dinner 


. 500 


Drawers^ flannel 


600 


„ „ butcher's 


5 



21 



822 



HYGIENE 01? TEIN-TSIN. 



Ladles, 1-quart . 


2 


Razors . 


10 


i) 1-pint . 


24 


Rollers and brackets 


19 


Lamps, hand 


30- 


Saucepans, 2-gallon 


4 


„ passage . 


16 


„ iron, 1-quart 


4 


„ surgery . 


5 


sets of eight 


8 


Measures, wine, 1-pint 


4 


Spoons, table- ■ 


. 600 


,i „ i-pint 


6 


Saltcellars, wood 


6 


„ gill 


9 


Saws, meat 


2 


„ i-gffl 


5 


Scissors, hair-cutting 


. 103 


„ porter, 1-qua 


rt . 2 


Shovel, fire- 


1 


„ „ 1-pinf 


1 


Scoops, hand, quart 


7 


.. „ i-pin 


1 


„ „ pint 


4 


oil, 1-gallon 


1 


Skewers, iron 


14 


„ „ i-gallon 


1 


Stools, close, zinc 


54 


„ „ 1-quart 


3 


„ „ (Type's patent) 


12 


„ „ 1-pint 


3 


Snuffers . 


10 


„ „ i-pint 


3 


Sponges, bath . 


12 


Mats, door, coir fibre 


85 


Steels, butcher's 


5 


Mittens, worsted, pairs 


. 350 


Strops, razor 


8 


Nets, potato, large 


32 


Tables, bed-side, new pattern 


100 


„ „ middling 


30 


„ „ with trusties 


26 


Pans, frying 


6 


Towels, hand 


548 


„ bed, zinc . 


42 


„ round . 


100 


„ dust, zinc . 


37 


Urinals, pewter . 


62 


Pots, chamber . 


. 271 


Weighing machines, i-ounce to 




„ coffee, small 


10 


7-pounds 


2 


„ mustard . 


6 


"Washing machine 


1 


„ tea 


9 


Stoves (Soyer's) 


6 


„ tin, drinking 


. 164 


„ (Winchester) 


5 


Plates, crockery 


. 237 


„ round 


7 


„ dinner, tin 


. 200 


„ hot-air . 


3 


Porringers, wood 


18 


„ heaters . 


9 


Padlocks and keys 


22 







As regards medicines and instruments, these were supplied 
according to the same liberal scale as those already enu- 
merated ; in fact, it may be said that they were supplied with 
lavish profusion. 

The regiments stationed at Tein-tsin were all supplied with a 
full staff of medical officers ; some of these were provided with 
quarters within the general hospital, others remained in bar- 
racks to perform the current duties there. In order to com- 
plete the working establishment of the general hospital, the 
following staff had been appointed when it was first set on foot, 
namely : 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 323 

1. A medical officer to take administrative charge of the 
whole. 

2. A purveyor. 

3. A dispenser, in charge of medicines and the " surgery." 

4. Wardmaster. 

5. Assistant wardmaster. 

6. A non-commissioned officer in charge of issuing store. 

7. A head cook, and his assistants. 

8. Clerk to purveyor. 

9. Clerk to principal medical officer. 

10. Barter. 

11. Washerman and his assistants. 

12. A man in charge of fuel store. 

13. A man in charge of bath and ablution rooms. 

14. Issuer in purveyor's store. 

15. A non-commissioned officer as compounder of medicines. 

16. A man in charge of native coolies, as scavengers. 

17. Ward orderlies, supplied partly by the army hospital 
corps and partly by regiments; and, in consequence of the awk- 
ward construction of the wards, being entertained in the pro- 
portion of one to every eight patients. 

Fortunately for us, no governor was appointed, nor was a 
functionary of this description needed. The drawback of our 
present system of administration is, that it is frittered away 
through too many " departments" already ; and, in the present 
instance, no inconvenience whatever arose from the want of 
what is called a military head. The non-commissioned officers 
and privates employed within the hospital were attached to 
regiments for the purposes of discipline, and the administration 
of the hospital was without difficulty carried on by the principal 
medical officer. 

Situated as we were, in a part of the country the nature of 
which was imperfectly known, there was considerable difficulty 
in laying down a scale of fuel that would be adapted for the 
requirements of the hospital. Stoves of various kinds had been 
sent up from Hong-kong, but they being too few in number, 
fireplaces had to be erected in many of the wards. The stoves 
sent were of different patterns, and thus required different 
allowances of fuel; — a committee of officers was accordingly 



324 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

ordered to report upon this matter, and the following table 
exhibits the nature and quantity of fuel that in their opinion 
was daily required for each kind, viz. : 



Description of Stove. 


Coal. 


Charcoal 




lbs. 


lbs. 


Winchester . 


. 25 . 


. 10 


Round 


. 25 . 


. 8 


Hot air 


. 25 . 


. 8 


" Heaters " . 


. 15 . 


. 10 


Ordinary fireplaces 


. 40 . 


. 10 



During the long and severe winter, we had ample oppor- 
tunities for testing the qualities of the different kinds of fire- 
places; and we found that, no doubt from early habit and 
association, the patients preferred the open chimney fireplace 
to any other. There is no doubt, however, that it possesses 
certain advantages over all other means of heating a ward, inas- 
much as it acts also as a most efficient ventilator— an advantage 
wliich no stove possesses in an equal degree. There is one dis- 
advantage attending it, however, much of the heat is carried up 
the chimney, and thus wasted. 

In the French hospital a contrivance, partaking in some 
degree of the nature of a chimney, and in part of a stove, was 
in use. It not only required much less fuel than did our 
English chimneys, but it diffused a greater quantity of heat 
through the ward. It consisted of a square brick contrivance, 
built in the ward itself, at some distance from the wall. Its 
dimensions were about three feet each way on the surface, 
and about two feet deep. The interior was so arranged as to 
form a place to hold the fire, and from the side next the wall a 
flue of brick and plaster, precisely similar to what we see in 
green-houses and conservatories at home, and of a length 
varying from six feet to nine, conducted the smoke to the chim- 
ney outside, where it escaped. 

The construction of the fireplace itself was very simple. It 
was nothing more than a pyramidal aperture, so large in front 
as to occupy almost the whole space of the brick wall. Its 
bottom was flat, so that the wood, which was the only fuel used, 
could be piled upon it; the two sides and the top, however, 



HYGIENE OF TEIN-TSIN. 325 

were made to converge, so that the " throat" of the flue -was 
not more than four square inches in extent ; thus a thorough 
draught was easily maintained. 

Not only did this simple contrivance give out a considerable 
heat in front, but it did so also from its sides and top : the long 
flue also gave out heat like a hot-air pipe, and thus a larger 
number of patients could obtain the benefit of it than could 
possibly warm themselves at one of our fireplaces. The con- 
trivance is moreover so simple, that it may at anytime be easily 
built. 

As regards the stoves in use, two descriptions only were at all 
of much advantage to the sick; these were the Winchester 
stove, and the "heater." The others, while coal, and even 
charcoal, could not be got to burn freely in them, gave out very 
little heat; and, as a consequence, the patients in the wards 
where they were employed, complained constantly of feeling 
cold : I may observe, however, that although of all stoves the 
Winchester seems to be the one best adapted for hospital use, it 
ought to be restricted to large wards, and then to be placed in 
the centre of the room, a long flue of iron tubing being made to 
convey the smoke from it ; the heater, on the other hand, ought 
only to be used in small wards, and it is needless to observe 
that a vessel containing water ought always to be upon them; 
otherwise, stove warmth is not only most unpleasant, but inju- 
rious to the respiratory organs, by reason of its extreme 
dryness. 

Iron bedsteads, with sacking bottoms, were speedily ob- 
tained from the stores, and provided for the greater number of 
the patients ; for the remainder the bottoms of doolies were 
placed in the wards, and raised upon trestles to a height of about 
twenty inches from the floor. It was not possible to supply all 
the patients with hair mattresses and pillows, but all those more 
seriously affected were thus supplied, the ordinary palliasses 
being given to the others. Nor did any complain of cold from 
having to sleep during the cold nights of winter upon these. It 
must be borne in mind, however, that two or more blankets were 
always between their bodies and the palliasse ; and that, what- 
ever amount of bedding was deemed necessary for the men, 
was at once supplied from the purveyor's store ; so that, what 



326 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

between the fireplaces and stoves in the wards, and the amount 
of bedding given, the sick, even during the most intensely cold 
weather, had the advantage of being kept comfortably warm in 
their wards. 

When the hospital was first established, it was not possible to 
supply the patients with sheets, as there were no means of 
washing them at that time, nor was it by any means an easy 
matter to get even the bedding and clothing that could not be 
dispensed with washed and dried; after a time, however, a 
proper laundry was erected, and a drying-room established, in 
which, by means of a number of stoves kept constantly burning, 
bedding and clothes could be dried during the coldest part of 
the year. 

The plan adopted for maintaining a supply of water for the 
sick was simple enough : one of the large, deep, earthenware 
vessels employed by the Chinese for the same purpose was 
placed outside the door of each ward, it not being in accordance 
with our ideas of hygiene to have such utensils inside the rooms, 
as they keep them : we had in this, however, an illustration of 
the unexpected results that follow from not adopting the 
particular customs which the circumstances of a country render 
necessary. 

In the houses of the Chinese into which we were permitted to 
enter, we saw at all times an abundant supply of water; the 
vessels in which it was kept always looked neat and clean, 
and in the coldest weather their contents were always fluid. 
Far otherwise with ours; no sooner did the great cold of 
December set in, than the water began to freeze in them ; this 
continued until it actually became necessary to break out the 
masses by force, and afterwards to melt them so as to convert 
them into water. 

The violence thus used, and partly the force of the ice itself 
in progress of formation, caused the destruction of almost all the 
jars, and it was not at all times an easy matter to have them 
renewed. At last, the experiment was adopted of encasing 
these jars with a quantity of straw and matting. This partly, 
but not to a full extent, succeeded. 

A few patent filters had alsb been supplied from the purveyor's 
store, but they soon became useless. It must not be supposed 



HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 327 

that during midwinter we were able, with all our contrivances, 
to maintain the temperature of the ward at a point above the 
freezing; such was by no means the case; on the contrary, towards 
morning, when the fires had become extinguished, the tem- 
perature often sank far below it ; the consequence was, that the 
water contained in the stoneware niters rapidly became frozen, 
and burst these vessels. 

The Chinese, as already stated, have a prejudice against 
building houses of more than one storey in height. In some 
measure there is an advantage, in a sanitary point of view, in 
this arrangement. It prevents the congregation of masses of 
human beings upon a very limited space, as occurs in our large 
English and other European cities, and in all probability 
moderates considerably the degree of fatality of epidemics 
among the people. 

If it has an advantage in this respect, however, it is to be 
feared that this is. much more than counterbalanced by the in- 
jurious effect we have reason to believe it exerts upon health, 
certainly of the British, who temporarily occupy such buildings, 
if not upon that of the native children of the soil themselves. 

Ground-floors have been found, in the south of China, to be 
especially unhealthy ; in fact so much so, that the bungalows 
built upon the Indian models, in which Europeans at first 
resided, have of late years been entirely discarded, and now the 
dwelling part of the houses are invariably upon an upper floor, 
the lower being used only for the purposes of stores and offices. 
From what is stated in another part of this report, it appears that 
the soldiers of one regiment, in particular, are believed to have 
suffered from disease directly attributable to terrestial emana- 
tions ; we may therefore fairly take it for granted, that the sick 
at Tein-tsin labour under a very great disadvantage in having to 
remain upon a ground-floor. The same remark applies, although 
in a less degree, to the greater number of the healthy troops, all 
of whom, except a few of the 67th Regiment, who occupy the 
upper part of a temple, being accommodated upon ground- 
floors. 

Matting was placed upon the floors of the hospital during 
the cold weather, -but it is questionable if any advantage 
arose from the measure. Dirt accumulated underneath ; the 



328 HYGIENE OE TEIN-TSIN. 

mats themselves became ingrained with it, and although very 
often changed, I am of opinion that except in so far as appear- 
ances were concerned, the wards would have been better with- 
out it. 

Shut out as our force was from the world for several months, 
it would have been very desirable had it been in our power to 
supply the convalescents with means of occupation and amuse- 
ment. This, unfortunately, could only be partially effected ; a 
few books and games had been obtained for them, and after a 
time newspapers that had been sent out from the war office 
found their way to the north. For want of any better means to 
interest the men, and to withdraw for the time being their minds 
from their bodily ailments, an ambulance waggon, or more often 
a couple of these conveyances, were provided for the purpose 
of taking them a short distance into the country. This, as a 
matter of course, was only practicable during warm weather, so 
that throughout the winter it is to be feared the men must have 
been very dull indeed. 

The spiritual wants of the men, sick as well as healthy, were 
fully attended to by the two chaplains attached to the force, and 
by some of the missionaries who, from time to time, visited men 
who did not belong to any one of the " established " churches. 

Much has of late years been said regarding the supposed pro- 
priety of assimilating the hospital system of the British army to 
that of the French. During our residence at Tein-tsin, our 
medical officers frequently visited the hospitals of our allies, 
their medical officers, in like manner, occasionally visiting ours ; 
and our two systems were frequently made the subject of con- 
versation and comparison. 

A very few words will explain their general hospital system. 
The " administration " decides upon the building to be occupied 
as a hospital ; apportions the sick to particular wards ; appoints 
their subordinate attendants ; looks after the cleanliness of the 
wards, the state of the bedding, clothing, and food of the sick. 
The duty of the medical officers is confined to prescribing for 
the sick. 

These officers, on reading our regulations, one and all ex- 
pressed their sense of the superiority of our system to theirs ; 
with us, on field service (as all our establishments were consi- 



^ 



5 

© - 

"si E-! 

^ © 

1 5 



z 

CO 



50 

IS? 2 

cS W - 





t 



HYGIENE OJP TEIN-TSIN. 329 

dered to be), the principal medical officer was alone held respon- 
sible that the requirements of the sick should be in every way 
supplied ; and to enable him to effect this, full control was per- 
mitted to him over all matters connected therewith. Such 
was the system which the French admire with us, and wish 
they could obtain the introduction into their department ; yet 
there has been a powerful attempt made to reduce it to the 
dimensions of what our allies themselves decry as a most faulty 
and imperfect model. 



CHAPTER X. 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



Statistics of Sickness and Mortality among the British and Native Indian 
Troops at Tein-tsin. 

With a view to illustrate the relative degree of prevalence 
of particular diseases among the troops occupying Tein-tsin, 
according to season, the plan presents itself of considering some 
points connected with their statistics according to particular 
months. It is hoped that this method will the hetter enable 
the reader to trace, by means of the tables and notes of meteoro- 
logical observations given in another chapter, the dependence 
that the type of disease here had upon weather. 

It is necessary to premise that the statistics now about to be 
given, date only from the 16th of November, 1860, that being 
the date on which the General Hospital in Tein-tsin was estab- 
lished. It must also be mentioned that on the departure to 
Hong Kong of the regiments and corps that were not required 
for the force of occupation during the winter, all their own sick 
accompanied them, except a very few whose cases were of so 
severe a nature as to render their removal unsafe. The fact is 
also to be borne in mind that,' of the regiments ordered to 
remain, all the men who were in a state of confirmed bad 
health had previously been sent on board invalid ships. Except, 
therefore, the small number of very serious cases already men- 
tioned, we may consider that the rate of sickness, as shown in 
the various statistical tables connected with this chapter, repre- 
sents tolerably nearly the amount that actually occurred during 
the occupation of Tein-tsin, and for the months to the statistics 
of which I have had access. 

Commencing, then, with the month of — 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 331 

November, 1860. 

"We learn from the returns that the rate of occurrence of 
fevers and of chest affections among the troops, was, as nearly 
as possible, equal, but that bowel diseases prevailed among 
them to a degree nearly three times greater than either of 
these two classes. Among Seikhs, on the other hand, bowel 
and chest affections were equal in their rate of occurrence. 
Fevers were altogether absent ; and, in both British and Asiatics, 
diseases of the liver prevailed to a very inconsiderable degree. 

The statistical records kept, clearly show that during the 
month the men of different corps have been affected in very 
different ratios with the diseases noted, although in their duties, 
exposure, and manner of living, there has been very little 
difference. It is not easy either to explain why certain diseases 
prevail more in one regiment than in another ; yet we see 
in every day experience that this frequently happens. 

The rate of admissions during the half month would give 
for the year among British, 161"28 per cent. ; among the 
natives of India, 138'00. Among the latter no deaths occurred, 
but among the former there happened, from catarrhus chronicus, 
1; hepatitis acuta, 1 j dysenteria chronica, 1 ; diarrhoea, 2; total, 
5 ; being in the annual ratio of 3 - 12 per cent, of strength. 

This ratio must be considered small when we bear in mind 
that the troops had shortly before been exposed to considerable 
fatigue ; and, moreover, that it includes two of the class of men 
already alluded to as having been left behind on the departure 
of their regiments. Circumstances of a similar nature must, as 
a matter of course, always happen on service to invalidate local 
statistics, so that in no case can they represent more than an 
approximation to fact. 

During the half month we found that in a strength* of 
3585 British, there were 234 admissions into hospital. The 
discharges were 214, the deaths 5. Thus, there was an increase 
in the number of those " remaining " sick at the end of the 
month of fifteen, a very considerable increase, considering that 

* It may be well to mention that the strength and per-centages given in this 
chapter represent the force stationed at Taku and Tein-tsin. The numbers given 
in the meteorological tables include only those forming the army of occupation in 
Tein-tsin. Hence the apparent discrepancy. 



332 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

the cold weather was now setting in with considerable severity. 
The strength of the Seikhs is laid down at 313, of this number, 
18 admissions took place, and only 12 discharges ; thus giving 
a very large increase in the sickness on the last day of the 
month, as compared to that in the middle of it. It may, there- 
fore, be briefly stated that, during November, the admissions 
exceeded the cures in the population of 05 5 per cent, of 
strength among the British, and as much as 1'90 among the 
Asiatics. Thus, we have had an increase nearly four times as 
great among the latter as among the former ; and if we compare 
this with the admissions, we shall see that, although there was 
actually a higher rate of admissions among the British than 
among the Seikhs, the proportion of cures was also greater, 
even making allowance for the five fatal cases that unfortunately 
happened. 

As regards officers, the strength of this class at Tein-tsin 
during the latter half of November, 1860, was 125, of which 
number 7 were admitted on the sick list, being in the propor- 
tion of 5 - 76 per cent, for the period, or 138 - 24 per cent, per 
annum ; a proportion which is surprisingly near that of admis- 
sions among the Seikhs, although considerably less than what 
they were among the soldiers. One officer died, but it would 
be manifestly absurd to say that the rate of mortality thus 
represented among the class ought to be adopted ; it would 
give the frightful rate of death of 19 per cent. 

December. 

The rate of admissions during this month was among the 
British in the proportion of 1T52 per cent, per month, or 
138 - 24 per annum ; among the Seikhs 21'15 per cent, per month, 
or 253-80 per annum. Of the British who died during this 
month was a young recruit, who had but two days previously 
arrived at the station, after a cold and fatiguing march from 
Taku. He must have died suddenly during the night time, 
as he was discovered a corpse in the early morning, and it was 
believed that he had gone to bed in a state of intoxication. In 
his case enlargement of the heart was discovered in the post- 
mortem examination, and the presumption seems legitimate 
that the severe cold to which he had been subjected, induced 



MORTALITY OE TEIN-TSIN. 333 

an overloaded condition of the heart, which that organ was 
unable to throw off, and that death was the result. Here, then, 
is one effect of great cold, which it may be interesting to note. 

The rate of mortality during the entire month was, among 
the British, in the proportion of 5'52 per cent, per annum. 
This rate is somewhat high, but in the numbers, as during 
November, are included some whose cases more properly 
belonged to the portion of the force that had gone away. 

No fatal case seems to have occurred among the Seikhs. A 
comparison of the returns of the two classes, however, will 
show that the degree in which these men suffered from clima- 
torial diseases was much greater than that in which the British 
were affected. The diseases in which the greatest difference, 
to the disadvantage of the Seikhs is apparent, are fevers, chest 
affections, and rheumatism ; while they suffered less from bowel 
diseases than the British ; and liver diseases were among them 
altogether absent. 

Much of the interest of establishing comparisons, such as I 
am here endeavouring to institute, arises from the difference in 
the habits and clothing of the two races, rendering one, it 
might be presumed, better adapted than the other to bear 
extreme climates. 

In reference to smallpox, which has appeared in the force, it 
is of importance to note that this disease first appeared among 
the men stationed at Pekin, in the person of a soldier of the 
67th Regiment. The next case also occurred at Pekin. A few 
cases occurred during the month of November, and seven cases 
occurred in the present month of December, one death hap- 
pening among those under treatment. The outbreak of the 
disease has so far been slight ; its origin attributed to the 
soldiers being in some instances provided with the bedding of 
natives upon which persons similarly affected are believed to 
have lain. One death was also attributable to what would seem 
to be rubeola maligna. It, and some others that I have had 
occasion to observe, was, in all probability, undeveloped small- 
pox, where, from constitutional peculiarity of the patient, the 
eruption did not appear freely, and where the vital powers may 
be said to have been completely oppressed by the morbific poison. 

Among the officers during this month, we find that in an 



334 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

average strength of 108, 4 remained on the sick list, 15 were 
admitted, and 1 died; giving a ratio of admissions of 13 - 88 
per mensem or 166 - 56 per annum, that is, they seem to have 
been sick in a very considerably greater proportion than the 
non-commissioned ranks. 

January, 1861. 

Detachments of recruits that joined the force towards the 
latter end of last month considerably altered the average 
strength of the latter. Thus, our strength for the month now 
under notice has been 3516 British, including those at Taku, 
and 292 Sikhs. 

The admissions shown by the monthly returns as having 
occurred during January among the above numbers, are 473 
among the British, and 40 among the Seikhs, giving a ratio of 
13 - 45 per mensem or 161"40 in the former, and 13-79 per 
mensem, or 165 '48 per annum among the latter. 

Of the above numbers, twenty-three British died at Tein- 
tsin and Taku during January, twenty-two of the casualtie 
occurring at Tein-tsin ; this gives a death rate per cent, of - 65 
per mensem, or 7*80 per annum. Among the Seikhs, on the other 
hand, only one death took place during the month ; giving thus 
a death rate of "34 per mensem, or 4 - 08 per annum. 

The difference between the death rate among the British and 
Asiatic troops is remarkable. We had naturally expected that 
the intensely cold weather which during midwinter prevails in 
this part of China would have proved far more trying to the 
constitutions of the latter than of the former, yet the opposite 
has in reality been the case ; while among British soldiers we 
have had a ratio of mortality during the month of January 
equal to that at Hong Kong during September and October, 
which are the two most deadly months there. 

It is not easy to find a plausible reason for the circumstance 
of the rate of mortality having been so much smaller, as it has 
been, among the Seikhs than among the English soldiers. Not 
one of the former has died from any of the diseases dependent 
upon temperature or climate, and although their ratio of admis- 
sions has been higher for the month than ours, still the nature 
of the cases admitted was usually slight. 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 335 

The Seikhs are said to be more temperate in their hahits than 
our men, but this is only partially true. As a race, they are 
very partial to strong drinks, and moreover, it does not appear 
that more than three deaths out of all those that have occurred 
among the soldiers can be attributed to indulgence in this vice. 
I have it from the principal medical officer of the French 
troops at this station, that among the soldiers of that army, 
who certainly are more temperate in their habits than the 
British soldier, the ratio of deaths to strength, during January, 
was greater than with us. 

The numbers of the Seikhs are too small, and the period of 
observation too short, to justify us in drawing any conclusions 
from such data as they may give ; we therefore merely state the 
facts as they occurred. 

Among the British, the range of the thermometer exerted a 
remarkable influence on the progress of particular diseases. 
Affections of the stomach and bowels became seriously aggra- 
vated by low temperature, death in some instances taking place 
somewhat unexpectedly when a sudden fall took place in the 
downward range of the mercury in the thermometer. In cases 
of such a nature, post-mortem examination revealed the fact 
that organic disease of old standing had existed ; and the cir- 
cumstance was in some respects of importance, that the appear- 
ances discovered were enlargement of the viscera, especially of 
the heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys. In fact, men affected 
with previous organic disease were liable to be swept off suddenly 
on the occurrence of very cold weather.* 

* It may be remembered that the month of January in England was remark- 
able for its coldness, and that the public health suffered severely as a direct result. 
It will moreover be seen, from the annexed extract from the ' Observer' newspaper 
of the 20th of that month, that the causes of death in London at that time bore a 
remarkable similarity to those that were observed at Tein-tsin. According to that 
paper, "The late severe weather has fearfully affected the public health. The 
deaths in the metropolis during the last fortnight have been more than 700 above 
the average for the past ten years. The old, especially, have suffered. Many aged 
people who might, humanly speaking, have survived for some years, have been cut 
off with terrible suddenness. The returns of the Registrar-General, when they 
come to be analysed, will show a greater number of sudden deaths than have, 
perhaps, ever been recorded before in this country. The intense cold, in fact, 
paralysed the whole system of persons stricken in years. The prevailing causes of 
death have been pneumonia, congestion of the lungs, and apoplexy. In the city 



336 MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

la December we had occasion to remark that among the 
Seikhs, a coincidence was observed between the rate of preva- 
lence of fevers and of diseases of the stomach and bowels. This 
month a coincidence is also observable among them, namely, 
between the rate of occurrence of fevers and of pulmonic 
diseases. 

By the statistical tables appended to these observations the 
fact becomes apparent that the rate of admissions from disease 
generally, was among the Seikh troops greater than among the 
British, although that of mortality was much smaller among the 
former than among the latter. 

In fact, the man of the Seikhs who did die, lost his life by a 
cause altogether unconnected with local climate. He had been 
an old opium eater, and had thus fallen into a state of general 
cachexia. He became infected with syphilis, and having clan- 
destinely had recourse to native medicines, salivation became 
induced in so violent a degree, that in his already weak condi- 
tion, he sank from its effects. 

During the present month, the class of diseases by which the 
greatest amount of mortality was occasioned, was fevers ; next 
in frequency, pulmonic diseases ; and next to them, intestinal 
disorders. Medical officers who had the immediate care of 
patients, however, have remarked the circumstance of a great 
liability existing, for men to become attacked with a succession 

of London the mortality has heen excessive. The average number of deaths in the 
corresponding weeks of previous years have heen 67 ; during the past week the 
deaths numbered 95, being only seven less than the deaths in the week when the 
cholera was most fatal in the City of London in 1848. Last Thursday week, when 
the whole of the metropolis was enveloped in a dense fog, large numbers of persons 
were struck down as if shot. Dr. Letheby, in his report to the City Commis- 
sioners of Sewers, says, ' the quantity of organic vapour, sulphate of ammonia, and 
finely divided soot, in the atmosphere, was unprecedented. It amounted to 
nearly four grains in the cubic foot of air, and its effect on the eyes and the 
delicate bronchial membranes was most irritating. This is evidenced by the 
enormous amount of illness aud mortality from acute pulmonary affections. 
Pneumonia, for example, has risen in the course of the last four weeks from only 
1 death in the week to 11, the successive numbers being 1, 2, 5, 11, and bronchitis 
from 5 to 25.' In the City of London, nevertheless, the cold has not been any- 
thing like so severe as in many other parts of the country, where the thermometer 
has fallen several degrees below zero ; and it therefore follows that if a less degree 
of cold has produced such a fearful increase of mortality, a still greater mortality 
may be expected where the cold was more intense." 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 337 

of affections, differing in their nature. Thus, a patient admitted 
on account of one disease, in many instances, while undergoing 
treatment for it, may be seized with a disease of another organ or 
set of organs, and thus the maladies be accumulated upon him 
until, under their combined influence, he would sink and die. 

The occurrence of, or severity of cases of frost-bite, during 
the very cold weather of this month were not so great as might 
have been anticipated. This is without doubt attributable to the 
great care that was bestowed upon warming the barrack rooms 
and giving the soldiers an ample quantity of warm clothing 
during the day, and warm bedding during the night. Only one 
case of " gelatio" appears in the returns. It was of a trivial 
nature, and occurred in an old soldier of dissipated habits, 
who, while imprisoned in the regimental cells, had his heels 
and the tips of the fingers " bitten " to such a degree that they 
shortly afterwards became covered with vesicles, and these 
ran into obstinate ulcers. 

The very different degree in which sickness and mortality 
prevailed in different regiments, must necessarily strike a person 
as strange. It is a well-ascertained fact, that both sickness and 
mortality sometimes prevail in a particular portion of a force in a 
greater degree than in another, without any cause being appa- 
rent why this should be the case ; and also, that during a period 
of considerable duration the ratio of sickness and mortality 
throughout the whole will become nearly if not altogether 
equalised. In the present instance there is reason to believe 
that in the regiment that suffered in the greatest degree the 
men were not in the first instance provided with so good quarters 
as the others. This was unfortunately unavoidable at the time 
for this reason, that native houses had to be occupied, and after- 
wards fitted up as best we could for our troops. 

There are, however, some other circumstances which I 
cannot help thinking have had much to do in the pro- 
duction of a larger amount of illness among the men of one 
regiment than another, and I trust the bare mention of my 
impression upon this subject may be of some use in drawing the 
attention of commanding officers, in similar situations to what 
ours at Tein-tsin was, to the absolute necessity there is that, 
in matters connected with the hygiene of the men under them, 

22 



338 



MOETALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



ready and cordial assent should be given to the suggestions of 
the medical officer whose duty it is to bring under notice what- 
ever is calculated to act prejudicially upon the health of the 
men. 

In this instance it is to be feared there are grounds for the 
belief that in the regiment that suffered most the suggestions 
of the surgeons as regards providing the men with clothing and 
bedding, did not, when first made, meet with that ready assent 
on the part of the commanding officer which those of other 
medical officers holding charges did. The consequence was, 
that arrangements which would otherwise have been made early 
in the cold season, were not effected until late, and indeed after 
the men had begun to suffer. 

Regarding the statistics of disease among the officers of the 
force, it is a somewhat strange circumstance, and certainly one 
which speaks loudly as to the effects of the peculiar habits of 
military officers upon their health, that the rate of sickness 
among them has been greater than among the soldiers, notwith- 
standing that the latter have had to take night guards and 
other fatiguing duties to which the former are not exposed. 
We find that the strength of officers given for the month was 
154; of this number there were 26 admissions on the sick list; 
being in the monthly proportions of 16'75 per cent, giving an 
annual ratio of 21000 per cent, that is, considerably higher than 
occurred among the soldiers. 

Februaey, 1862. 

The rates of sickness and mortality among the troops have 
been considerably more favorable than they were during the 
preceding. The meteorological observations form the subject 
of a separate chapter. . I will therefore only remark here that 
the averages given by the thermometer during this month and 
January were almost identical. We cannot therefore attribute 
the decrease in the rate of sickness and deaths on this occasion 
to any amelioration in climate, for none took place. The un- 
pleasant alternative seems to be, that the intense cold of 
January swept away during that month almost all the sick 
whose maladies or constitutions rendered them incapable of 



MORTALITY OE TEIN-TSIN. 339 

withstanding the influence of low temperature ; for, as we have 
had many opportunities of observing, continuous low tempera- 
ture is as powerful a depressant as is continuous heat. 

One remark seems to be necessary in regard to this series of 
statistics, namely, that the numbers given from time to time 
represent those among whom the sickness and mortality that 
form the subject of succeeding calculations have occurred. 

The strength of the force, as shown by the returns of the 
present month, has been 3473 British, and 291 Seikhs. The 
admissions have been 356 among the former, and 23 among 
the latter ; thus giving for the white a ratio of admissions to 
strength of 10*25 per cent, per month, or 123-00 per annum; 
and among the blacks, 7 - 90 per cent, per month, or 94-80 per 
cent, per annum. 

Seven deaths occurred during the month, including one 
soldier, who was found dead in barracks, and is believed to 
have died from excessive intoxication. These were all among 
the British ; giving a ratio to strength of 020 per month, or 
2'40 per annum. 

No deaths occurred among the Seikh troops ; and when we 
consider the moderate mortality among the British, as compared 
with the previous month, we cannot resist congratulating our- 
selves upon the favorable change that occurred in the severity 
of attacks of disease. 

In order to make this difference of the death rate for the two 
months the more distinct, I will remark that were the rate of 
mortality of January to continue throughout the entire year, a 
regiment 1000 strong would lose by death from disease exactly 
seventy-eight men ; whereas, were the death rate of February 
to continue throughout the twelve months in a regiment of that 
strength, it would only lose twenty-four men ; so that in reality 
the difference between the rates of mortality among our soldiers 
at Tein-tsin for February as compared with January, represents 
a saving of human life equal to fifty-four men in every thousand 
per annum. Well, indeed, may we congratulate ourselves 
upon the favorable change. 

The Seikh troops, as regards health, have still the advantage 
of the British, and considerably more so this month than they 
had in January, inasmuch as they have had no fatal case in 



340 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

February ; and whereas the rate of admissions per cent, among 
them was then 0-24 higher than among the British, it was 
during February as much as 2 - 35 per cent, below the rate 
among the whites — an enormous difference, and one which 
naturally leads us to inquire how is it to be accounted for. 

I have considered this matter carefully, and have, after doing 
so, arrived at the conclusion, that the explanation is to be found 
in the fact, that every one of the British regiments and details 
here, except the military train, have, during the past few years, 
been exposed to climate and other causes, which necessarily im- 
paired the sanitary condition of the mass. They had all been 
abroad, had come direct from India, and one regiment, the 
67th — that which suffered most as regards the amount of sick- 
ness among the men, and also the amount of mortality — had 
been lately stationed at Canton, where the men suffered very 
severely from the prevailing fever at that place; those who 
recovered remaining debilitated, and with impaired consti- 
tutions, which were necessarily still further depressed by the 
operations of the campaign which has lately terminated at 
Pekin. 

Following the arrangement already adopted, we come to 
consider the rate of prevalence during the month of diseases 
which depend upon climatorial causes. This, it is presumed, is 
made sufficiently explicit in the tabular form which is given in 
its proper place. If we compare the results of that table with 
corresponding ones for the month of January, we shall find that 
among the British a very great decrease had taken place in the 
rate of occurrence of all the climatorial diseases, with the single 
exception of rheumatism, which has attacked precisely the same 
number of men it did in January. Among the Seikhs a con- 
siderable increase took place in the ratio of attacks by bowel 
complaints ; and strange enough, the rate of occurrence among 
them also was precisely what it had been in the preceding 
month. We moreover find that during February the Seikhs 
suffered somewhat more from fevers than did the British : so 
they also did in January. They suffered much less from both 
pulmonic and bowel diseases : so they also did in January. 
As regards rheumatism, the Seikhs suffered somewhat more 
than the British ; but diseases of the liver are entirely absent 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN.. 341 

among the Asiatics. In both these latter respects, we have 
had a repetition of what was noted during the month of 
January. While among the British the rate of admission 
per cent, from climatorial diseases was, for the present month, 
6 - 05, it was among the Seikhs only 4"11, so that in respect to 
this class of diseases, the latter were nearly one third more 
healthy than the former. 

Not only have the diseases by which mortality during this 
month has been occasioned been in themselves inconsiderable 
in number, but, as will be observed on reference to the return, 
only one death has occurred from each, a point in which a great 
difference is observable between this and the preceding month. 

Of the case of apoplexy, it is only necessary to remark, 
that it occurred in a man in whose brain a state of softening 
was discovered after death. A case of hydrophobia, which it 
it is almost needless to observe ended fatally, occurred in a 
portion of our force stationed at Taku, but is not included 
in the numbers that form the present series of statistics. The 
man in whom this terrible disease happened, was twenty-three 
years of age. He does not appear to have been actually bitten 
by a dog, but the fact transpired that a dog which he had had 
in his possession showed symptoms of rabies about three weeks 
previous, and had been on this account destroyed ; the pre- 
sumption is therefore justified that the animal may have licked 
his hands at some time or other while the man was fondling 
it, and that during the cold weather, which at the time pre- 
vailed, "chaps" doubtless existed, and thus the virus gained 
admission into the system. This case was detailed at length 
by the medical officer who had charge of it, and his account 
sent home with a view to publication. 

As, during the month of January, we had reason to fear that 
cases of frost-bite might become common, it was satisfactory to 
find that throughout the present month our anticipations in this 
respect were not realised. The cases that appear in the returns 
under this head were of no greater degree of severity than the 
destruction of a small portion of cuticle. The exemption of the 
soldiers from this affection is evidently attributable to the care 
bestowed in supplying them with a sufficiency of warm clothes, 
and in attending to the comfort of their barrack rooms ; but it is 



342 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

also, no doubt, in some degree attributable to tbe generally dry 
weather we have had. The men were thus never liable to be 
exposed to wet. Had they been so, it is more than probable 
that their feet and toes might have suffered. 

The statistics for this month, as for those gone by, indicate 
that disease and death prevail in very different degrees in 
different regiments. The circumstance has been in some 
measure accounted for, but not entirely so. In the case of the 
67th Regiment, the defects in the barrack rooms were remedied 
as far as circumstances would permit. It is, however, to be 
borne in mind that the regiment had lately been stationed at 
Canton, where the men suffered severely from the malignant 
fever which prevails there from July to October ; the sanitary 
condition of the mass was thus lowered, and in consequence, 
this regiment has been more prostrated by sickness, and has 
lost many more men since the late campaign than any other ; 
with the military train, sickness seems to be in part accounted 
for among them, by the severe nature of their duties, exposing 
them not only to the weather, but without their being able to 
keep themselves warm by exercise, as ihey sit upon their 
horses ; they are also, as a matter of course, liable to accidents. 
In other cases, however, as the Royal Engineers, and one 
portion of the artillery, it is to be feared the personal character 
of the men themselves has had a good deal to do in bringing 
about their high rate of sickness. 

As among the soldiers, so among the officers, the rate of 
admissions has been smaller than it was in January. The 
strength for the month was 154, among whom 20 admissions 
on the sick list took place, giving the ratio of 12 - 98 per cent, 
for the month. As with the former, so with these ; however, we 
must calculate what rate this would have given us, had the 
month, like January, contained thirty-one days. This would 
give us 22 admissions, that is, a rate of 14-28 per cent. ; whereas, 
it may be observed, the ratio for January was 16 - 75, so that, 
both actually and theoretically, the sickness has decreased 
among officers as well as among soldiers. 

Before concluding those observations for the present month, 
it may be interesting, in a statistical point of view, to subjoin a 
table, showing that among the officers, also, sickness attacks 



MORTAXnr OF TEIN-TSIN. 



343 



those of some regiments more than others, and undoubtedly 
from the operation of the same causes which create the difference 
described among the non-commissioned ranks. The table to 
which I allude is as follows, viz. : 



Regiment. 


Strength. 


Admitted 


Royal Engineers 


4 


— 


3rd Battery, 13th Royal Artillery 6 


» — 


"*tn „ „ ,, 


4 


— 


Military Train 


14 


6 


31st Regiment 


32 


3 


2nd Battalion, 60th Regiment 


30 


1 


67th Regiment 


32 


7 


Staff and Departments 


21 


3 


Fane's Horse 


11 


— 


Total 


154 


20 



It is very remarkable how these figures, if interpreted by a 
person accustomed to statistics, confirm the truth of the reasons 
just adduced ! It illustrates another point, however, and one of 
very great importance: this has on a previous occasion been 
alluded to, but it may well be repeated. It is, that whereas the 
ratio of sickness from all causes has been among the soldiers in 
the British portion of the force 10*25 per cent, to strength, the 
above show that it has amounted among the officers to 12*99 
per cent, per month, or 153'88 per annum. Thus, then, we 
have further illustration that the circumstances of the life of 
officers render them more liable to become attacked by disease 
than the soldiers under them, notwithstanding the coarse food, 
the night duty, and the supposed sanitary disadvantages under 
which the latter labour. 



Makch, 1861. 

During this month the admissions at Tein-tsin were among 
the British troops in the proportion of 9*20 per cent., or 11040 
per annum ; among the native Indian soldiers 5*86, or 70*32 
per annum ; nine deaths, from all disease, occurred among the 



344 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

British, thus giving a ratio of mortality per annum of 312 per 
cent, of strength, that is, precisely the ratio for November. 

It is remarked that the Seikhs have still much the advantage 
of the British in respect to health; not only has the actual 
amount of disease among the former been smaller than among 
the latter, but no fatal case has occurred among them. 

The greater prevalence of mortality by diseases of the intes- 
tines this month than the preceding, will be remarked in the 
numerical returns. The circumstance will also be observed, 
that in the fatal cases of these diseases, the length of time the 
patients were under treatment had been very considerable. 
This indicates that, although these men did not actually suc- 
cumb to the depressing influence of the intense cold that pre- 
vailed during the month of February, they were so severely 
aiFected by it, that notwithstanding the favorable change which 
took place in the climate during the present month, their vital 
powers had already become depressed to a degree in which they 
were unable to derive advantage therefrom. 

A few brief remarks may be offered in regard to the diseases 
by which mortality has been occasioned. The case of epilepsy 
occurred in a man who had, up to the time of seizure, shown 
no tendency to the malady. After a severe attack of the cha- 
racteristic convulsions, he became unconscious, and continued 
so during the short time afterwards that he lived ; a succession 
of convulsions occurred after his admission into hospital, and in 
a very severe attack of this nature he expired. His pupils during 
the time of his illness were contracted, respiration laboured, 
countenance pale. It was surmised that he laboured under 
chronic disease of the brain, and post-mortem examination re- 
vealed the consistence of that organ to be like putty, and as if it 
had been preserved in spirit ; its density had, in fact, been much 
increased beyond its normal condition. 

In regard to the case of intermittent fever, death is stated to 
have occurred in so short a time after attack as two days. The 
report of it states, that the man who was its subject appeared, 
when admitted, to be in the cold stage of intermittent fever; nor 
does it appear that he ever rallied from the state so described. 
After death great congestion was found to exist in the lungs and 
the liver. This was the only case at all approaching to a sudden 



JtOETALITY OF TEIX-TSIN. 345 

death which we had during the month : it can scarcely be said 
to have depended upon low temperature, as similar cases that 
occurred in the month of January evidently did. The state of 
the thermometer for a week prior to the admission of the case 
had ranged from a minimum of 20'8° Fahr., to a maximum of 
59° Fahr. in the shade. 

It is not often that a soldier so old as forty-two years of age 
is treated in hospital, for this simple reason, that few continue 
effective until they attain this period of life. One was unfortu- 
nately treated during the present month, and died. His case 
illustrates what has already been stated, that whereas the low 
temperature of the winter in the north of China seemed to 
exert a tonic influence upon the young and otherwise healthy, it 
appeared to have had a most depressing effect upon the old or 
those who had previously suffered from disease. The case 
further illustrates another remark that has been made, namely, 
that a peculiar tendency seems to be created here to men who 
are seized with one particular form of disease being attacked 
by several in succession — not unfrequently by one, and then 
another, while still affected with the one that had occasioned 
their original admission into hospital. 

The soldier to whom I allude belonged to the 2nd battalion, 
60th Rifles. He had been twenty-two years in the army, during 
which time he had served in the West Indies, in North America, 
at the Cape, in India, and finally in China. It appears that 
early last autumn he became affected with intermittent fever 
and dysentery, and on this account was sent on board a hospital 
ship. In November he was seized at Tein-tsin with bronchitis, 
and on this account was in hospital a month. On the 21st of Jan., 
that is to say, after the continuance for a week of a tempe- 
rature ranging from a minimum of - 8 to a maximum of 31° Fahr., 
he was admitted on account of bronchitis, from which he again 
recovered. He was not discharged, however, as in the mean time 
he suffered from what is described as an attack of internal 
haemorrhoids, but was doubtless the commencement of the attack 
of dysentery under which he finally succumbed; for it is recorded 
that " on the 16th of March he had an attack of febris c. c, 
which brought on his old complaint, dysenterica chronica, under 



346 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

which he sank rapidly." This man's habits are stated to have 
been intemperate. 

The Seikhs have sufferedjn a less degree than the British from 
climatorial diseases, except fevers ; and contrary to what might 
be anticipated, they have, as heretofore, been affected by this 
class of diseases more than the whites. It is, moreover, inte- 
resting to note, that the ratio of prevalence of fevers among them 
during March and February, has been within a fraction of iden- 
tical; thus, while this ratio of occurrence was in the former 
l - 72, it was in the latter 1* 71 per cent. Pulmonic diseases in 
these two months were identical, but a considerable decrease 
took place in the rates of occurrence of bowel complaints and 
rheumatism. 

From the ordinary returns we learn that, during the month of 
March, the sickness among officers, that is, the admissions at 
Tein-tsin, have been as under, viz. : 

Corps. 
Royal Engineers 

3rd Battery, 13th Royal Artillery 
4tn „ ,, ,, 

Military Train 
31st Regiment 

2nd Battalion, 60th Regiment 
67th Regiment 
Staff, and Departments 
Fane's Horse 

Total . 

The difference in the strength of officers, as given last month, 
arises from the fact of one officer having gone to the south on 
sick leave, he having suffered from a dangerous attack of pneu- 
monia in January last. Taking, however, the above numbers 
as they stand, we find that they show the rate of admissions per 
cent, to have been 9 - 80 per cent., or 117 - 60 per annum. That 
of the soldiers is shown to have been 9 20, so that, as on 
previous occasions, we still find the numerical amount of sick- 
ness to be greatest among the very class of men who ought, 
theoretically, to be most healthy. 



Strength. 


Admitted 


. 4 


— 


y 6 


— 


. 2 


— 


. 13 


6 


. 35 


3 


. 26 


3 


. 32 


2 


. 25 


1 


. 9 


— 


. 153 


15 



MORTALITY OT TEIN-TSIN. 347 



Apkil, 1861. 

■ 

The admissions during this month gives us among the British 
portion of the force a ratio per cent, of 8*96, or annually 107'52. 
Among the Seikh troops the ratio of admissions in the month 
was 1072 per cent., or 128*64 per annum ; thus showing among 
them a great increase over what took place in the month of 
March, when the temperature was less genial than it hecame in 
the present. It was observed, however, that the attacks of 
disease among the Seikhs were of inconsiderable severity, and 
no fatal case occurred among them. 

Prom the tabular form elsewhere given, we perceive that in 
respect to climatorial diseases, fevers and bowel affections have 
in their occurrence changed places, as it were, during the present 
month, as compared with March ; thus, fevers were then most 
prevalent among the Seikhs, and intestinal disorders less so. 
During the present month, this is reversed. Rheumatism, also, 
has doubled itself in its rate of occurrence. 

Theory has hitherto been at fault as regards what ought, 
according to it, to have happened to them in reference to the 
prevalence of disease ; they have been comparatively free from 
those affections to which, upon theoretical grounds, they might 
have been expected to have been most liable. We might be 
inclined to attribute the increase now observed among them of 
bowel complaints and rheumatism to the circumstance that, 
with the setting in of fine weather, they adopted their own 
native mode of dress, one totally unadapted to this climate; 
but yet, attacks of fever, and of ordinary diseases of the chest, 
are as liable to be produced by cold, as are rheumatism and 
bowel complaints. Why, then, were they not similarly increased 
in their rate of occurrence ? 

The figures of the same returns show that no material 
difference has of late taken place in the ratio of occurrence of 
fevers among the British as compared with other months, even 
during the cold season. A temporary increase did indeed take 
place during the early part of this month, at which time the tem- 
perature of the air underwent a considerable increase. The cases 
of fever were then in some instances attended by a roseolous 



348 MOETALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

rash. In other cases there was present cerebral congestion, 
attended by delirium, and in these, the eyes were generally 
more or less suffused ; the pupil in some contracted, in others 
dilated. In all there existed a great tendency to relapse, and 
convalescence was slow. This form of fever did not, however, 
continue for any considerable length of time among the troops ; 
and if we take the statistics of the whole month, a decrease in 
the admissions from this cause, as compared with those in March, 
is observable. 

Another form of fever may be mentioned as occurring among 
our men. In it the pyrexia was not severe ; but from the com- 
mencement of the attack, evident congestion of the lungs was 
present, interfering with the process of respiration. One fatal 
case of this form occurred, and in it the post-mortem exami- 
nation revealed the existence of condensation of the pulmonary 
tissue, evidently of old standing. We may, therefore, presume 
that in other cases where the fever assumed the complication 
alluded to, there may have existed old disease in these organs, 
thus giving rise to a liability to a recurrence of it in an active 
form. 

Pulmonic diseases, that is, those of an inflammatory as well 
as of a phthisical nature, have, during April, undergone a 
decrease. If we take phthisis alone, however, we find that 
its rate of prevalence has increased, and, indeed, that three 
cases of it have proved fatal. None of these can properly be 
considered as connected with the present period of the year ; 
on the contrary, they all occurred in men who first had become 
seriously ill during the intensity of the cold weather, and ought, 
therefore, rather to be added to the already great mortality to 
which these months gave rise. 

Bowel complaints have been somewhat less frequent than 
they had been in March. They have been more so than in 
February; thus we cannot safely attribute their rate of pre- 
valence to anything connected with temperature of the present 
month ; and the same remark may be extended to rheumatism 
and liver diseases. Our data are of too limited a nature, either as 
regards numbers of men or length of time, to justify conclusions 
being drawn from individual months — rather record mere facts, 
and trust to conclusions being hereafter elicited. 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 349 

Among the deaths that occurred during the present month 
was one from tetanus. A young soldier had received a kick 
from a horse over the anterior spine of the tibia. The wound 
was small, not an inch in length, but it laid the bone bare. 
There was, however, nothing in its character to give rise to 
apprehension. Cold lotions were kept applied, and it looked 
clean. On the twelfth day of the injury the patient began to 
complain a little of stiffness in his jaw, which he attributed to 
his having caught cold from a draught of air to which he 
thought he had been exposed. The stiffness extended in the 
course of a couple of days to the muscles of the chest, then to 
those of the abdomen, assuming the character of spasms recur- 
ring at intervals. 

The muscles of the loins now became attacked, more espe- 
cially on the side corresponding with the wound. On inquiry 
being made, the patient asserted that he felt the tendency to 
spasm begin at the wound, and thence extend upwards, although 
it did not actually attack the limb itself. The wound in the 
mean time did not change in appearance, neither did it become 
more painful while the disease continued. The spasms were on 
no occasion of that violent nature which is said to.be often the 
case in this terrible disease; they were short in period of 
duration, but rapid in their occurrence, thus depriving the 
patient of rest and sleep. For the first few days the bowels 
were obstinately constipated, afterwards they became moved by 
medicine, and were kept in a lax state. 

All the remedies usually prescribed in tetanus were in turn 
administered, but without permanent good effect. Chloroform 
when inhaled gave temporary relief. Aconite did not appear to 
produce any effect. The regularity of the pulse was not at first 
affected. As the disease advanced, the spasms became increased 
in frequency, but less in severity. The features had from the 
first occurrence of the tetanic symptoms the stiff, anxious 
expression which usually attends the disease. It soon became 
evident that the vital powers were gradually giving way, notwith- 
standing that stimulants and rich soups were freely administered. 
After the disease had defied treatment during twelve days, a 
dose of croton oil and calomel was administered to the patient, 
on the principle that this method of treatment is beneficial in 



350 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

cases of the apoplexy usually met with in India. The violent 
action produced by the combination seemed, however, to add to 
the debility of the patient, who thenceforward sank rapidly, and 
died in a more than ordinarily severe convulsion on the thirteenth 
day of the tetanus, and twenty-fifth of the injury. A very 
careful examination of the body took place, but no morbid 
appearance could be detected in the nerves of the injured limb, 
in the spinal cord, or in the brain. 

The deaths in several instances occurred in men who were 
suffering from more diseases than one. This circumstance 
illustrates what has already been stated in regard to the great 
tendency men in China suffer from to become affected with one 
form of disease after another, and that without properly reco- 
vering from the one by which they may have in the first instance 
been prostrated. For instance, among those that illustrate 
what is now stated, were fatal cases of fever, complicated 
with excessive pulmonary congestion, diarrhoea with phthisis, 
and bronchitis complicated with hepatitis. 

In the early portion of the month, a part of the force was 
moved into camp, with a view to increase the cubic space 
available foil the men during the hot weather. A comparative 
series of statistics was established, with a view to indicate the 
prevalence among the men in camp, and those in the town, of 
various diseases to which soldiers are more especially liable. 

The results of these statistics are given below. It must be 
mentioned, however, that the tents given to the men were not 
of the description that had been contemplated. Indian tents 
had been applied for, but instead of this description being 
given, " palls " were supplied. 

The following includes the period from the 16th to the last 
day of the month, viz. : 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



351 



In quarters. 
Strength, 1318. 



In camp. 
Strength, 509. 



Diseases. Admitted. 

Intermittent and rheumatic fevers — 
Continued fevers . . .12 



Died. 



Pulmonic disease 
Bowel affections 
Rheumatism 
Venereal 
Ophthalmia 
Smallpox . 
Liver disease 

Totals 



2 
5 
1 
11 
2 



33 



Ratio of occurrence per 100 strength 2*60 



Admitted. 
1 
6 
4 
3 

15 
1 



30 



5-40 



Died. 



We find that the rate of prevalence of fevers and of venereal 
diseases was much higher in camp than in quarters ; thus the 
ratio of occurrence of these, per cent., was as follows : 

Fevers of all kinds, in quarters 0*91 In camp l - 37 
Venereal diseases . . . 0*83 „ 2'94 

As in other instances, however, the period over which these 
observations extend is too short to justify any conclusions being 
drawn from it. 

An examination of the table of mortality given above will 
show that, although during April the death-rate among the men 
was considerably higher than it had been during the previous 
month, yet that the majority of the diseases that then proved 
fatal had attacked their victims during the cold season ; indeed, 
the unfortunate case of tetanus, one from delirium tremens — 
both diseases unconnected with climate — one of fever, and one 
of pneumonia, are all that actually commenced during the 
present month. 

As regards the amount of sickness among officers, the admis- 
sions among those of each separate regiment are shown as 
under, viz. : 



352 MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



Regiment. Strength. 


Admitted. 


Royal Engineers ... 4 
3rd Battery, 13th Royal Artillery 6 

A+Ti 3 


— 


*f » » » ' u 

Military Train . . .12 
31st Regiment . . .35 
2nd Battalion, 60th Regiment . 26 
67th Regiment ... 30 
Staff and Departments . . 25 
Fane's Horse ... 9 


1 
1 

5 
1 



Total . . .150 8 

From this we learn that during the month of April the rate 
of sickness among officers was 5*33 per cent, of strength, or 
63-96 per annum ; thus they for the first time exhibit a higher 
state of health than the common soldiers. One officer was 
sent away on sick leave, he having been liable to repeated 
attacks of fever, and his health being generally impaired. 
With this exception, no severe case of disease occurred among 
the officers. 



May, 1861. 

The rate of admissions during this month was, among the 
British at Tein-tsin, 8"26 per cent, per mensem, or 99 - 12 per 
annum. Among the Seikhs, 10 - 03 per mensem, or 12036 per 
annum. From these figures we learn, that as the heat of the 
season increases, the rate of illness among the Indian troops, 
instead of, as might be expected, being under that of the British, 
becomes greater. 

We find, on making a comparison of the statistical tables for 
the present month with those of April, that among the British, 
the rate of occurrence of fevers has, as might have been 
expected, undergone an increase on the occurrence of hotter 
weather than we have as yet had since winter. It is, however 
to be noted that a considerable part of this increase took place 
among the men occupying tents, as will be more particularly 
specified hereafter. A striking decrease took place in the 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 353 

admissions from the other climatorial diseases, with the excep- 
tion of rheumatism; and, contrary to what might have been 
looked for, that affection increased among the men. 

Among the Seikhs, not only did fevers nearly double in their 
rate of prevalence as compared with the month of April, but 
these natives of India suffered in greater proportion from this 
class of diseases than the British did. Pulmonic disease did 
not appear among them at all. Stomach and bowel affections, 
although a trifle less numerous than they had been in the pre- 
vious month, yet prevailed in a considerably larger proportion 
than among the British ; while rheumatism became less frequent 
than in April, and was in proportion less prevalent than among 
the British. 

It is considered that a comparison, such as has just been 
made of the rate of prevalence of particular diseases among the 
two classes of men constituting this force, and among the 
same class at different seasons of the year, forms in itself an 
interesting subject of inquiry. It moreover tends to illustrate 
what has already been hinted at, namely, that theory has been 
to the present time altogether at fault as regards the diseases 
and their prevalence which by it we might have been led to 
expect and not to expect. In fact, China, as regards its 
diseases, seems to be as different from what we have hitherto 
been accustomed to, as the country is socially, politically, and, 
indeed, in every other way from all that in these various respects 
are seen elsewhere. 

On comparing the returns of the two classes of men, we find 
that during May the sickness was in proportion less among the 
British than among the Seikhs. This must, however, be taken 
with some degree of limitation, as we find tbat of the twenty- 
nine admissions among the latter, five were occasioned by 
venereal disease. 

In the early part of the month, a certain number of invalids 
(seventy-one) were despatched to Hong Kong, with a view of 
being sent to England. These men had contracted the illness 
that incapacitated them during the cold season. 

The following is an abstract of the diseases of these men, and 
of the numbers invalided on account of each, viz. : 



23 



354 



MORTALITY 01? TEIN-TSIN. 



Fevers, remittent 
Asthma . 
Catarrh, chronic 
Bronchitis 
Pneumonia 
Morbus cordis . 
Pericarditis 
Hepatitis . . 
Diarrhoea 
Dysentery, chronic 
Dementia 
Anaemia . 
Phthisis, pulmonary 



2 
1 
2 
5 
1 
1 
1 
8 
5 
18 
1 
1 
2 



Amaurosis 


1 


Amentia . 


1 


Cephalalgia 


1 
1 


X cLL <*xj BIO • • • 

Ophthalmia 
Impetigo . 
Rheumatism, chronic 


4 
1 
8 


Synovitis 
Contusio . 


2 
1 


Subluxatio 


1 


Contractura 


1 


Deafness and"} 
Debility ) 


1 


1 



Total 



71 



Thus we observe that the diseases of these men are precisely 
those by which the greater amount of sickness has been occa- 
sioned at this station up to the present time ; we also observe 
that the proportion of men thus invalided is, as nearly as pos- 
sible, 2 per cent, of strength during six months. This rate, and 
that of mortality hitherto shown, would give us as non-effective 
by disease during the year 8 per cent, of the whole. It is 
satisfactory to observe that the rate of mortality during this 
month, although still considerably above the average for Eng- 
land, was, nevertheless, considering the circumstances of the 
force, very moderate. 

A letter from Hong Kong states that the deaths during the 
quarter ending April amounted only to 14 out of 3500 British ; 
that would give 16 per 1000 strength per annum. Ours at 
Tein-tsin during the time that has elapsed since the force 
broke up in November, would give 71 per 1000 for the year. 
And our rate of invaliding 40 more, that is, more mortality 
than what is the rate at Berhampore (68 - 80), Chinsurah (6840), 
or Calcutta (68-96). 

During the months of February, March, and April, our rate 
of mortality, if calculated at the same rate for the year, would 
amount to 36 per 1000 per annum ; so that in reality we have 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 355 

been more than twice as unhealthy as the troops in south China 
during the same period. 

The increased health of our troops during the present month, 
however, will materially diminish the rate for the whole year as 
above shown ; yet it must be confessed that our statistics, even 
so far, show that our troops have suffered most severely. 

We observe that the only disease that has occasioned a 
notable degree of mortality has been fever. The cases that 
proved fatal from this cause either did so from apparent 
cerebral complication, or from extensive disease implicating the 
glandular patches in the interior of the large intestine. The 
latter variety of the malady was further characterised by an 
eruption upon the surface of the body, having all the appearance 
of petechia, such as occurs in typhoid fever in Britain. The 
abdomen was at the same time tympanitic, the teeth Covered with 
sordes, the tongue thickly coated at the sides, and red ip the 
centre, presenting a streak there as if it were denuded of mem- 
brane ; it was dry from root to tip. 

In some cases of this disease, cold douche was employed, and 
with almost immediate relief, as, for instance, where the suf- 
fused eye and frontal headache indicated that the cerebrum was 
implicated. In other cases, sponging with cold water was 
found to be not only grateful to the patient, but also a valuable 
adjunct to the medicines administered; Some of the medical 
officers employed stimulants freely in the treatment of these 
diseases ; claret was given in other cases, and with such encour- 
aging results that this description of beverage became a great 
favorite, and was especially grateful to the patients. 

A reference to the tables will show that, although fevers — 
that is, those not eruptive — have prevailed to a slighter degree 
among the British than during the month preceding, and to 
about the same extent only as they did in March, yet the rate 
of mortality on this account has not. been quite so great as it 
was in Aprih but three times the amount in actual numbers that 
it was in March. This circumstance may therefore direct our 
attention to the fact that the increase in temperature of the 
weather has not materially been the cause of increase of sickness 
from febrile diseases ; but that the rate of mortality from these 
is not necessarily increased in proportion to the liability of men 



356 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



to become attacked ; and the same remark has been made of 
various diseases that come under observation in India. 

During a considerable part of the month, detachments of the 
force continued to occupy tents on the outside line of ramparts, 
as they had done the previous month; these tents, as has 
already been observed, were not well adapted for their purpose, 
and afforded their inmates but imperfect protection. The 
weather during the first half of April was characterised by 
dryness, and by the frequency of dust-storms, with a few trivial 
falls of rain. On the 23rd the amount of rain that had fallen 
during the two preceding days had converted the place where 
the tents stood into a swamp ; the clothing and bedding of the 
men had become completely soaked, and accordingly the troops 
were immediately removed from their tents, and placed in 
public buildings hastily prepared for them in the town. This 
being the case, it is only possible to compare the rates of occur- 
rence of the following diseases among the men in quarters and 
those under canvas for the twenty-three days the latter remained 
in camp, viz. : 





In Quarters 


In Camp. 






Strength, 


1493. 


Strength, 413. 




Admitted. 


\ 

Died. 


Admitted. 


Died 


Intermittent and remit- 










tent fevers 


4 


— 


— 


— 


Continued fevers 


22 


1 


5 


1 


Smallpox 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Pulmonic diseases . 


2 


— 


1 


— 


Hepatic „ 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Bowel affections 


10 


— 


2 


— 


Rheumatic „ 


3 


— 


— 


— 


Venereal „ 


29 


— 


10 





Ophthalmia . 


7 


— - 


7 


— 


Other diseases 


18 


— 


3 






Total 



96 



28 



Rate of occurrence 
100 strength 



per 



6-44 



6-77 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSItf. 357 

In addition to the fatal case of continued fever, noted abovo 
as occurring in a man from barracks, a second death took place 
among this class a few days after the expiration of the period 
now being considered. 

The above figures do not show that on this occasion the men 
who were in tents suffered beyond their comrades in quarters 
more than in an inconsiderable degree. We find the ratio of 
occurrence of fevers and venereal affections among the two 
classes of men to have been as under, viz. : 

Fevers of all kinds in quarters 1*74 per cent.; in camp 1*21 
Venereal diseases „ l - 94 „ „ 2*42 

Thus we discover, contrary to what might have been looked 
for, that the rate of occurrence of fevers among the men in 
camp was not only smaller than it was in quarters, notwith- 
standing the increasing hot weather, and other disadvantages 
under which these soldiers laboured, but that it was actually 
smaller than it had been in the last half of April. We find, 
however, that venereal diseases were more prevalent among the 
men in camp than those in quarters, probably because the former 
were more apt to stroll away from their abode in search of 
occupation, or to loll ennui. 

It now only remains to make a few remarks on the health 
of the officers during this month. Following, therefore, the 
method already adopted, the subjoined table represents the 
strength and sickness among those of each regiment separately, 
viz. : 



Begiments. Strength. 


Admitted. 


Royal Engineers 


3 


— 


3rd Battery, 13th Royal Artillery 


6 


— 


4th „ „ 


2 


— 


Military Train 


13 


4 


31st Regiment 


30 


3 


2nd Battalion, 60th Rifles . 


25 


2 


67th Regiment 


30 


2 


Staff and Departments 


25 


1 


Fane's Horse .... 


9 


— 



Total . . .143 12 



358 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

These figures give us a rate of admissions to strength of 
officers of 8-39 per cent, per mensem, or 100-68 per annum ; 
that is, a little over what occurred among the soldiers. It 
must also be observed that one officer was sent on short leave 
in the command, on account of bad health, and two were 
despatched to Hong Kong, with a view to being sent on to 
England; thus, then, what has on previous occasions been 
remarked, as to the greater unhealthiness of the officers as a 
body than the men, is further illustrated in what took place 
during the by-gone month. 



June, 1861. 

The ratio of admissions during this month was, among the 
British, 13"20 per cent., or lSS^O per annum. Among the 
Seikhs 9'34 per cent., or 112 - 08 per annum. Eight deaths 
took place, all among the British, giving a rate of mortality of 
2' 77 per cent, per annum. 

A considerable proportion of the admissions during the 
month were occasioned by venereal diseases. The subjoined 
table represents the admissions from this cause during each of 
the months that have elapsed since the formation of the army 
of occupation. 

Admissions from Venereal Diseases among the British. 
16th to 30th 



fov. 


'" Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


2 


80 


73 


72. 


56 


79 


92 


100 



The great increase thus shown to have occurred in the occur- 
rence of this class of diseases demands that a few observations 
should be made upon the subject. Prostitution, which in the 
neighbouring islands of Japan is a recognised institution, and 
under strict superintendence by the government, is in China, 
or at least in this part of the empire, under no control whatever. 
The moral code of the Chinese is in itself as high as that of 
any other country that can be named, and according to law the 
penalties for prostitution are of excessive severity. Unfortu- 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIK. 359 

nately, however, theory and practice iu this respect are much 
at variance with one another. The Chinese authorities, when 
the unpleasant subject was mentioned to them of the existence 
of houses of this description, endeavoured to evade the matter 
by expressing the impossibility of such a state of matters 
taking place in China ; nor was it until they were plainly 
informed of and questioned regarding the existence of some 
establishments still more objectionable in their nature, that 
they would entertain the subject at all. Once being got to 
talk about it, however, they discussed the subject in a practical 
enough manner, and the result has been that, at the end of the 
present month these houses were all shut up, their inmates 
sent out of the city, and orders given by the native magistrates, 
that any who might afterwards be discovered in the neighbour- 
hood were to be at once handed over to them. It remains, 
therefore, to be seen what effects shall arise from this wholesale 
manner of dealing with the question, and it is principally with 
this view that the preceding table has been constructed. 

We find that among the British during the present month 
the rate of prevalence of fevers has nearly doubled as compared 
with May. An immaterial increase has taken place on this 
occasion in chest affections; but it is in regard to bowel diseases 
that the most serious increase has taken place; the rate of 
these, per cent, of soldiers, having nearly trebled itself in June 
as compared with May. As regards rheumatism, there has 
been a trivial diminution, and of liver diseases a slight increase, 
but it is only in respect to fevers and bowel complaints that a 
really material difference in the rate of prevalence has taken 
place. 

. Among the Indian troops, there has been, as regards fevers, 
no material difference in the rate of prevalence as compared with 
May. Pulmonic diseases, which during the latter were entirely 
absent have now appeared to a trifling degree. Bowel com- 
plaints have doubled in frequency, and there has been a trifling 
increase in rheumatic diseases; liver affections continue entirely 
absent. 

If now we compare the Seikhs with the British, we find that 
in regard to fevers, the latter have suffered more than the former. 
This might have been expected, considering the native climate 



360 MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

of the two races. Seikhs have suffered a little more from chest 
affections than the British, but not to a degree sufficient to 
demand particular notice. Bowel complaints have prevailed 
among both classes to an almost similar extent ; rheumatism 
to a greater extent among the Seikhs than the British ; and 
diseases of the liver have as heretofore been entirely absent 
from the Indians. 

Reverting for a moment to the subject of venereal diseases, we 
find that the numbers admitted during this month were in the pro- 
portion, among the British, of 2 - 92 per cent, of strength ; Seikhs 
l - 03j that is, the former have suffered within a very small fraction, 
as much from this result of their own vice as they have from 
bowel complaints, which form one of the most serious endemic 
diseases of a hot country. The Seikhs have suffered to a less 
degree, but it is to be feared that this fact of itself forms no cri- 
terion of their greater morality, but the very opposite. They 
are orientals, and orientals, including those of China, indulge in 
vices to which it is well not to allude farther. 

It was remarked in the early portion of our residence at this 
station that, contemporaneous with the first considerable fall in 
the temperature, some cases of sudden death took place. In the 
month now gone, two men died with appalling rapidity, both 
from disease of the heart ; and a third man succumbed a few 
hours after admission, he having, as shown by post-mortem 
appearances, had extensive inflammation of the gastric inner 
surface after fever. From these remarks further corroboration 
is given to an assertion already made, that similar effects, as 
regards disease, frequently arise from the operation of causes of 
an opposite nature. 

The principal increase in sickness during June has taken 
place from cases of fevers and bowel complaints as compared 
with the cold months. Chest affections, which prevailed to a 
great extent during the continuance of intense dry, cold 
weather, are now only met with to an inconsiderable extent. 

The statistics for the month show that again the Seikhs enjoyed 
comparative freedom from disease, and were altogether free 
from any of a lethal nature. It is no easy matter to explain 
the cause of this greater degree of healthiness enjoyed by 
them than the British, and also the greater degree of healthi- 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIX. 361 

ness enjoyed by them than by their brother Indians at Hong 
Kong. 

In regard to the diseases that prevailed, several points of 
interest have to be observed ; thus, we find that the progress 
of those by which mortality was occasioned was rapid ; there 
was, however, in the general class, a marked difference as com- 
pared with India. Thus, with the exception of one case of 
fever, in which some of the symptoms of heat apoplexy were 
present, and in which relief followed the opening of the tem- 
poral artery, no case at all resembling that disease as met with 
in India occurred among the soldiers. 

There were apparently few cases of intermittent fevers, and 
in no instance among the men did we observe severe spleen 
complications such as we meet with in India. Instead of this, 
men affected with ague began to assume the peculiar blanched 
and anaemic hue which renders some residents at Hong Kong, 
and especially on the southern part of that island at once dis- 
tinguishable. 

Even in the instance of the bowel affections there was a marked 
difference between the characters of those that occurred at 
Tein-tsin and those that had been previously observed in India. 
In the former, the symptoms were, as a general rule, less urgent 
in their characters. They partook, in their early stages, more 
of diarrhoea than was the case in India. The symptoms of 
dysentery were less severe than in that country, but in fatal 
cases, post-mortem examination discovered sphacelus, deep 
ulceration and other disorganization of the caecum and rectum, 
similar to what are observed in the worst forms of the disease 
as met with in Bengal. 

It was remarked that recovery from severe attacks of ill- 
ness became more and more tedious as the month advanced, 
this being doubtless one result of the high temperature that 
prevailed ; consequently, the hospital became rapidly filled and 
additional accommodation became necessary for the increasing 
numbers of sick. 

Of the cases of fever, one was remarkable on account of the 
extreme depression of the vital powers under which the patient 
suffered. He had been at best but a weakly man, and when 
seized with the attack of continued fever, he speedily fell into 



362 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

a state of exhaustion from which it was not easy by means of 
stimulants to. rouse him. After the crisis of the disease had 
passed, it was discovered that his right foot and lower part of 
the leg were livid, and that sensation in them was much im- 
paired. Shortly afterwards, phlyctense appeared upon the latter, 
the toes became dry, shrivelled, and black. It was evident that 
extensive gangrene had taken place. After some days, the 
strength having been supported, a line of demarcation began to 
form below the knee, running irregularly across the knee. 

Amputation was accordingly performed in the lower third of 
the thigh, chloroform being first administered. During the 
operation, the flaps remained as cut, not showing the contrac- 
tility that flaps usually do ; the muscular fibre was moreover 
found to be of a dark and unhealthy colour. Contrary to antici- 
pation, not only did he bear up under the operation, but he 
gained strength afterwards. It was found, however, that no 
attempt at union took place between the flaps ; consequently, 
when, after a time the threads ulcerated through, the head of the 
bone was found to be uncovered. The ligature came from the 
femoral on the thirteenth day. Bed sores, however, commenced, 
and in this state the man was at the end of the period included 
in this report. 

It is presumed that these remarks will illustrate the general 
type of disease that prevails here during this period of the year ; 
and it may be added, that although the rate of sickness has 
undoubtedly been high, that of mortality has been by no means 
60, when all circumstances are considered. 

Among these circumstances of position are: a crowded city, 
surrounded by high walls ; narrow streets, reeking with filth of 
the most odious nature ; a succession of low, narrow, badly built 
houses, of one storey high ; floors consisting of no better materials 
than inferior bricks, and these placed so loosely that the damp 
and sickening odours from the earth escape freely through the 
crevices between them, are circumstances that, upon the scale 
they exist in Tein-tsin, do not admit of being altered to the 
extent dictated by sanitary considerations. Unfortunately, they 
are those most likely to occasion precisely the class of diseases 
that have increased most during the present portion of the hot 
weather ; and the circumstances which render necessary the tern- 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 363 

porary location of a force here obliges us also to occupy the 
description of places that have been handed over for the use of 
the troops. 

The fact of men and officers occupying rooms on ground 
floors no doubt has operated perniciously upon their general 
sanitary condition. It is so even at home, and in China is 
notoriously the case. Fevers and bowel complaints are there- 
fore in some degree, no doubt, attributable to this cause, but the 
evil as it affects our present force cannot be avoided while it re- 
tains its character as an army of occupation. 

In regard to the officers, we shall find that they do not show 
that great ratio of health which, from their freedom from the 
discomforts and fatigues of life incident to a common soldier, they 
might be expected to show. 

The subjoined table is intended to represent the strength 
and sickness among those of each regiment during the month, 
namely : 



Regiments. Strength. 


Admitted. 


Royal Engineers ... 4 


— 


3rd Battery, 13th Royal Artillery 6 


1 


4th „ „ .3 


1 


Military Train . . .13 


3 


31st Regiment . . .31 


10 


2nd Battalion, 60th Regiment . 25 


3 


67th Regiment ... 31 


2 


Staff and Departments . . 25 


2 


Fane's Horse ... 8 


— 



146 22 

The ratio thus given of sickness among officers, per cent, of 
strength, is 15*06 per mensem, or 18072 per annum. It will 
be remembered that among the common soldiers there were 
respectively 13"20, and 158 - 40; and among the Seikhs9"34, and 
112'08. We thus perceive that sickness has actually prevailed 
among the officers to a very much greater extent than it has 
done among the men; nor have their diseases been by any 
means milder than they have among the soldiers, but quite the 
contrary ; and although none have actually died, still two have 



364 MORTALITY OT 1 TEIN-TSIN. 

had to be sent away upon sick certificate. It is somewhat 
strange that the principal amount of sickness among the officers 
should have fallen upon those of one regiment, and that not by 
any means the one in which the greatest amount of illness was 
observed among the men. 



July, 1861. 

During this month the rate of sickness among our men 
attained a degree to which it had not hitherto reached. Among 
the British the admissions were 17 "51 per cent, of strength, or 
210*12 per annum. Among theSeikhs only 10'41 per cent., or 
in the proportion of 124-82 per annum. 

In continuation of the remarks already made in regard to 
prostitution and the prevalence of venereal diseases, it may be 
observed in this place that, in accordance to orders, the houses 
of ill fame were shut up so soon as the amount of illness attri- 
butable to these places had reached the amount there stated. 
Notwithstanding this somewhat sweeping measure, however, 
and that the houses have been carefully watched by the police, 
the soldiers find means of becoming infected. The evil has 
therefore not been quite eradicated, but it has been checked in 
some measure. Instead of 100 admissions from this cause, as 
occurred in June, they have, during this month, fallen to 59; 
thus, therefore, the benefit of the measure has already become 
apparent. 

A reference to the numerical returns of climatorial diseases 
during the present month, will show that fevers have nearly 
doubled themselves among the British, but have among the 
Seikhs decreased by one half. Pulmonic affections have 
among the former somewhat increased, but are altogether 
absent from the returns of the latter. Diarrhoea and dysentery 
have increased to a degree that is alarming among the British, 
and to a smaller degree among the Seikhs. Kheumatic diseases 
do not show any difference worth mentioning, in the ratio of 
occurrence as compared with the preceding month. 

Liver diseases have become more prevalent than they were 
among both British and natives, but the increase is principally 
occasioned by attacks of icterus ; for of the fourteen cases 



MORTALITY OT TEIN-TSIN. 365 

hepatic disorders returned as occurring among the British, 
eight were icterus ; and the two cases among the Seikhs referred 
to this class were from jaundice also. 

Although, however, cases of inflammation of the liver are 
comparatively rare in an idiopathic form in this part of China, 
this form of disease is in reality of very frequent occurrence, 
and has been especially so during the hot season. In the great 
majority of fatal cases of dysentery, post-mortem examination 
reveals more or less numerous and extensive hepatic abscesses ; 
these are in most instances deep in the substance of the liver, 
have not been attended during the life of the patient by any 
definite symptoms, and, in fact, were not at first even suspected, 
until their frequent discovery after death drew attention to the 
circumstance. 

In many cases the gradual degeneration of the hepatic tissue 
into pus has been observed at different stages of the process, 
from the first period — where the tendency appears in the form of 
a circumscribed, pale gray spot, somewhat softened, in the 
parenchyma of the organ — to its complete stage of development, 
where deposits of pus, in the form of abscesses, appear, as just 
mentioned. 

The actual amount of illness among the British troops, as 
represented by the numbers constantly sick, has been v6ry 
great; thus we find that although sixty-eight men were sent 
from hospital to Taku, and three more weakly men from bar- 
racks between the 20th and last day of the month; still the 
average daily numbers in hospital, as shown by the statistics, 
would give for British 304 ; and in addition to these, an average 
number of 30 have been daily excused duty on account of 
indisposition ; while among the Seikhs there has been an average 
daily number of 13 sick, and 2 additional excused duty. 
These numbers accordingly give us for the British, daily sick, 
8'52 per cent. ; daily excused duty, but not in hospital, 0*84 
per cent. ; total unfit for duty on account of illness, 936 per 
cent, per diem throughout the month ; these numbers being 
exclusive of the men already mentioned as having been sent to 
Taku for the benefit of change. In like manner we shall find 
the rates per cent, among the Seikhs to have been — in hospital 
daily, 4 - 51 ; excused duty, - 68 ; total non-effective daily, 5 - 19. 



366 MORTALITY OF TBIN-TSIN. 

Thus the greater degree of health enjoyed by the black troops 
than by our own countrymen becomes very apparent. A con- 
sideration of the daily admissions during July show that, as the 
mean temperature of the atmosphere, the admissions from fevers 
and bowel diseases took first one start upwards, then another, 
and then a third. It is to be remarked that the general state 
of the atmosphere during this month has been considerably 
more moist than the preceding, and that the mean temperature 
has been higher. We also observe that with the continuance of 
these conditions, and more especially with their increase from 
time to time, a great increase was apparent in the occurrence of 
disorders of the bowels. Dysentery and diarrhoea were usually 
the forms in which these manifested themselves, but in some 
instances these were attended by distinct choleraic symptoms ; 
and in a few instances death took place from sporadic attacks of 
disease having all the characters of the cholera of India. 

In some other cases, however, soldiers became attacked with 
vomiting, purging of rice-water, spasms, and collapse ; the voice 
did not acquire the peculiar character so distinctive in India, 
but remained strong. Yet death in two or three such cases 
occurred; and it was found that the subjects of this form of 
disease had previously suffered from illness, had been discharged 
from hospital, but, although in barracks, and performing their 
duty, had remained out of health. Post-mortem examination 
in these revealed the fact of extensive ulceration and reddening 
of the lining membrane of the stomach ; the lesions in one 
case being so extensive, that it was matter of surprise how the 
person could have so long survived. 

These choleraic attacks were not confined to the British; 
they were also observed among the Seikhs, one of whom died 
from this cause. Nor were the natives themselves exempt from 
them. On the contrary, severaL deaths occurred among the 
Chinese from this cause ; and, although cholera does not seem 
to have occurred here in an epidemic form, occasional cases of 
it are known to happen every hot weather, as they have done 
this year, and on each occasion to destroy a few lives. 

A remarkable illustration took place during this month of the 
extent to which sickness and mortality prevailed among the 
men who had passed the winter and early part of the summer 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 367 

here, and among those who had been quartered in huts or tents 
in the neighbourhood of Hong Kong for some months, and had 
their sanitary condition lowered thereby. 

A detachment of recruits and men for the 2nd battalion of 
the 60th, which was unable to land at Taku in the early part of 
last winter, had to return to Hong Kong, where it was put up 
as now described. There the men suffered considerably from 
the endemic diseases of the place, and when, in June, the 
detachment sailed for the north of China, a large proportion of 
them were actually unfit for duty. It was considered; however, 
that the healthy climate of this part of China would set them 
up, and they were accordingly sent, as if to a sanitarium. 

Between the 12th and 17th of July the detachment, con- 
sisting of 249 men, joined head- quarters, and the following 
statistics will show to what extent, as compared with the 649 
which then formed the head-quarters of the regiment, they 
became the subjects of disease ; taking the comparison from the 
part of the month subsequent to the arrival of the drafts, both 
as regards themselves, and as regards the original men. 

From the 17th to the 31st of the month, there were admitted, 
from among the men originally at head-quarters, 9 - 08 per cent. ; 
from among those newly joined, 30 - 13 per cent. Three died 
during the same short period ; a proportion to strength of 061 
per cent, of the former, and of 2 - 00 of the latter. We thus see 
that the new arrivals have suffered to an alarming extent. 

Fevers and bowel complaints have been the diseases that pre- 
vailed during this month to the greatest extent, while they 
and insolation have been the principal causes of mortality. The 
following abstract shows the relative degree of prevalence and 
mortality from each of these among the original men at head- 
quarters of the 60th Regiment, and among the men who joined 
during July, viz. : 

Head-quarter Men. Men of Drafts. 

Admissions per Deaths per Admissions per Deaths per 

cent, of strength. cent. cent, of strength. cent. 

Fevers . . 2-24 0'15 1606 000 

Bowel diseases . 4'31 0-30 11-64 1-20 

Insolation . 0-61 0-15 3-61 080 



368 MORTALITY 03? TEIN-TSIN. 

From these figures we learn that soldiers arriving here from 
the south of China are not only more liahle to become attacked 
by disease, but are more liable to a high rate of mortality than 
those who may have been stationed for some little time in the 
place. This fact may be looked upon as confirmatory of an 
opinion already expressed by me in regard to this point, as it 
bore upon the 67th Regiment, the men of which, having been 
stationed at Canton, where they had suffered severely from 
sickness, were, while in a low sanitary condition, sent to the 
north on service, and while yet in a state little fitted to enable 
them to resist the effects of fatigue and exposure incidental to a 
campaign. 

The mortality among the force, especially the British portion 
of it, has been very great. Its amount is represented in the 
tabular form ; but before offering further remarks regarding it, a 
brief notice may be taken of the history of the case in which 
amputation was performed during last month. In it, the vitality 
of the patient had been so greatly reduced that it was scarcely 
expected that he would have survived the shock of the operation. 
He did bear up, however ; but a few days afterwards the fact 
became apparent that no attempt at union had taken place ; the 
ligatures made their way by ulceration through the flaps, and, 
on the supports being completely removed from the stump, the 
flaps fell apart, leaving the bone bare and projecting. Diarrhoea, 
from which the patient had for some time previous suffered, 
increased in severity; bed-sores formed over the hips. He 
gradually sank and died from debility. 

An examination of the ages of men who, during this 
month, were seized with insolation, indicates the fact that 
those of all ages were equally liable to become attacked by 
the disease. Of those who lost their lives from this cause, one 
was only twenty years of age, and in his case the progress of 
the attack was so rapid, that he died before he could be brought 
to hospital from barracks. Three men of twenty-one years of age 
were among its victims, and of those who were more advanced 
in life were two of thirty-four years of age, one of thirty-six, 
one of forty, and one of forty-three. Of the whole number 
attacked, the majority were young soldiers; several of these 
were at the time under treatment in hospital, on account of 



MORTALITY 03? TEIN-TSIN. 



369 



other diseases, and, upon the whole, we have, on this occasion, 
no grounds for believing that the subjects of this disease were 
chiefly the dissipated and intemperate. 

The treatment pursued was the same as is most successful in 
the disease as met with in India ; and the success which has 
attended it at Tein-tsin has, unquestionably, been very great. 
The advantages of cold affusion became so apparent, that 
soldiers in barracks adopted it towards their comrades when 
first seized with the symptoms of the disease, and the remedy 
thus early applied saved several lives that must have been lost 
had nothing been done for them until after their arrival at the 
hospital. 

The first occurrence of the disease took place on the 17th of 
the month, and it continued to prevail during the seven fol- 
lowing days, the temperature at this time being very high.- 
During this week there occurred fifty-six cases among the men ; 
of these, fifteen died, six were discharged cured, and thirty-five 
remained under treatment; one officer of the 67th regiment 
became attacked with the disease, but he speedily recovered ; 
one other officer of the same regiment, who was suffering from 
a severe sporadic attack of small-pox, died on 21st of the 
month, with symptoms of insolation. The following table repre- 
sents the number of cases that occurred in the different regi- 
ments, viz. — 



Begira en t. 


to 


t3 

s 


^3 

bti 

3d 

■3 6 
s 


4 

•a 
§ 




3rd Battery, 13th Royal 
Artillery . 

4th Battery, 13th Royal 
Artillery . 

Military Train 
31st Regiment 
2nd Bat., 60th Rifles . 

67th Regiment 
A. H. C. 

c. s. c. 

Total . 


1 
1 

4 
11 
22 

15 
2 


1 

2 
4 
3 

3 
2 


1 

2 
3 


1 

2 
6 

17 

9 


This case under treatment for 
feb. c. c. 

One case under treatment for 
feb. int. ; three for feb. c. c. ; 
some for dysentery. 

One case under treatment for 
feb. c. c. 


56 


15 


6 


35 



24 



370 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 



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MORTALITY OE TEIN-TSIN. 



371 



The occurrence of sickness among the officers during the 
month has been as follows, viz. : 



Royal Engineers . 

3rd Battery, 13th Royal Artillery 

4th 

Military Train 

31st Regiment 

2nd Battalion, 60th Rifles 

67th Regiment 

Staff and Departments . 

Fane's Horse 

Total . 



Strength. 


Admitted 


3 


— 


3 


— 


7 


1 


13 


4 


31 


8 


28 


5 


29 


5 


24 


3 


9 


— 



Died. 



147 



26 



The above would give the rate of admission per cent, of 
officers during July as 17*68, or at the annual rate of 212*16 
per 100. The death of two during the month give for that 
period the ratio of mortality of 1*36, or 16 - 32 per annum — a 
rate which cannot be considered as other than very high. 

One of the officers died from insolation occurring during his 
illness from smallpox, as already mentioned; the other was 
attacked at Taku with symptoms of low fever, under which he 
rapidly sank. He was a young lad of the Artillery, who had 
come up from Hong Kong with the drafts, and who almost 
immediately on his arrival was seized with his fatal illness. 
Six officers were sent away from Tein-tsin during the month on 
sick-leave ; so that, upon the whole, they as a body suffered quite 
as severely in health, if not more so, than the common soldiers. 



August, 1861. 

The rate of admissions during this month was among the 
British 13*85 per cent, of strength, or 166*20 per annum; 
among the Seikhs 10 per cent., or 120 per annum. The pre- 
valence of venereal diseases continued still further to diminish 
in consequence of the decided measures lately taken in regard 
to their source ; that these measures, however, stringent as they 
were, have not fully attained their object, is apparent from the 



372 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

fact that forty-seven admissions on this account have taken place 
during the present month. 

As regards the diseases ordinarily attributahle to climatorial 
causes, we find that during the present month fevers have dimin- 
ished among the British, as compared with the preceding 
month ; among the Seikhs, however, there has been a con- 
siderable increase in the number admitted on this account. It 
is to be observed, however, that the degree of severity of attacks 
had undergone a decrease. Pulmonic diseases have increased 
somewhat in actual number that occurred among the British, 
and considerably so in the obstinacy of attacks. This increase 
is accounted for by the fact of tuberculous disease having 
attacked a few of the people in question. The Seikhs con- 
tinue to enjoy a remarkable immunity from pulmonic diseases 
as compared with the British. 

Diseases of the stomach and bowels exhibit in their rate of 
occurrence among the British some points of great interest. 
In order to bring these particulars more prominently forward, 
it is well to recapitulate the following particulars : — In July, the 
rate of admissions from this class of diseases was 732 per cent. ; 
in August, 5 '42; in the former month, the average daily 
number actually sick was 108'03 ; in the present month it had 
risen to 131 - 29. It is thus made clear that the proportion of 
obstinate cases of this class of diseases in hospital increased very 
considerably during August. This was, indeed, apparent in the 
wards, many patients who during July had become affected 
continuing under treatment throughout the present month, and 
their original diseases becoming complicated in various ways, 
most frequently with hepatic affection. 

Among the Seikhs we find that while the rate of admission in 
July had been 3"47, and the average daily number in hospital 
2"09 ; the admissions for bowel affections were, in August, 1*73 
per cent. ; the average daily number in hospital, 2 - 41. We thus 
perceive that the frequency of attacks has diminished, but the 
degree of the severity has increased during the present month. 

I have on previous occasions had practical experience of the 
occurrence of diseases of the alimentary canal in localities in 
which decomposing animal matter abound. A remarkable illus- 
tration of this occurred on board a vessel on the homeward 



MORTALITY OE TEIN-TSIN. 373 

voyage from India. A large amount of decomposing animal 
matter had become soaked with bilge-water ; maggots bred in 
amazing numbers ; the effluvia pervaded the vessel to a degree 
sufficient to change the colour of all the panels painted with 
white lead. Fever, diarrhoea, and phlegmonous boils occurred 
among the passengers, few of whom escaped having one or 
other, or all these complaints. Somewhat similar circum- 
stances have taken place during the past two months at this 
station. The intense heat of the climate has brought about the 
maximum degree of decomposition in the huge masses of 
animal refuse that lie about in various directions in and about 
Tein-tsin, and bowel diseases have attained their maximum, the 
number of them in hospital having on several occasions actually 
amounted to one third of the entire sick. 

Three cases of cholera are recorded as having occurred among 
the men of the 60th Rifles ; of these, two were fatal, yet the 
attacks as seen differed in several respects from those met with 
in India. The voice has not, in any of the cases that have 
come under notice at Tein-tsin, possessed that hollow character 
which it invariably has in similar cases in India. In one of 
the two fatal cases of the disease, however, the post-mortem 
appearances assimilated in a great measure to those found 
after death in cases of cholera in India, taenia, however, being 
discovered in the intestines. In the second fatal case, the only 
abnormal conditions found after death seem to have been a degree 
of increased arterial congestion on the meninges, and greater 
than ordinary serous effusion within the ventricles of the brain. 
Rheumatism still occurs in an inconsiderable degree among the 
British, and during the past month in even a lesser degree than 
happened during July among the Seikhs; while the aggregate 
treated is precisely the same as in July, the proportions of ad- 
missions is nearly double what it was in that month ; hence it 
is evident that a decrease has taken place in the severity of the 
cases. 

In regard to liver diseases, the numerical returns do not give 
a correct impression of their rate of prevalence, for the reason 
already mentioned, namely, that although in a primary form 
they are by no means common, yet as complications in cases of 
dysentery, and in some cases of fever, they are very prevalent, 



374 MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN. 

disorganization taking place in an insidious manner, as previously- 
described. In some of the cases of this nature, even after the 
attention of medical officers had become aroused to their occur- 
rence, no symptom was detected calculated to indicate that 
disorganization was in progress, until in some instances the 
presence of matter in the veins had become apparent by swelling 
of the side, and in other instances not until it was revealed by 
post-mortem examination. 

Of the twenty-four cases of diseases borne upon the returns 
as referable to this organ, no fewer than twenty were those of 
icterus. The great degree of prevalence of that form of disease 
must therefore be looked upon as remarkable. In some 
instances it was accompanied by pain in the region of the 
organ, but in others it was accompanied by none. As regards 
the numbers daily non-effective during the month, we find 
that they amounted per cent, among the British to 8 - 64 per 
cent, actually in hospital, and 0*98 excused duty, that is, a total 
of 9 - 62. Among the Seikhs, the numbers were respectively 
5 - 90 and 069, giving a total of 6"59. From these figures, 
therefore, we have further information of what has been already 
remarked in reference to the greater degree of severity of cases 
treated during August than in July ; inasmuch as while the 
admissions among the British amounted in the latter to 17'51 
per mensem, and in the former to 13 - 85, the average daily non- 
effective was in July, 936, and in August, 9'62, as just stated ; 
among the Seikhs, no material difference took place. 

By a comparative view, now given in Dr. Nicholson's 
monthly return of the 2nd battalion 60th Rifles, it appears 
that during August, out of a strength of the draft lately 
arrived from Hong Kong, amounting to 240, there were ad- 
mitted 91, or a ratio per cent, per month of 3791 ; giving 
the annual ratio of 454 - 92 per 100. The deaths were 6, giving 
the monthly ratio per cent, of 25 ; or for the year 30. The 
strength during the same period of the old soldiers was 638, 
of this number there were admitted 42 ; viz. a monthly ratio per 
cent, of 6-58, or annually, 78-96. There died 5, giving for the 
month a rate of mortality of - 78 per cent., or 936 per annum. 
These figures accordingly show, even in a more striking manner 



MORTALITY 01" TEIN-TSIN. 375 

than the returns of the previous month, how much greater were 
the sickness and mortality among the late arrivals than among 
the men who had been at the station for some time. 

The following table represents the sickness and deaths among 
the two classes, from the principal diseases that have prevailed, 
viz. : 

Head-quarter Men. Men of Drafts. 



Admissions per Deaths per Admissions per Deaths per 

cent, of strength, cent. cent, of strength. cent. 

Fevers . . 1-41 0-15 16-66 000 

Bowel diseases . 2-35 062 14-58 1-66 

Insolation. . 0-00 000 0-83 083 

These figures show us a liability among the newly arrived to 
become attacked with fever and bowel diseases, as compared 
with the older residents, that is out of all proportion beyond 
what could have been anticipated. This circumstance, there^ 
fore, adds confirmation to what has already been stated in 
regard to the disadvantages under which men labour, who, 
having been the subjects of illness in the south of China, are 
sent to the north during the hot season, in the hope of being 
benefited by the change. 

During the severity of sickness in July a stop was put to 
every duty among the troops that could be avoided ; early in 
August, however, musketry instruction was resumed, but with 
this exception, the duties which the men were called upon to 
perform were of the lightest possible nature. In consequence, 
however, of the extended and straggling nature of the buildings 
in which our men were distributed, thus requiring that a large 
proportion should be daily on guard, the men had only the 
number of nights in bed consecutively that are noted, viz. : 
Royal Engineers 17, Royal Artillery 7, Military Train and 
infantry regiments 5 each, so that in reality the duties were 
still as arduous as they usually are in garrison towns in the 
United Kingdom. 

We find that among the officers during this month, the 
sickness was as follows, viz. : 



376 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



Regiment. Strength. 


Admitted. 


Royal Engineers 


3 


— 


3rd Battery, 13th Royal 






Artillery 


7 


— 


4th do. do. 


4 


— 


Military Train 


14 


2 


31st Regiment 


29 


6 


2nd Battalion, 60th Rifles 


28 


2 


67th Regiment 


29 


10 


Staff and Departments . 


25 


2 


Fane's Horse . 


6 


— 



„. , On sick 

Dled - leave. 



Total ... 149 23 — 2 

These numbers give the rate of admission among officers 
at 15 - 44 per cent, per month, or 185 - 28 per annum; that 
is, considerably more than the rate observed among either 
British or Indian soldiers ; and yet it is evident that cases of 
sickness are not fully returned in Fane's horse, from the fact 
that one of the officers is known to have proceeded on sick- 
leave during the month, and yet no officer appears by the 
returns to have been ill. 

September, 1861. 

In the present month, the rate of admissions among the 
British portion of our troops, was 9" 78 per cent.., or 117"36 per 
annum ; among the Seikhs, 5 - 03, or 60 - 36 per annum. 

A slight increase in the number of venereal cases has been 
observed, there having occurred fifty this month, instead of 
forty-seven last month among the British. This circumstance 
shows that the soldiers have means of eluding the vigilance of 
the police, and of defeating in some degree the measures that 
have been taken with a view to decrease, as far as possible, this 
class of diseases. 

It is advisable to remark, with reference to the statistics of 
the Royal Engineers during the present month as compared 
with August, that the amount of sickness now shown has 
occurred among a body of men who have but recently arrived 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 377 

from the south of China to relieve an equal number who have 
proceeded thither. 

The figured statements show that a very considerable.decrease 
in the amount of sickness has occurred this month contempo- 
raneously with the fall in temperature of the atmosphere. The 
extra establishments that had, during our greatest degree of 
sickness been fitted up temporarily as hospitals, now ceased to 
be required. 

In a considerable number of our cases under treatment 
recovery took place ; in a greater number, however, the vital 
powers did not rally quickly after severe illness ; the death-rate 
still continued high, although the fatal cases were principally 
of diseases that had occurred during the intense heat of pre- 
ceding months. 

The Seikhs have still enjoyed a greater immunity from cli- 
matorial diseases than the British. As regards liver diseases, a 
very trifling increase is shown among the former than among 
the latter, but this arises from the smallness of the number of 
Seikhs who furnish the statistics. 

Among the British, climatorial diseases have decreased in 
numbers ; the tendency to the formation of pus in the liver, to 
which allusion has already been made, continues unabated. 
Several cases of this nature have occurred in a very insidious 
manner, and when they did occur, the result was, in a large 
proportion of them, fatal. 

As regards the daily proportion per cent, of men non-effective 
through sickness during this month, we find there were, among 
the British, 7 '89 per cent, actually in hospital; - 65 excused 
duty for medical reasons, making a total of 8 - 54 per cent, per 
day. Among the black troops the proportions were respectively 
3-77 and 0-62, making a total of 4-39. 

We observe from these figures that the native Indian troops 
still maintain their superiority as regards health over the British ; 
and the circumstance is also made apparent that a very con- 
siderable diminution in the amount of sickness has occurred 
among the whole of the troops, attributable, we may safely 
presume, to the moderate and agreeable climate that prevailed 
in September. 

Continuing the analysis of the rates of sickness among the 



378 MOETALITT OJ? TEIN-TSIN. 

old soldiers of the 60th Rifles, and those lately arrived, we find 
for this month, that of the latter the strength for Sep- 
tember given was 235 ; of these there were admitted 38 ; that 
is, a ratio per month of 16 - 16 per cent, of strength, or, for the 
year, of 19392 per cent. There was only one fatal case; thus 
giving a death-rate per cent, per month of 042, and for the 
year, of 5'04. Of a strength of old soldiers amounting to 641, 
the admissions recorded during September were 33, giving a 
per-centage for the month of 5*14, and for the year of 61 - 68. 
One death occurred, thus representing a rate of mortality per 
month of 0'15, and for the year T80. 

We thus see, that although the new arrivals still continued 
to suffer very considerably more than the old soldiers, both as 
regards their liability to illness, and in respect to the death-rate 
among them yet, they have gained very considerably as regards 
both since the preceding month ; thus showing the benefit 
obtained by them from the occurrence of more moderate tem- 
perature. 

The comparative rates of sickness among the men who have 
been at Tein-tsin throughout the winter and summer, and 
those who have lately arrived, at least, in so far as some of the 
most important diseases are concerned, are represented below, 
viz. : 

Head-quarter Men. Men of Drafts. 



Admissions per Deaths per Admissions per Deaths per 
cent, of strength. cent. cent, of strength. cent. 

Fevers . . 090 000 5-52 042 

Bowel diseases . 202 0-15 680 000 

Insolation . . none. none. 

This table indicates that, as compared with other months, the 
proportional decrease in climatorial diseases has been far more 
considerable among the drafts lately arrived than among those 
longer resident in the north of China. The improvement in the 
sanitary condition of the force generally since August, and 
more especially since July, is very evident. 

One of the fatal cases of fever was complicated with dysentery, 
and the cases noted under the head of diarrhoea had all become 
more or less severely complicated with ulceration and extensive 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 379 

degeneration of the substance of the intestines. In fact, as in 
the previous month, so now, dysentery was the chief disease by 
which mortality was occasioned, and hepatic abscess continued 
to be an almost invariable attendant in these cases, suppuration 
sometimes taking place to an enormous extent without the 
presence of any symptom of inflammation. 

It might readily be imagined that the occurrence of hepatic 
abscesses in the above cases arose from the simple process of 
puriform deposition taking place in the organ; absorption 
having, in the first instance, taken place from the ulcerated 
bowel itself. This supposition, however, is purely theoretical, 
and does not account for the fact observable in post-mortem 
examinations that degeneration of the hepatic tissue was seen 
in various stages of advancement in other fatal cases than those 
of bowel diseases. We may, therefore, presume that the 
deposit of pus in the liver is a process directly attributable to 
certain endemic influences, the operation of which affect the 
troops in this part of China. 

The occurrence of cases of insolation had now completely 
ceased; cholera, however, had not quite disappeared, although 
neither in the previous months nor now did this formidable 
disease manifest any indication of becoming epidemic. 

In addition to the men who died during September, a con- 
siderable number became non-effective on account of attacks of 
illness rendering it necessary that they should be invalided. 
The numbers of men who had thus to be sent away in order 
that they might avoid exposure to the intense cold of the suc- 
ceeding winter, amounted, among the numbers borne upon the 
returns of Tein-tsin, to 96. Five more were sent from Taku, 
making a total from both portions of the force of 101. 

Among the officers, the sickness during the month has been 
as under, viz. : 



380 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



Regiment. Strength. 


Admitted. 


Royal Engineers 


4 


— 


3rd Battery 13th Royal 






Artillery . 


8 


— 


4th do. do. 


3 


1 


Military Train 


14 


1 


31st Regiment 


30 


3 


2nd Battalion, 60th Rifles 


27 


1 


67th Regiment 


28 


5 


Staff and Departments . 


26 


2 


Fane's Horse . 


11 


— 



Died. 



On sick 
leave. 



Total ... 151 13 — 4 

These numbers give the rate of admissions for the month 
among the officers as 8*60 per cent., or for the year, 10320. 
No deaths took place among them ; but the character of the 
cases generally among the officers was severe, no fewer than 
four being sent away invalided, and of these four, three very 
seriously affected, one with dysentery, the other two with 
hepatic disease. The numerical return shows, however, that 
the actual rate of sickness has, during the present month, been 
smaller among British officers than it has been among the 
soldiers. 

In concluding these remarks, I must observe, that of the 101 
invalids who were, during the present month, sent away, 5 died 
before embarkation; their deaths must therefore be added to 
the already high rate of mortality shown by the returns. 

I have it in my power to add the following brief particulars 
regarding the medical statistics of October and November, 
1861, they having been obtained from tables kindly forwarded 
to me by Drs. Binden and Lamprey, viz. : 

October. 

We learn from the tables sent home, that the ratio of occur- 
rence of fevers this month was almost identical with that of 
September. Pulmonic diseases, strangely enough, decreased to 
a great degree ; a trivial decrease also took place from diseases 
of the stomach and bowels; there were not quite so lar"-e a 



MORTALITY OE TEIN-TSIN. 



381 



proportion of admissions on account of rheumatism, but liver 
diseases were somewhat more numerous. 

The diseases by which death was occasioned are not now 
ascertainable, but the ratio of mortality decreased very much, 
going down to 2*41 per annum. 

It is to be observed that all the Seikh troops left the station 
at the commencement of the month, consequently the statistics 
for this and the succeeding include only the British. 

November. 

From the same source we learn that during this month a still 
further decrease took place in the rate of occurrence of fevers. 
Pulmonic diseases, as might be expected, increased very con- 
siderably. Bowel complaints and liver diseases decreased, and 
the ratio of cases of rheumatism remained much as it had been 
during October. 

As regards mortality, it decreased to a degree that would not 
be deemed -considerable for a home climate. 

From the records from which these statistics have been 
extracted, I deduce the following succession of unhealthiness, 
according to months, placing the most healthy one at the top 
of the list, the most fatal one at the bottom, and premising that 
the mean of the mortality for November, 1860, and 1861, is 
given for that month, viz. : 

Month. Annual ratio of mortality. 



November 


. 2-10 


February 
October 


. 2-40 
. 2-41 


June 


. 2-77 


March 


. 312 


December 


. 516 


April 

August i 
September J 
January 
July 


. 5-64 
equal . . . 6*48 

. 7-80 
. 12-36 



The following table shows the rates of admission on account 
of climatorial diseases, among the British and native Indian 
troops stationed at Tein-tsin and Taku, in 1860-61 : 



382 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



November 
December 



{British.. 
Seikhs.. 
/British.. 
•" 1 Seikhs 



*t {£!£?::■ 



April 



May. 



June 
July.. 



August . , 



September 



/British.. 

■ 1 Seikhs.. 
/British.. 

■\ Seikhs.. 
/British.. 

■ 1 Seikhs.. 
/British.. 

' L Seikhs.. 

/British.. 
• 1 Seikhs.. 

/British.. 
•\ Seikhs.. 



FeverB. 



} 



Stomach 

and 
Bowels. 



Rheu- 
matism. 



Liver. 



No information. 



0-72 
1-02 
1-50 
3-08 
1-20 
1-71 
1-62 
1-72 
1-25 
0-68 
1-52 
2-07 
3-36 
2-06 
5-73 
1-39 
3-71 
203 
1-74 
0-94 



0-56 


1-44 


018 


0-46 


1-02 


0'54 


4-06 


2-07 


0-54 


3-08 


0-68 


102 


2-85 


1-23 


0-54 


0-34 


103 


103 


1-09 


1-48 


0-50 


034 


0-68 


0-34 


0-94 


1-28 


0-29 


0-34 


1-73 


0-68 


0-20 


0-96 


043 


o-oo 


1-38 


034 


0-24 


2-98 


0-35 


0-34 


2-42 


0-68 


0-35 


7-22 


0-38 


o-oo 


3-47 


0-34 


0-40 


5-42 


0-27 


033 


1-73 


0-67 


032 


3-31 


0-40 


0-00 


0-62 


000 



The following are obtained from Dr. Lamprey : 



October British.. 

November ... ,, 



0-75 
0-55 



0-15 
1-31 



3'06 
206 



0-34 
0-35 



0-05 
0-00 
0-36 
0-00 
0-23 
000 
1-53 

o-oo 

0-35 
0-00 
0-17 
000 
0'24 
0-00 
0-41 
0-69 
0-65 
0-00 
0-27 
0-31 



0-55 
0-20 



In the following tables, showing, among other matters, the 
prevalence of what are called " zymotic " diseases, I do not in- 
clude all those usually noted under this head ; these, according to 
the opinions of some, would include nearly all "the ills that 
flesh is heir to," and not a few that are more the effects of 
man's own frailty than the result of service in or exposure to 
pernicious climates. I have therefore preferred making a selec- 
tion of the following among the order miasmatic diseases for 
the comparative statistics in the succeeding pages, viz. : 

Fevers. Cholera. 

Eruptive fevers. Diarrhoea. 

Catarrhs. Rheumatism. 

Dysentery. Boils. 

Prom this we observe that the table of climatorial diseases is 
insufficient to include all that owe their origin to local, and in 
many cases remediable causes ; neither is the list above given 
capable of including all maladies that depend upon influences of 
local climate and other circumstances. 



MORTALITY OT TEIN-TSIN. 



383 



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384. 



MORTALITY OP TEEST-TSIN. 



Fatal diseases among the troops at Tein-tsin. 
November, 1860. 



British. 



Seikhs. 



Seikhs. 



Diseases. 

Catarrh 
Hepatitis . 
Dysenteria chron. 
Diarrhoea . 



No. of deaths. u »eaS?t. ^Sf 



British. 



British. 



Total 



1 
1 
1 
2 



not noted not noted 



None. 



December. 



Fevers 

Eruptive fevers (small 

pox) 
Dysentery 
Diarrhoea . 
Intemperance (?) 



Total 



2 
6 
1 
1 

15 



None. 



January, 1861. 



Diseases. 

Feb. c. c. . 

„ typhoid . 

„ intermittent 
Pneumonia 
Bronchitis 
Hepatitis, acute . 
Dysent. chron. . 
Apoplexia (a potu) 
Phthisis pulmonalis 
Phlegmon . 
Delirium tremens 
Ebrietas . 

Total 



Seikhs. 



No. of deaths. 

3 
2 
2 
5 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 

23 
1 



17 days 31 



8 
28 
38 



23 
27 
25 
23 



No. of days ill. 

18 
15 

7 
12 
32 

1 
63 

1 
27 

8 

2 

1 



Age of patient. 

26 
30 
29 
25 
39 
21 
26 
29 
28 
23 
33 
36 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



385 



February, 1861. 



Diseases. 

Febris c. c. 
Variola 
Pneumonia 
British ( Phthisis pulmonalis 
Hepat. chron. . 
Apoplexia . 
.Ebrietas . 



No. of deaths. 



Seikhs. 



None. 



Total 



No. of days ill. Age of patient. 

9 



19 

9 
62 
56 

6 
found dead 



20 
26 
23 
26 
30 
32 
33 



British 



Seikhs. 



British 



Seikhs. 



March, 


1861. 






'Febris int.. 


1 


2 


28 


Febris c. c. 


1 


69 


42 


) Hepat. acut. 


1 


7 


37 


\ Dysent. chronic 


2 


105 


25 


1 Diarrhoea 


3 


48 


25 


\ Epilepsia . 


1 


5 


37 


Total 


9 






None. 








April, 


1861. 






/■Febris c. c. 


1 


7 


25 


Pneumonia 


1 


5 


21 


Phthisis pulmonalis 


5 


56 


26 


Bronchitis 


2 


72' 


34 


/ Morbus cordis . 


1 


81 


27 


\ Hepatitis chron. 


1 


45 


30 


Dysent. chron. . 


1 


45 


27 


Diarrhoea . 


2 


48 


29 


Delirium tremens 


1 


12 


26 


^ Tetanus . 


1 


13 


26 


Total 


. 16 







None. 



25 



386 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSEST. 



Diseases: 



May, 1861. 

No. of deaths. No. of days ill. 



tj -J.- x. f Febris c. c. . .5 
British <_.,,. , ,. 

I. Phthisis pulmonahs . 1 



Seikhs. 



Total 



None. 



11 

44 



j of patient. 

28 
35 



June, 1861. 

( Febris c. c. . .4 

British < Dysent. acut. . . 2 

( Morbus cordis . . 2 



Seikhs. 



None. 



Total 



8 



11 


28 


11 


22 


dden 


25 



Seikhs 



British 



British / 





July, 1861. 






'Febris c. c. 


, , 


3 


9 


28 


Amputation 


after fever 


1 


59 


25 


Dysentery 


. 


11 


31 


24 


Diarrhoea . 


. 


3 


17 


28 


Cholera 


. 


4 


1 


25 


Insolatio . 


Total 

August, 


15 

37 
1 

1861. 


2 


28 


Febris int. 




1 


15 


32 


Febris c. c. 




1 


12 


30 


Dysentery 




10 


28 


26 


Diarrhoea . 




3 


6 


26 


Cholera 




2 


1 


23 


Insolatio . 

! 


Total ' . 


3 
20 


14 


29 



Seikhs. 



None. 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 



387 



British 



Seikhs. 



September, 1861. 



Diseases. 

Fever 
Hepatitis . 
Dysentery 
Cholera 
.Diarrhoea . 



Total 



None. 



No. of deaths. 

3 


No. of days ill. 

27 


Age of patient 

29 


l 


8 


30 


9 


24 


27 


2 


2 


24 


5 


31 


29 



20* 



Kate of admission per cent, per annum among the following 
classes at Tein-tsin, from \6th November, I860, to — 



Mouths. 


British. 


British 


Seiku 


Soldiers. 


Officers. 


Soldiers. 


November, 1860 . 








161-28 


13824 


13800 


December „ 










138 24 


166-56 


253-80 


January, 1861 










161-40 


201-00 


164-28 


February „ 










123-00 


15388 


94-80 


March „ 










110-70 


117-60 


70-32 


April 










107-52 


63-96 


128-64 


May ,, 










9900 


100-68 


120-36 


June 










158-40 


180-72 


112-08 


July 










22416 


212-16 


124-92 


August 










16620 


185-28 


120-00 


September „ 










117-36 


103-20 


60-36 


Total for ten months 


1490-62 


1653-34 


1387-50 


Average annual rate, as shown in \ 
eleven months j 


135-51 


150-30 


12613 



The ahove figures show, at a glance, that the general rate of 
sickness during the period has been least among the black 
troops, next in extent among the British soldiers, and greatest 
of all among the officers, they being the very class who accord- 
ing to theory, ought to have shown the highest state of 
health. 



* And of 101 invalids sent over in September, five died prior to final em- 
barkation. 



388 



MORTALITY OF TBIN-TSIN. 



Average daily sick at Tein-tsin, among British and Seikh 
troops during the following months, viz. : — 



Months. 


British. 




Seikhs. 




Daily per 


Daily per 


Daily per 
cent, non- 


Daily per 
cent, in 


Daily per 
cent, ex- 


Daily per 
cent, non- 




hospital. 


cused duty. 


effective. 


hospital. 


cused duty. 


effective. 


November, 1860 ... 


No information. 


No informati 


on. 


December „ ... 


513 


Not 
stated. 


5-13 


6-48 


Not 
stated. 


6-48 


January, 1861 ... 


7-67 


0-93 


8-60 


7-26 


1-03 


8-29 


February „ 


7-37 


0-48 


7-85 


3-78 


103 


4-81 


March „ 


6-42 


053 


695 


2-41 


103 


3-44 


April „ 


6-36 


029 


665 


4-49 


0-69 


5-18 


May „ 


4-80 


035 


5-15 


6-57 


0-68 


725 


June „ 


658 


0-49 


7-07 


4-49 


0-69 


518 


July „ 


854 


0-84 


936 


4-51 


68 


5-19 


August „ 


864 


098 


9-62 


5-90 


069 


6-59 


September „ 


7-89 


065 


8-54 


3-77 


0-62 


4-39 


69-40 


5-54 


74-94 


49-66 


7-14 


56-80 


Average for ten 














m6ntbs 


6-94 


055 


7-49 


4-96 


0-71 


5-68 



The subjoined table gives in a concise form the rates of ad- 
missions and deaths per cent, of strength of British and Seikh 
troops, at Tein-tsin, from November, 1860, to September, 
1861. 





British. 


Seikhs. 


Months. 












Per-centage 


Per-.centage 


Per-centage 


Per-centage 




of admissions 


of deaths 


of admissions 


of deaths 




per annum. 


per annum. 


per annum. 


per annum. 


November 


161-28 


312 


138-00 




December 








138-24 


5-16 


25800 





January 








161-40 


7-80 


164-28 


4-08 


February 








123-00 


2-40 


94-80 





March ... 









110-40 


3-12 


70-32 


. _.. 


April 








107-52 


5-64 


128-64 


_ 


May 









99-00 


2-04 1 


120-36 


__ 


June 









158-40 


2-77 


112-08 


_ 


July' ... 








224-16 


12-36 


124-92 


4-08 


August ... 








166-20 


6-48 


12000 




September 3 


•• 




117-36 


6-48 


00-36 


— 


Total 


1566-96 


57-37 


1331-76 


8-16 


Average for eleven months... 


142-45 


5-21 


121-07 


0-74 


Deduced for twelve months... 


155-40 


5-68 


13207 


0-80 





British. 




Per-centage of admissions Per-centage of deaths 




per annum. per annum. 


October . 


. 118-08 2-41 


November 


. 105.00 129 



MORTALITY OP TEIN-TSIN". 389 

From tables forwarded to England, by Staff-Surgeon Bindon, 
I am able to continue these statistics, as regards British, 
thus : — 



No Seikhs. 



As elsewhere stated, there were of the troops invalided, as 
follows : 

1 In May 71 

3 July — sent to Taku for change of air . 70 

3 In September ..... 101 

No Seikhs were actually invalided, but five or six may be con- 
sidered to have been unfit for service, including the two whose 
hands and wrists had been so severely injured by the Chinese, 
among whom they had been prisoners, as to unfit them for the 
duties of a soldier. 

In order, therefore, to give in the most concise possible form 
the results of these statistics, I believe that the average daily 
x.umber unfit for duty on account of illness was, among the 
British 5 - 49 ; the Seikhs, 2 - 68 per cent, of strength. 

British. Seikhs. 
The admissions annually per cent, would 

be as shown in the tables, among . 
The deaths per cent 
The ratio invalided in addition, was . 

Thus, then, we find that the annual loss per cent, in the troops 
stationed in the north of China may be taken to have been 
10-59. 

For the purpose of contrasting this rate with what takes 
place elsewhere, I observe that the average rate of sickness 
during the Peninsular war is said to have been twenty-one in 
every hundred soldiers.* We however learn that of 100 English- 
men from fifteen to forty-five years of age, that is, of an age 
corresponding to that of our soldiers at Tein-tsin, the annual 
* ' England and her Soldiers.' 



155-43 


— 


5-68 


0-80 


4-18 


o-oo 



390 



MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSTN. 



rate of death is one. In the Crimea, the rate of death was 3 
per cent, hy wounds, and eighteen per cent, from disease, 
these numbers being in addition to those under the head of 
men invalided. 

I may, for the sake of further comparison, note the rate per 
cent, of mortality at some of our most sickly stations, as 
obtained from published returns, viz. ; 



Jamaica 


6 to 13 


Peshawur 


5 „ 12 


Dinapore 


2 „ 11 


Chin surah 


. 2 „ 14 


Fort William . 


. . 3 „ 8 


Dum Dum 


3 „ 20 


Berhampore . 


. . 6 „ 9 



From these figures, then, we are compelled to admit that our 
loss in the north of China has been by no means severe, as com- 
pared with what is the ordinary average at several stations 
at which our regiments have from time to time been quar- 
tered. 

I am aware that, as Sir Ranald Martin remarks, the mor- 
tality of a single year cannot serve as a basis for estimating 
the mean mortality of any particular place. I trust, never- 
theless, that the present series of statistics may not be without 
their value. They will, it is hoped, by giving a correct view 
of our rate of loss, indicate the proportion of vacancies in 
the various grades of our force, should necessity arise, and 
also the proportion of casualties for which, on a future occa- 
sion, it may become necessary to be prepared. 

The following table may not be devoid of interest as showing 
what was the rate of non-effectives by death and invaliding 
during the year 1860, among the regiments that now formed 
our garrison. It is true that the returns from which this 
table has been extracted included a portion of the time they 
were stationed at Tein-tsin, but as it is now only given for the 
sake of comparison this is of immaterial consequence. 



MOKTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 391 



Regiment, 

10th Company, Royal Engi 
neers . 


Strength. 

78 


Died, 
1 


Invalided. 


Per-ccntagc to 
strength of loss 
through disease. 

1-38 


3rd Battery, 13th Royal Ar- 
tillery 
4th „ „ 


303 
309 


13 
10 


3 

13 


7-43 
10-53 


Military Train . 
31st Regiment . 


350 
1137 


16 

38 


5 
10 


8-40 
3-43 


3nd Battalion, 60th Rifles 


816 


56 


30 


10-53 


67th Regiment . 
Seikhs 


854 
. 310 


46 
53 


36 
16 


8-43 
21-63 



A consideration of the above table is sufficiently instructive 
to justify a few observations regarding it. The figures them- 
selves ghow how great a difference existed between different 
corps as regards the loss sustained by sickness. Let us, there- 
fore, see if possible how far this may have been occasioned by 
the particular circumstances of each. 

In regard to the Royal Engineers, the numbers that furnish 
the statistics are too restricted to warrant any conclusions being 
drawn, and, moreover, the men of this corps are from the 
nature of their duty less exposed than others to the causes of 
disease. 

The 3rd Battery, 13th Brigade Royal Artillery came from 
Bombay to China. During the voyage the men were very 
healthy, but having been encamped in small tents at Deep-water 
Bay on the Eastern side of Hong Kong^in the month of May, 
two fatal cases occurred from hepatitis. Attacks of remittent 
fever, in one case fatal, are stated to have been occasioned by 
the degree of wet to which the men were exposed while em- 
barking there for the north. It is stated that throughout the 
year, the proportion of cases of sickness was smaller among a 
body of young drivers who had joined the battery soon before 
embarkation at Bombay, than it was among the older soldiers. 
While the battery was encamped in the north of China, a death 
is reported to have taken place from debility and anaemia, there 
having been, as shown by post-mortem examination, no organic 
lesion apparent, and thus similar to the cases we meet with at 



392 MORTALITY OF TEIN-TSIN. 

Hong Kong. During the time generally that the men were 
encamped at Tein-tsin, the prevailing diseases are said to have 
been diarrhoea and inflammatory dysentery. 

The 4th Battery of 13th Brigade came to China from Madras. 
During the voyage to China we learn that the heat on the horse 
deck was very great. Several men are said to have become 
affected with typhoid fever, and two to have died from this 
disease. It became necessary on the arrival of the battery at 
Singapore to land the men and horses, to empty and clean the 
ship, and they having then proceeded on their voyage, the health 
of the men improved. On arriving at Hong Kong they were 
placed in camp at Deep-water Bay, and were almost immediately 
after landing attacked with intermittent fever and dysentery, 
which diseases were at the time believed to have been occasioned 
by the proximity of rice fields, to the emanations from which 
they were exposed. * 

The Military Train consisted chiefly of very young men j 
this corps proceeded direct from England to China. The nature 
of the duties the men had to perform necessitated a great degree 
of exposure. 

The 31st Regiment which had come on from India, consisted 
for the most part of old soldiers. This corps had not been 
exposed to arduous service immediately prior to the present 
expedition ; yet in regard to the diseases from which the men 
suffered in the north of China, a great similarity in type to 
what is seen at Hong Kong is noted by the surgeon in 
charge. 

The 2nd Battalion SQth Rifles consisted in a great measure 
of young soldiers. The regiment had lately been at the Cape 
of Good Hope, and had seen a little field service during the 
Indian mutiny. We learn that the diseases that prevailed 
among the men were chiefly fever and diarrhoea. The cases of 
fever of the intermittent type that occurred were chiefly among 
men who had been subject to the disease in India. In regard 
to continued fevers, the surgeon in charge remarked that near 
the coast the attacks were for the most part of an ephemeral 
nature. More inland, and after the force had reached Pekin 
the attacks assumed rapidly a typhoid form. In regard to 
diarrhoea its occurrence is attributed to a variety of circum- 



MOBTALITY 01 TEIN-TSIN. 393 

stances, as for instance — 1, indulgence on the part of the men 
in the native spirit called sham-shu ; 2, eating large quanti- 
ties of fruit; 3, the saline impregnation of the water in [the 
north of China ; and, 4, their having had at times to sleep upon 
the damp ground. 

The 67th Regiment had been stationed at Canton during the 
year preceding the expedition, and had, while there, suffered 
severely from fever affecting the soldiers ; thus they were in an 
impaired state of health at the time they started for the north 
of China. 



CHAPTER XI. 

PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES AT TEIN-TSIN. 

1. Febris c. c. — 2. Febris typhus — 3. Febris intermittent — 4. Rubeola maligna — 
5. Variola — 6. Catarrh and bronchitis — 7. Pneumonia — 8. Phthisis pul- 
monalis — 9. Morbus cordis and aneurism — 10. Intoxication — 11. Delirium 
tremens — 12. Epilepsy — 13. Tetanus — 14. Apoplexy — 15. Coma — 16. In- 
solation — 17. Hepatitis — 18. Cholera — 19. Diarrhoea — 20. Dysenteria acuta 
— 21. Dysenteria chronica — 22. Chronic indigestion — 23. Phlegmon. 

It is necessary to observe at the outset, that the following 
record of post-mortem appearances in the bodies of soldiers 
who died at Tein-tsin have been collected and arranged from 
the necrological register of the hospital there. I cannot but 
regret that in many important points the information is defec- 
tive, and in others the appearances are not described in very 
exact language. I consider, however, that even such as they 
are, they may be considered as a contribution to our knowledge 
of the ravages of disease upon the bodily system ; and I would 
add that, situated as we were at Tein-tsin, with severe and fatal 
disease among the troops, engrossing the time and attention of 
the executive medical officers, the wonder is, not that in some 
respects the reports of post-mortem appearances are somewhat 
defective, but that in any respect they are so full as they are. 
"With this remark I pass on to the subject itself. 

1. Febris cont. com. — Of the fatal cases of this disease 
recorded in the statistical returns, reports of post-mortem 
examination of sixteen have been preserved; from these we 
learn the following particulars. 

a. As regards the state of the brain and its membranes. In 
eight cases the appearances of these parts is not noted. In one 



PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES AT TEIN-TSIN. 395 

it is stated that a clot the size of a hen's egg was found in the 
middle lobe (!)* of the brain, and another at the inferior surface 
of the posterior lobe ; a quantity of effused blood between the 
convolutions. In one about two ounces of serum was found at 
the base of the brain, and effusion beneath the pia mater. In 
one the brain was reported healthy, except slight increase of 
serosity beneath the membrane ; a little serum also in the 
lateral ventricles, tinged with blood. In one there was apparent 
the mark of an old fracture of the skull on the right side. The 
dura mater of the whole of this side was stained of a dull dirty 
colour ; some serum of a reddish tinge was found in the ven- 
tricles ; and it is stated that one of the prominent symptoms 
during the fatal illness had been delirium. In one case there 
is said to have been considerable serous effusion beneath the 
membranes of the brain, with venous congestion. The substance 
of the brain was soft. Veni?ricles contained a small amount of 
fluid, and the choroid plexus was congested. In one the report 
simply states that serous effusion existed beneath the mem- 
branes, and that there was venous congestion, and a small 
quantity of fluid in the ventricles. In one the brain is described 
as healthy ; but the report adds, there was " an unusual 
amount of fluid about the back and base of the organ." In 
one some serous effusion was found at the base of the brain ; 
the lobes at the longitudinal fissure were slightly adherent, but 
(it is stated) not from active inflammation; membranes at 
junction of cerebellum with the cerebrum congested; brain 
itself rather pale, vessels on surface congested. 

b. Jjungs. — Of sixteen cases in which the state of lungs and 
pleura is noted, it is stated that in one these organs were healthy 
anteriorly, slightly congested posteriorly. In one the posterior part 
of both were adherent to the sides of the chest, much congested, 
and filled with frothy mucus. In one there is stated to have 
been extensive inflammation of right pleura, with effusion of 

* It is well to state with reference to the remark here made, and to others of 
an ambiguous nature that may hereafter occur, that I am not personally re- 
sponsible for them. I have extracted the remarks from a summary prepared for 
me, from the necrological register, and prefer recording them here in the form 
in which I received them to making emendations which might be equally un- 
certain in their meaning as those to which exception is now taken. 



396 PATHOLOaT OP DISEASES 

fluid and lymph into its cavity; tubercles in the right lung. 
In one extensive adhesions of old standing, both lungs con- 
gested posteriorly, of a claret hue, with some dark patches. In 
one both lungs were congested posteriorly, and of a dark violet 
colour. In one the left lung was adherent at the apex, the 
bronchial tubes thickened and enlarged. In one the left lung 
was firmly adherent by old adhesions, the anterior surface of 
both healthy; posterior portions of both highly congested. 
In one the lungs are simply described as being congested, and 
of a dark colour posteriorly. Two congested posteriorly ; one 
much congested posteriorly. In one the right lung adhered by 
old adhesions ; posterior portions of lungs dark, livid, and some- 
what congested. In one the left lung was healthy ; the right 
contained a chalky deposit at the apex. In one they were both 
stated to be healthy. In one the right lung adhered by old 
adhesions, was congested posteriorly, contained a good deal of 
serum, generally of a dark colour ; and in one the lungs are 
said to have been pale with slight redness at apices ; the greater 
portion of the right adherent by old adhesions. 

c. Heart. — The state of the heart is noted in sixteen cases. 
Of these, in one the organ was stated to be rather large, valves 
perfect ; a clot in the right ventricle. In one it was small, 
with a loose, discolored clot in the right ventricle. In one 
there is said to have been slight effusion into the pericardium ; 
the heart fatty, mitral valves contracted, walls of left ventricle 
thickened. In one there was said to be two ounces of fluid in 
the pericardium, the heart pale and fatty, right ventricle dilated, 
mitral valves slightly contracted. In one it is said to have 
been healthy; a large clot in the right ventricle, the left empty. 
In one the heart was small, right ventricle filled with a fibrin- 
ous clot. In one the deposit of fat in the organ is said to have 
been extensive. In one it was flabby, the veins congested, 
otherwise healthy; a small clot in the right ventricle. In 
four it is recorded as healthy. In one about three ounces of clear 
serum in the pericardium ; the texture of the heart flabby ; a 
deposit of fat on the surface. In one large and flabby, peri- 
cardium containing one ounce and a half of fluid. In one 
flabby, a good deal of fat on the surface ; left ventricle enlarged 
excentrically ; and in one very flabby, right ventricle containing 



01" TEIN-TSIN. 397 

some fluid blood, the pericardium containing a small quantity 
of serum. 

d. The stomach. — The appearances observed in this organ 
are recorded in eleven cases. Of these, in one it is said to 
have been contracted ; its mucous membrane slightly inflamed. 
In one to have presented two or three patches of a dark red 
colour. In one the mucous membrane to have been in red 
patches. In one the report states that several patches of con- 
gestion on the mucous membrane existed. In one the oeso- 
phagus was of a dark red colour from the fauces to the 
stomach ; it is further stated in the report of this case, that on 
cutting into the stomach it was nearly empty; the large veins 
were full of dark blood ; about three fourths of the stomach, 
chiefly along the greater curvature, presented a thickly arbo- 
rescent appearance, from congestion of the small veins ; the 
greater part of the above, separated from the healthy part by a 
line of demarcation, in some places were defined, in others 
spreading into a red blush ; the mucous membrane of this part 
dark, soft, and easily rubbed off (in this case vomiting and 
purging had been very urgent, and exhaustion took place 
rapidly). In one the organ is said to have been of an ashy 
hue, but tolerably healthy. In one rather large; the veins 
along the greater curvature congested. In two it is briefly 
stated to have been "healthy." In one it showed marks of 
congestion, and in one a small dark patch of redness was found 
at the greater curvature. 

e. Large intestine. — The state of the large intestine is recorded 
in sixteen cases. In one it is said to have presented some 
ulceration, and a few enlarged glands. In one to have been 
slightly adherent to surrounding parts ; its mucous membrane 
healthy. In two healthy. In one that the mucous membrane 
of the lower half of the colon and rectum was much congested, 
the ascending and descending colon congested, with dark-colored 
patches. In one that patches of a dark violet colour were 
observed along the whole extent of the descending colon; 
similar patches in the ascending and transverse colon, but not 
so deep in colour. In one the peritoneal surface of this intes- 
tine was much inflamed ; the mucous membrane also in inflamed 
patches. In one the intestine is said to have been contracted, 



398 PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES 

of ashy green colour, the substance rather thickened, the 
mucous membrane diseased throughout, of a dark madder 
colour, with streaks of dull colour, covered in parts with 
granular-looking exudation ; these streaks were found to have 
been in a state of inflammation running into ulceration. In 
one the intestine showed generally a reddish blush. In one 
the large intestine was ash-colored, not congested ; the whole 
surface studded with slightly enlarged solitary glands, showing 
the opening of the duct as a dark speck or point. In one the 
upper part of the intestine presented a mass of raised ulcers, 
some of very recent formation, others evidently the result of 
former disease. The ulceration extended nearly the whole 
length of the intestine, but the ulcers became smaller and less 
numerous towards the lower part. In one, portions of the large 
intestine were of a pale ashy colour, others of a claret red 
colour; a dirty exudation existell on the mucous membrane, 
and some superficial ulcerations were also found. In one there 
were large patches of ulceration scattered throughout the 
whole length, some portions so thickened from deposition that 
the thickness was nearly a quarter of an inch in degree. In 
one the intestine showed patches of congestion throughout its 
whole length; some were deep red, some of a bluish black 
colour. In one the mucous membrane is said to have been 
generally healthy, except at the caput of the ascending colon, 
and the rectum, where slight redness existed. And in one the 
intestine is said to have been generally reddish throughout, 
showing diseased mucous membrane and ulcers in a healing 
state, the greatest amount of disease having been in the 
rectum. 

f. Small intestine. — In reference to sixteen cases in which 
the appearances of the small intestine are recorded, we find 
that in one, twelve feet of the lower part of it are said to have 
shown papules, many in a state of ulceration. In one the lower 
part is stated to have been bound down by adhesions, the coils 
adherent to one another, one coil so much compressed that the 
passage was obliterated ; in one healthy. In one slight patches 
of inflammation are said to have existed in the ileum. In one 
a number of minute papulae, some white, others red and 
inflamed, were found in the lower part of this intestine. Peyer's 



OF TEIN-TSIN. 399 

patches are also said to have been very apparent, and of a dark 
red colour. In one small patches were found here and there, 
and minute papulae with black points. In one there was a 
good deal of patchy congestion in the mucous membrane ; the 
upper part of the intestine was healthy; in the lower part, 
papular appearance was observed, the mucous surface becoming 
red and inflamed towards the ileo-CBecal valve. In one a slight 
reddish blush is recorded over the whole of the lower part 
of the small intestine, near the caecum, becoming deeper in 
colour and in patches. Here also were some whitish papulae in 
great numbers. In one the intestine is said to have been 
of an ash colour from the duodenum downwards, studded with 
small white papulae, especially towards the ileo-colic valve. One 
or two of Peyer's patches showed a good deal of congestion. 
In one this intestine is said to have been studded along its 
whole length with small, whitish spots, about the size of pins' 
heads ; Peyer's patches to have been dark-colored and raised. 
In one there were lichen-like papulae along its whole extent. 
In one it is reported tolerably healthy, but here and there the 
glands were evidently diseased, although not to any great extent. 
In one about six inches of the distal portion of the ileum exhi- 
bited marks of recent inflammation; the mucous surface was 
thickened. In one Peyer's patches were distinctly marked. 
In one the greater part of small intestine was more or less 
arborescent; a number of semi-opaque papulae scattered here 
and there ; and in one some reddish patches were found in the 
small intestine, and also a number of lichen-like papulae. 

g. The liver. — As regards sixteen cases in which the state of 
this organ was noted, we learn that in one it was enlarged, 
granular, adherent to the wall of the abdomen and colon, into 
Which an abscess had burst, and several small abscesses had 
subsequently formed. In one it was enlarged, granular, and 
presented some yellowish patches on the surface. In one it is 
recorded as having been enlarged, congested, and fatty. In one 
as rather large, and infiltrated with yellowish patches. In one 
studded with yellow spots. In one " normal." In one adherent 
at the upper and outer surfaces ; healthy in other respects. In 
one rather light-colored, and not congested. In one healthy 
in appearance ; its large vessels full of venous blood ; the gall- 



400 PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES 

bladder filled with thin dark bile. In two "healthy." In one 
larger than natural, pale, with patches on the surface of a 
" waxy " colour ; homogeneous in substance. In one, much 
enlarged, pale in colour ; the hepatic lobules well marked. In 
one it is simply stated to have been enlarged, of a pale brown 
colour. In one it is stated to have been enlarged, but 
healthy ; the gall-bladder full of bile ; and in one it is described 
as enlarged and firm in structure ; pale, of a nutmeg appearance, 
and as having contained a yellow deposit. 

h. The kidneys. — In sixteen fatal cases of continued fever in 
which the condition of these organs were recorded, the records 
inform us that in one they were rather pale, with whitish spots j 
in one of a pale colour ; in one enlarged and fatty; in one pale 
and fatty. In one they are described as being both large, but 
generally healthy. In one there existed a small cyst on the 
convex border, containing fluid, the cortical portion of both 
thicker than natural. In four they were described as being 
healthy. In one rather harsh to the knife, and slightly granular. 
In one small, and cortical, substance rather pale. In one rather 
full, not congested, substance rather pale, and contained a general 
deposit ; the line between the cortical and other structure not 
defined. In one they are said to have been enlarged, but 
healthy ; in one dark and congested ; and in one to have been 
over-large, firm, and showing a deposit in the cortical substance- 

i. The spleen. — The following is an abstract of the reports on 
the state of the spleen observed in sixteen cases of the above 
form of fever, in which this organ was examined, viz. : — In one 
small and fleshy ; in one congested, enlarged, and darker than 
natural ; in one congested and friable ; in one rather soft ; in 
one very friable ; in one small ; in one half as large again as 
natural, corrugated on the surface ; in one slightly congested ; 
in one rather small ; in one healthy but rather large ; in one 
not enlarged nor congested, of a maroon colour ; in one enlarged, 
softened ; in two healthy ; in one enlarged to double its size, 
friable ; and in one over firm. 

2. Febris typhus. — In only two fatal cases of disease noted 
under this head has the state of the organs been recorded, and in 
these, the reports available are by no means satisfactory ; for 
no record has been preserved of the appearances of the brain 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 401 

and its membranes. Of the other organs, we learn that as 
regards — 

b. The lungs. — In one case the right lung was adherent, and 
in a chronic state of hepatization ; the left compressed. In one 
the pleura was adherent to a great extent, and the lungs con- 
gested. 

c. The heart. — In one case this organ is described as having 
been enlarged and fatty, and to have presented hypertrophy 
with dilation of the left ventricle, and " a fibrinous clot." In 
one, to have been very fatty, otherwise healthy. 

d. The stomach. — In one case it is said to have been adherent 
to the organs around it ; in one, to have been compressed and 
displaced by the liver, arjd to have contained some blood. 

e. The large intestine. — In only one case has its condition 
been recorded ; it was in it adherent to the abdominal walls by 
false membrane. 

f. The small intestine seems to have been examined in only 
one case. It is in that instance said to have contained some 
blood ; that the abdominal parietes and mesentery were loaded 
with fat, as also the omentum. 

g. The liver was in one case stated to have been much en- 
larged, and on a section being made into it, to have shown the 
earlier stages of " nutmeg." In one it was enormously enlarged 
and fatty. 

h. The kidneys were in one, both enlarged, irregular, and 
imbedded in masses of false membrane ; in the other instance 
the conditions of these organs was not noted. 

i. The spleen is said, in the only case where its appearances 
are noted, to have been enlarged and irregular. 

3. Febris intermittens, a record of the post-mortem appear- 
ances in only two fatal cases under this head is available, 
and this in a very unsatisfactory state. In these, we find that 
of— 

a. Brain, fyc, the appearances have not been noted. 

b. The lungs, fyc. — In one they are described as large and 
fleshy -looking, filling up the cavity of the chest, and not in any 
way presenting the atonic distension of emphysema. In one 
the left lung completely hepatized ; posterior part-of the right 
highly congested ; the cells filled with fluid. 

26 



402 PATHOLOGY OF DISEASE 

c. The heart. — In one we learn that there was general hyper- 
trophy, the organ so enlarged that it resembled the heart of a 
bullock more than that of a man. In one it was healthy. 

d. Stomach. — Not noted. 

e. The large intestine. In the one instance in which its ex- 
amination was noted, is said to have been healthy, but large and 
protruding. 

p. The small intestine was also only reported in one instance, 
and like the large was said to have been healthy, but large and 
protruding. 

g. The liver, in one of the cases, was large, but not fatty. 
In one enlarged, friable, congested, presenting nutmeg ap- 
pearance. 

h. The kidneys, in one were half as large again as natural. 
In one natural. 

i. The spleen. — In one case it is reported as of increased size. 
In one as healthy. 

4. Rubeola maligna. — One fatal case is recorded under this 
head. It is more than probable from the history that it was in 
reality one of malignant smallpox ; one in which life suc- 
cumbed before the eruption became fully developed; or in 
which, perhaps, from a scorbutic diathesis in the subject, the 
disease assumed a hsemorrhagic type, such as occasionally 
happens in India in persons of this pecuHar constitution. The 
post-mortem appearances are unfortunately very imperfectly 
recorded. Following the arrangement of organs already adopted, 
we find that b, the lungs, are described as congested in their 
posterior part ; otherwise healthy. 

e. The large intestine. — The internal surface was coated with 
grumous blood. 

f. The small intestine. — The internal surface was also coated 
with grumous blood ; some small spots about to ulcerate. 

In the report of this case we find it stated that the whole of 
the body and thighs were covered with a dark raised eruption, 
the right side of the forehead suffused with dark blood ; large 
bullae or blisters on the posterior aspect of wrists, extending up 
the arm, and down the back of the hand. 

5. Variola. — In only one case of death by variola have the 
post-mortem appearances been recorded. In it we find that as 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 403 

regards b, the lungs, both were emphysematous at their anterior 
margin, congested posteriorly to a degree as hard as hepatiza- 
tion ; small deposits, the size of a pea, were found in them. 

d. The stomach. — It was inflated, and contained a green 
opaque fluid matter. 

e. The large intestine. — The ascending colon was healthy; 
the remainder diseased throughout, with patches of a milky 
white exudation. 

f. Small intestine. — It is said to have been " healthy, perhaps 
rather bleached in appearance." 

g. The liver. — Rather large ; healthy looking ; but over-firm 
with a cartilaginous feel when cut. 

h. The kidneys are recorded to. have been rather firm and 
hard, the cortical substance pale and granular. 

i. The spleen was flattened, firm, and fleshy. 

6. Catarrh and Bronchitis. — In six fatal cases of these 
diseases records have been preserved of post-mortem appearances 
of some of the principal organs. Following the order already 
adopted, they are the following : 

b. The lungs. — In one case, the left pleura is described as 
adherent throughout, the lung contracted and hepatized, the 
result of old disease. The apex of the right lung affected with 
acute inflammation, partly consolidated. In one the front part 
of the left lung was adherent ; on breaking down the pleura, it 
contained a large quantity of pus, which compressed and 
obliterated the cellular tissue of the lung ; the right was healthy. 
In one the left pleural cavity was filled with clots of blood ; 
some adhesions at apex of right lung ; these organs otherwise 
healthy. In one there was adhesion of the left pleura ; lungs 
were engorged with bloody serum ; posterior part of the left 
contained a collection of grumous pus. In one the bronchial 
tubes on the right side was filled with pus, tubercles were scat- 
tered through the right lung. Left lung adherent, and con- 
tained two cavities, each as large as a turkey's egg, and par- 
tially filled with pus. (It is evident that this case was really 
one of phthisis) . In one the left pleura was filled with fluid, 
which completely compressed the lung, except at its upper part, 
where it was consolidated by tubercular deposit ; the right 
healthy. 



404 PATHOLOGY OF DISEASE 

c. The heart. — This organ is described in one as normal. In 
one it was fatty, and large by hypertrophy of the ventricles. 
In one an opening, lengthened in shape, and two inches in cir- 
cumference at the junction of the transverse and descending 
aorta was found ; its edges were rounded, it communicated with 
a sac embedded in the upper lobe of the left lung, which burst 
into the fissure between the upper and lower tube of the lung, 
whence it poured into the pleural cavity. (Death had evidently 
been produced by the bursting of an aortic aneurism.) In one 
the state of the heart is described as pale, large, and flabby ; 
dilatation of the right side, hypertrophy of the left. In one, 
the organ was much atrophied, and pale in colour. 

d. The stomach. — This organ was only noted in three cases. 
In two it was healthy. In one it was easily torn, and presented 
a grey appearance. 

e. The large intestine, in the five cases in which its con- 
dition has been noted, was in three healthy. In one some parts 
of it were inflamed, the glands of the mesentery enlarged, and 
containing tubercle. In one it is described as covered with 
fatty deposition. 

p. The small intestine. — The state of this organ was only noted 
in five cases. In three it was healthy. In one the report states 
that there was air beneath the peritoneum covering the small 
intestine, resembling bullae. In one it was pale in colour, its 
glands slightly enlarged. 

g. The liver. — Of the six cases in which its condition is re- 
corded we learn that in one it was healthy. In one enormously 
enlarged, a deposit of pus cells in the left lobe. In one enlarged, 
its surface irregular ; in one enlarged and hard ; it grated when 
cut ; mottled and lobulated in appearance. In one it was small 
and pale. In one small, gritty on being cut, and studded with 
white granules. 

h. The kidneys are recorded in three cases as healthy. In 
one slightly enlarged, the cortical substance fatty, the tubular 
inflamed, pressure made pus ooze out. In one they were small 
and pale. 

i. The spleen. — In one case it is recorded as healthy. In one 
of a dark colour, not soft nor friable. In one small. In one as 
being four times its natural size ; pus in its substance. 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 405 

7. Records of post-mortem appearances have been preserved 
in seven cases of pneumonia, and from these we learn the fol- 
lowing, viz. : 

a. Brain. — Its condition has not been recorded. 

b. The lungs. — Of these seven cases, in one the posterior 
part of the left lung was in a gangrenous state ; right lung in an 
earlier stage of the disease. In one the lining membrane of 
the bronchia was congested ; the base of left lung highly con- 
gested and friable, but no true hepatization ; right lung pos- 
teriorly and inferiorly in the same state. In one the right lung 
was adherent firmly to the wall of the chest, the left consolidated 
so that it " resembled a liver." In one the left lung is said to 
have been hepatized. In one adhesions of the left pleura existed ; 
the lungs were congested. In one the smaller bronchi were 
filled with pus, the right lung engorged with a bloody frothy 
fluid of very offensive odour, tubercles were scattered through 
it ; the left was in a similar state, but the tubercles were in 
greater quantity, and broken down. In one the right lung was 
adherent to the walls of the chest, hepatized ; the left congested. 

c. The heart.— In the seven cases in which the state of this 
organ is recorded, it is said to have in one been healthy. In one 
slightly enlarged, pericardium containing ten ounces of fluid. 
In one it was somewhat increased in size, but healthy; a firm 
fibrinous clot in the right ventricle. In one the heart was 
greatly enlarged. In one the pericardium contained ten ounces 
of pus; the surface of the heart was rough, and coated with 
fibrine; there was congestion of the endocardium which ex- 
tended into the large vessels ; no deposit. In one the organ 
was enlarged, pale and fatty, the valves healthy. In one both 
ventricles were filled with a fibrinous clot. 

d. Stomach. — The state of this organ was only noted in two 
cases, and in both these it was healthy. 

e. The large intestine. — Of six cases reported, in one the 
lower part presented appearance of old disease. In three the 
intestine was healthy. In one it is said to have been anaemic in 
appearance ; and in one to have presented traces of inflammation 
and thickening without ulceration. 

f. The small intestine. — Of six cases in which the appearances 
were recorded, in four they were healthy. In one anaenric in 



406 PATHOLOGY 0¥ DISEASE 

appearance. In one Peyer's patches were enlarged, but without 
ulceration. 

g. The liver. — Of seven cases in which the state of this organ 
has been noted, in two it was healthy. In one enlarged, but its 
substance healthy. In one enlarged, but not fatty. In one 
larger than natural, having a nutmeg appearance. In one it was 
enlarged, with white deposit in the walls of the lobules. In one 
the right lobe was slightly enlarged, small yellowish patches 
scattered through its substance. 

h. The kidneys. — Of five cases in which they seem to have 
been examined, we learn that in one they were large, but other- 
wise healthy. In one the tubular portion was partially obliterated 
by encroachment of the cortical portion. In one they were 
healthy. In one enlarged, the cortical portion increased in thick- 
ness, and paler than natural. In one congested but healthy. 

i. The spleen. — Of five cases in which its state was noted, it 
was in two healthy. In one friable, and twice its natural size. 
In one enlarged and more firm than natural ; and in one small 
and adherent. 

8. Phthisis pulmonalis. — Records of post-mortem examin- 
ations in eight cases of this disease are available ; from which 
we learn the condition of the following organs, viz. : 

b. The lungs. — In one, both were adherent at their apices to 
the walls of the chest; the substance of the left was healthy; 
that of the right studded with tubercles and vomicae containing 
pus. In one, old adhesions of left pleura existed ; the substance 
of the lung was healthy, the upper lobe of the right lung studded 
with tubercles. In one, in addition to the presence of old ad- 
hesions of the pleura, both lungs contained small vomicse* filled 
with pus. In one instance the right lung was reported healthy, 
the left adherent to the wall of the chest ; on being cut into, it 
was gangrenous, emitting a most foetid odour ; in one the right 
lung adhered, a large cavity occupied nearly the whole of its 
substance, and was nearly filled with purulent matter ; the left 
was slightly congested at the apex, otherwise healthy. In one 
both lungs are said to have been firmly adherent at the upper 
part ; upper lobes of both consolidated by deposition of tubercle. 
In one, in addition to the right lung being consolidated by the 
deposition of tubercle, it contained a number of small cavities ; 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 407 

the upper part of the left lung was also consolidated, the lower 
part healthy. In one there were firm adhesions of the pleura 
of the right side ; a cavity existed in the apex of that lung con- 
taining grumous pus ; tubercles were scattered through it ; the 
left contained tubercles in a state of softening. 

c. The heart. — Of six cases in which its state was noted, we 
learn that in two it was healthy. In one small and flabby. In 
one was pale, in addition to being flabby. In one presented 
some old adhesions of pericardium, the cavity of which con- 
tained two ounces of fluid. The surface of the heart presented 
upon it a larger amount of fat than natural. In one it is 
simply recorded to have been small. 

d. The stomach. — In the four instances in which the appear- 
ances of this organ were recorded, it is said in three to have 
been healthy. In one " healthy, quite empty." 

e. The large intestine. — It is recorded to have in three cases 
been healthy. In one that its mucous membrane was thickened, 
exhibiting evidences of inflammation, but no ulcers. In one 
the intestine is said to have been much distended by gas, and 
contained little feculent matter. In one pale and anaemic. In 
one marked with livid and reddish patches, otherwise healthy. 
In one somewhat ash-coloured, studded with red stains or 
patches, the largest the size of a sixpence, the mesenteric glands 
enlarged. 

f. The small intestine. — In two instances it is reported to 
have been healthy. In one much distended by gas, quite empty ; 
in one pale and anaemic ; in one, that a number of small ulcers 
existed in the jejunum and ileum ; in one it is said to have con- 
tained a dark-coloured fluid; several small ulcers found, with 
rounded thickened margin ; also red points or papulse progress- 
ing to ulceration ; in one Peyer's patches were inflamed with 
thinning of the coats, 

g. The liver. — In one case this organ is recorded as healthy. 
In one enlarged, presenting the nutmeg appearance. In one 
rather enlarged, pale, and soft in texture. In one pale and 
friable. In one pale in colour and presenting the nutmeg 
appearance. In one somewhat congested, mottled, firm. In 
one as natural in size, of a bright colour ; the surfaced mottled 
and granular looking, over-firm, and harsh to the knife. 



408 PATHOLOGY OP DISEASE 

h. The kidneys. — These organs are said, in four instances to 
have been healthy. In one, that the cortical substance was 
rather narrow ; otherwise healthy. In one, that they were ex- 
ceedingly pale throughout, and contained a light yellowish 
deposit. In one, that the cortical portion was thickened. 

i. The spleen. — This viscus is recorded to have, in two 
instances been healthy. In one small and healthy. In one 
enlarged and friable. In ong small, of a dirty chocolate colour, 
and grumous. In one of a red chocolate colour. In one pale and 
enlarged. In one enlarged, and containing a deposit of tubercle. 

9. Morbus cordis. — In the one case, under this head, which 
appears in the necrological register, we find the appearances to 
have been as follow, namely : 

b. Lungs. — The left adherent at the apex, as also the right ; a 
vomica with thick walls in the apex of the latter; a chalky 
deposit similarly situated in the latter. 

c. The heart. — The organ was larger and paler than natural ; 
the right ventricle much dilated, with atrophied walls, which 
were very soft and flabby; cavity of the left enlarged, with 
thickening of its walls; valves healthy; redness of semilunar 
valves extending into the aorta. 

d. The stomach. — The mucous membrane is stated to have 
been easily detached and soft. 

e. The small intestine was of a dull brown colour ; Peyer's 
patches congested and inflamed. 

v. The liver. — Congested. 
g. The kidneys. — Congested. 
h. The spleen. — Congested. 

Aneurisma aorta. — One case of death from this cause appears 
in the above record; in it— 

b. The lungs were at their upper parts adherent to the walls 
of the chest, and solid from tubercular deposit. 

c. The heart was of a large size, healthy; an aneurismal 
tumour, capable of containing a pint of fluid, involved about 
two thirds of the aorta ; contained organized fibrine, and recently 
deposited lymph. 

g. The liver was much enlarged and engorged. 
h . The kidneys were healthy, 
i. The spleen was healthy. 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 409 

10. Intoxication. — Three fatal cases from this cause appear 
in the records of post-mortem appearances. In these we found 
as follow, viz. : 

a. The brain. — In one instance the record states that if any- 
thing it was contracted in size ; the blood in the veins dark ; 
about 12 oz. of serum at the base of the skull; membranes look- 
ing pearly ; firm serous effusion beneath. 

b. The lungs. — In one, matter from the stomaeh was found 
in the trachea ; right lung healthy, except a few cicatrices in 
apex ; left congested. In one the lungs, except anteriorly, were 
congested, and contained a good deal of serum ; posteriorly they 
were impervious to air. In one the left bronchial tube con- 
tained a quantity of dark grumous fluid; the mouth and nose 
covered with -matter discharged from the stomach ; both lungs 
highly congested. 

c. The heart. — In one it was healthy. In one covered with 
a layer of fat; right wall thin; cavities dilated; substance 
fatty. 

d. The stomach. — In one case was healthy. 

e. The large intestine. — In one was healthy. In one the 
glands stood up, flattish opaque milky papulae. 

f. The small intestine. — In one the glands three feet from the 
ileo-csecal valve presented the above milky appearance. In one 
it was healthy. 

g. The liver. — In two was healthy. In one enlarged, dark, 
and fatty. 

h. The kidneys. — In one healthy. In one covered outside 
with a thick layer of fat ; substance fatty. 

i. The spleen. — In one it was firm and dark in colour. In 
one double the natural size, and dark. 

11. Delirium tremens. — In two fatal cases of this disease, 
the post-mortem appearances in which are recorded, they were 
as follow, viz. : 

a. The brain. — In one there was considerable effusion of 
serum between the layers of the arachnoid, more remarkable 
on the right than on the left hemisphere. 

b. The lungs. — In one case the right was completely disor- 
ganized; its texture infiltrated with pus ; the left consolidated. 
In one the right lung was consolidated posteriorly and infe- 



410 PATHOLOGY OE DISEASE 

riorly j the left consolidated and adherent to the costal pleura 
throughout its anterior extent. 

c. The heart. — In one case was enlarged and fatty. Pericar- 
dium contained four ounces of fluid. 

d. The stomach. — In one healthy. 

e. The large intestine. — In both cases healthy. 

f. The small intestine. — In both cases healthy. 

g. The liver. — In two greatly enlarged, with yellowish deposit 
in its texture. (The precisely similar description of the appear- 
ances in both cases is remarkable.) 

h. The kidneys. — In one healthy. In one of a pale colour, 
containing a deposit similar to that of the liver, 
i. The spleen. — In one case healthy. 

12. Epilepsy. — In the one fatal case of this disease, the fol- 
lowing were the appearances found, viz. : 

a. The brain. — Considerably congested both internally and 
externally; "hard, as if partially preserved in spirits." 

b. The lungs. — The right adherent to the wall of the chest, 
filled with miliary tubercle, commencing to cause suppuration; 
the left similarly affected. 

c. The heart was hypertrophied and dilated, with some depo- 
sition of fat externally. 

e. The large intestine was healthy, except being rather con- 
tracted in diameter. 

f. The small intestine healthy. 

g. The liver was enormously enlarged and congested; pre- 
senting what was apparently a deposit of fat in its substance. 

h. The kidneys were "fatty." 

i. The spleen. — Larger than natural, and friable in substance. 

13. Tetanus.' — It is much to be regretted that the records of 
the post-mortem appearances in this painful case, are so very 
meager as they are. Those now available only state of the 
brain, that it and the spinal cord presented no abnormal appear- 
ance, and of the abdomen, that it was tense and tympanitic. In 
regard to the local appearances, it is stated that a wound existed 
over the left tibia, immediately below the knee ; bone found 
necrosed, softer and moister than natural around it. A small 
quantity of pus on the bone ; left sciatic nerve more-vascular than 
natural. 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 411 

14. Apoplexy. — In the only case of this disease in which a 
record of post-mortem appearances is available, they were as 
under, viz. : 

a. The brain. — A large quantity of clotted arterial blood found 
between the layers of the arachnoid ; vessels highly congested, 
both arterial and venous ; extravasated blood in anterior lobes. 

b. The lungs healthy, except being slightly congested. 

c. The heart healthy. , 

d. The stomach ; e, large intestine ; r, small intestine, — 
healthy. 

g. The liver, enormously enlarged; surface had a mottled 
appearance ; very friable. 

15. Coma. — One fatal case appears recorded in the necrolo- 
gical register, under this head. The appearances presented in 
it were the following, viz. : 

a. The brain. — Not congested : a small quantity of serum in 
the left ventricle ; right ventricle full of serum ; choroid plexus 
rather red ; also the membranes at the base of the brain. 

b. The lungs, mottled, pale, and dark bluish colour; not con- 
gested. 

c. The heart. — Rather flabby ; some fat on surface ; no clot 
or coagulum in ventricles. 

d. The stomach. — Showed some reddish stains. 

e. The large intestine. — Showed some livid blue spots ; the 
whole intestine papular, and studded with large solitary glands ; 
no ulceration. 

f. The small intestine. — General surface rather reddish ; on 
being opened, some whitish papulae visible, scattered here and 
there ; Peyer's patches rather visible, and evidently diseased. 

g. The liver. — Not enlarged ; of a mottled colour on the sur- 
face ; internally showing a yellowish deposit. 

i. The spleen. — Of natural size, rather firm to the knife, and 
fleshy. 

16. Insolation. — Of the eleven cases that proved fatal, a 
record of the post-mortem appearances have been entered in 
the necrological register ; an abstract of these gives the following 
particulars, viz. : 

a. The brain. — In one case the superficial vessels of the scalp 
are said to have been congested ; there was also present venous 



412 PATHOLOGY OE DISEASE 

congestion of the brain ; the ventricles containing a small quan- 
tity of serum ; a large quantity was found at the base of the brain. 
In one the veins of the dura mater, and those on the surface of 
the brain, were congested ; on the vertex of each hemisphere an 
effusion of serum beneath the arachnoid membrane, which gave 
it the appearance of lymph ; the substance of the brain not con- 
gested ; a small quantity of sanguineous serum in the ventricles, 
also in the inferior sub-arachnoid spaces. In one a large amount 
of blood escaped on removing the scalp ; the vessels on the sur- 
face of the brain were so congested that they appeared as if they 
would burst ; the brain was slightly congested ; bloody serum in 
the lateral ventricles. In one the vessels of the scalp were 
congested; there was also venous congestion of the brain; a 
small quantity of fluid was found in the ventricles; a large 
quantity at the base of the brain. In one the vessels of the 
brain were not generally congested ; there was some effusion 
beneath the membrane ; the choroid plexus pale ; the ventri- 
cles nearly full of serum ; the membrane covering both hemi- 
spheres red and congested in spots, also thickened at these 
parts. In one there was a good deal of effusion beneath the 
(arachnoid?) membrane, also at the base of the brain. The 
choroid plexus was pale and dropsical; a small quantity of 
bloody serum in the right ventricle. In one the vessels of the 
scalp were congested, as also the vessels of the brain ; a small 
quantity of fluid was found in the ventricles ; a large quantity at 
the base of the brain. In one congestion of the scalp was pre- 
sent ; there was fluid in the ventricles and at the base of the 
brain ; and in one it is stated that the vessels of the brain were 
slightly congested; a small quantity of serum in the lateral 
ventricles. 

b. The lungs. — Of the ten cases in which the appearances of 
these organs were noted, we learn that in one they were highly 
congested. In one, slightly congested posteriorly, otherwise 
healthy. In one, they are recorded as congested very much pos- 
teriorly, and containing a very large quantity of frothy serum. 
In two they are merely said to have been congested posteriorly. 
In one much congested posteriorly. In one it is stated that the 
posterior and upper parts of the lungs were congested and dark 
in 'colour. In one that they were congested by blood and feel 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 418 

marshy. In one they are described as much congested, other- 
wise healthy ; and in one as congested posteriorly, and filled with 
frothy blood. 

c. The heart. — The condition of this organ has been noted in 
ten cases. In one it was pale and flabby. In one it was filled 
with dark uncoagulated blood ; the walls of the right ventricle 
were much thickened, the valves healthy. In one it was rather 
flabby, a deposit on the surface, the walls of the ventricles thin, 
the valves healthy. In one healthy, with the exception of a 
slight deposit of fat externally ; the right ventricle filled with 
dark blood, as also the right auricle, the left comparatively 
empty, pericardium containing more serum than natural. In 
one the heart was large and flabby ; about twelve ounces of clear 
fluid was in the pericardium. In one it is said to have been 
healthy, all but empty. In one the pericardium contained three 
ounces of serum, the heart otherwise said to have been healthy. 
In one it was rather large, pale-coloured. In one it is said that 
the pericardium contained a small quantity of fluid, the heart 
was healthy; and in one the organ is described as excessively 
flabby, a deposit of fat externally, quite empty. 

d. The stomach. — The state of this viscus was in three con- 
gested. In two healthy. In one, on being opened, around the 
oesophageal entrance, and along the lesser curvature, and also 
at the pyloric opening, it presented a claret-coloured, velvety 
appearance; the oesophagus was also rather red in colour; and 
here a foot-note is added in the original notes, to the effect 
that the claret-coloured appearance observed in the stomach had 
most likely been produced by the action of croton oil that had 
been administered. In one the stomach is said to have con- 
tained what appeared to have been water and some kind of 
spirit ; and in one the mucous membrane is said to have been 
red and velvety. 

e. The large intestine. — In eight it is described as healthy. 
In one it is said to have been almost empty ; the csecum pre- 
sented the same claret-coloured, velvety appearance observed in 
the stomach, with the addition of a number of pointed whitish 
papulae. These papulae were thinly scattered throughout the 
remaining length of the intestine, which in other respects was 
normal. In one the ascending and descending colon were of a 



414 PATHOLOGY OE DISEASE 

dark livid hue ; solitary glands apparent, the walls thickened, 
the mucous membrane easily separated. In one the lower part 
of the ascending colon was adherent to the walls of the abdo- 
men, apparently of old standing ; the mucous membrane gene- 
rally of a dark colour, otherwise healthy. 

p. The small intestine. — In seven cases it is described as 
healthy. In one it is described as having been throughout of a 
remarkably pale colour, healthy, with the exception of a circum- 
scribed ulcer of the size of a sixpence, evidently of old standing, 
about a foot from the ileo-caecal valves. In one it is described 
as healthy j but the remark immediately follows, " all the organs 
remarkably hot." In one it was healthy to within about nine 
inches of the ileo-csecal valve ; between this point and the valve 
were found a number of small ulcers with raised margins. In 
one it is said that it was for the most part over-pale ,• some dark 
and red patches, from three to fifteen inches in length, in the 
lower part of the ileum. 

g. The liver. — The state of this organ was thus noted : — In 
one it was congested, but natural in size, the gall-bladder dis- 
tended with pale-coloured bile. In one it was large, presenting 
the nutmeg appearance. In two healthy. In one much con- 
gested, a few white patches on its surface. In one rather large, 
of a dark brownish-green colour, the gall-bladder filled with bile. 
In one it is stated to have been rather large, nutmeg in appear- 
ance, and gritty when cut. In one that it was not congested, 
some yellowish nodules and deposit apparent on the surface. In 
one the record states that it was much enlarged, presenting the 
nutmeg appearance, the gall-bladder filled with bile, and in one 
that it was much congested. 

h. The kidneys. — These organs are said in three instances to 
have been healthy. In one rather large and lobulated, the 
structure apparently healthy. In one healthy but congested. 
In one not congested, the cortical substance pale and having an 
old appearance. In one congested. 

i. The spleen. — The state of this organ as recorded was in four 
instances healthy. In one natural in size, rather firm. In one 
natural in size, firm, fleshy, and showing white points. In one 
congested. 

17. Hepatitis. — Not more than four cases of this disease are 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 415 

recorded in the ' Necrological Register.' The following were 
the appearances presented by them, viz. : 

b. Lungs. — In one it is stated that some of the air-tubes were 
filled with frothy bloody mucus. Both lungs were highly con- 
gested, and there were some tubercles in the apex of the right. 
In one the smaller branchiae were filled with pus ; apex of the 
left lung contained a cavity. In one slight adhesions are noted 
at the apex of the right lung; great congestion of posterior 
part of both lungs. In one the lungs are said to have been 
healthy ; left pleura adherent posteriorly. 

c. The heart. — In one the organ was natural, its surface 
covered with fat. In one it is described as atrophied, not half 
its natural size, mitral valves contracted. In one the report 
simply states that a fatty deposit existed on the surface. 

d. The stomach. — In the only case in which the appearances 
of the organ are noted, it is said to have been small, but presented 
a natural appearance. 

e. The large intestine. — In one case it is said to have been 
very much contracted, presenting close to the caecum a patch of 
inflamed mucous membrane. The remainder of the gut was 
softened and thickened. In one it was pale in colour. In one 
ulceration was found in the csecum and upper part of the colon, 
also in the remainder of the intestine, although not to so great a 
degree, and perforation in the sigmoid flexure was also found. 
(It is therefore evident that the fatal disease was in reality 
dysentery) . 

f. The small intestine. — In one case the record merely states, 
that the omentum was loaded with fat. In one the intestine 
was healthy. In one pale in colour ; and in one, Peyer's patches 
were inflamed. 

g. The liver. — Of the four cases recorded, we learn that in 
one this organ was found increased to double its natural size, 
of a bright red colour externally, but pale within, texture 
granular. In one it is described as slightly enlarged, fatty. 
In one the right lobe was congested and larger than natural, but 
not friable. In one it was much enlarged, very pale, a large 
abscess existing posteriorly, which had pierced the diaphragm, 
and entered the lung. I regret I cannot congratulate the 
recorder of this case upon the accuracy of his report ; in it, he 



416 PATHOLOGY OE DISEASE 

does not allude to the fact of the lungs having been penetrated, 
while describing the appearances of these organs, although from 
what appears under the present heading, it is evident that they 
had been penetrated by hepatic abscess. 

h. The kidneys. — It is reported that in one case these organs 
were double the natural size. In one very fatty. In one pale 
and antemic ; greatly enlarged, especially the left, in which 
two small calculi were found. In one they were enlarged and 
pale, cortical substance much increased in thickness. 

i. The spleen. — In one it is said to have been four times its 
natural size, of a dark purple colour. In one of natural size, 
friable. 

18. Cholera. — In the single fatal case of this disease re- 
corded in the ' Necrological Register,' the appearances noted 
were as follow, viz. : 

b. The lungs. — Healthy. 

c. The heart. — Flabby and pale. 

d. The stomach. — Slightly congested. 

e. The large intestine. — Healthy. 

f. Small intestine. — Very much diseased ; solitary glands 
presented the appearance of the globules of boiled sago ; Peyer's 
patches thickened. It is almost needless to remark, in reference 
to this brief record, that little valuable information is conveyed 
by it. We cannot but regret that in this and other instances 
greater care had not been bestowed by some of the medical officers 
upon the performance of post-mortem examinations. 

19. Diaruhoja. — The post-mortem appearances in only nine 
of the fatal cases under this head are recorded, and even in these 
the record is far less complete than is desirable. The state of 
the various organs, so far as it has been reported, has been as 
follows, viz. : 

a. Brain. — In only one instance, and it of choleraic diarrhoea, 
was it reported ; in it an ounce and a half of serum existed at 
the base of the brain, and the ventricles were filled with the 
same. 

b. The lungs. — The state of these organs has been recorded in 
four cases. In one they are said to have been healthy, with the 
exception of some congestion of their base. In one the anterior 
portion of both lungs was emphysematous, the posterior portion 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 417 

congested and hepatized; some tubercles scattered here and 
there. In one there existed some adhesions of the right pleura, 
a small portion of the posterior part of the right lung was 
carnified; there was also congestion of the posterior portion of the 
left lung. In two they were partly healthy. In one old adhesions 
existed on the right side ; the left contained tubercular matter 
scattered throughout its substance, beginning to soften. In one 
the lungs adhered to the walls of the chest, were hepatized and 
infiltrated with pus. In one instance both lungs are said to 
have been adherent ; a cavity of old standing to have existed in 
the apex of the left, and tubercle scattered throughout its sub- 
stance ; both lungs were, moreover, engorged with a strawberry 
frothy fluid ; and in one, the back and apex of the lungs were 
firmly adherent, fleshy, irregularly contracted, and containing in 
their substance some small cavities. 

c. The heart. — In one instance of those recorded the peri- 
cardium was adherent to the heart's surface by old standing 
adhesions. In one the pericardium contained three ounces of 
serum ; the heart itself healthy. In one the organ is simply 
said to have been "fatty ." In one "healthy." In one "small." 
In one small ; the right ventricle atrophied, firmly attached by 
adhesions to the pericardium. In one a colourless clot is 
recorded to have existed in the right ventricle. The left auri- 
culo-ventricular valves to have been thickened, and fringed by 
small excrescences. 

d. The stomach. — In one instance this viscus is reported to 
have been healthy. In one it is said that the mucous mem- 
brane was of an ash colour ; the stomach containing dark, fetid 
fluid. In one the mucous membrane was remarkably pale ; the 
great curvature studded with milk-white globules, emptying 
themselves on pressure, and becoming invisible. 

e. The large intestine. — In one instance the mucous mem- 
brane was of a dark bluish colour, but without ulceration. In 
one the whole surface of the large intestine is described as 
diseased, roughened, in some parts of a dark ash colour, but 
generally reddened, and to have presented small circular ulcers 
near the anus. In one it presented symptoms of recent inflam- 
mation about four inches below the left curve of the colon, at 
which place a constriction existed, nearly obliterating the 

27 



418 PATHOLOGY OF DISEASES 

passage. In one the caecum was distended to twice its natural 
size ; its coats thinned ; the entire length of the intestine con- 
gested; a number of dark spots, larger than a pin's head, 
scattered throughout. In one the large intestine is simply said 
to have been inflamed. In one black elevations, with many 
small ulcers scattered throughout the colon, were found beneath ; 
the former seemed to be formed by altered clots of blood, on 
removing which, a small ulcer was found beneath; rectum 
much thickened but not ulcerated. In one the large intestine 
was one mass of disease throughout ; three perforations in the 
caecum, one in the transverse colon, and one in the rectum : 
much deposit and thickening about these perforations. In one 
the mucous membrane of this intestine was of a black colour, 
adherent throughout by old adhesions. 

f. The small intestine. — In one instance this intestine is 
recorded to have been healthy, with the exception of slight 
enlargement of the glands. In one, Peyer's patches were in a 
state of ulceration. In one, with the exception of its six lower 
feet, it was healthy ; this lower part being of a brick-red colour. 
In one the lower portion was inflamed and ulcerated; the 
mucous membrane of an ash colour. In one the lower foot and 
a half was congested, otherwise healthy. In one the lower 
third of the intestine was highly inflamed ; there were several 
patches, of purplish-red colour, embracing the whole intestine, 
and involving about a foot and a half of it. In one we learn 
that the intestine was healthy, with the exception of that 
portion near the large intestine, where it assumed a congested 
appearance. In one healthy to within three inches of the 
caecum, where there was a deposit of white matter, presenting 
the appearance of boiled sago. In one several patches in the 
neighbourhood of the ileo-caecal valve were prominent and 
thickened by deposit; the rest of the intestine was of a very 
pale colour. 

g. The liver. — In two instances this organ is reported healthy. 
In one very much enlarged, presenting the nutmeg appearance. 
In one enormously enlarged, very pliable, of a buff colour, and 
fatty. In one hypertrophied. In one larger than natural, 
substance infiltrated with a light-coloured deposit. In one 
much enlarged, presented patches of a whiter colour than the 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 419 

ordinary portion of the viscus. On section it was soft, and 
presented a deposit of white exudation, filling up the inter- 
lobular spaces. In one the liver was pale, with bright-coloured 
deposit diffused throughout. 

h. The kidneys. — In two instances these organs were recorded 
healthy. In one large and fatty, the right having a nodular 
excrescence on its surface. In one the cortical substance was 
" rather narrow," otherwise healthy. In oue they were pale, 
apparently from deposition of a whitish colour ; cortical portion 
increased in thickness. In one case it is stated that they were 
very pale in colour; the cortical portion increased to nearly 
one inch in thickness ; medullary portion also white in colour ; 
and in one instance they are said to have been small, but 
healthy. 

i. The spleen. — In one case the spleen was very much enlarged ; 
In one enlarged, soft, and friable; darker than natural. In 
one healthy. In one enlarged and soft ; and in one adherent 
over the whole of its surface. 

20. Dysenteria acuta. — Of the fatal cases of this disease, 
only nine have been recorded in the * Necrological Register.' 
The following is an abstract of the appearances noted in the 
various organs in the bodies of this number. 

b. The lungs. — In three instances the lungs are reported 
healthy. In one the anterior portion of the right was adherent, 
and both lungs slightly congested. In one these organs are 
described as being peculiarly free from congestion. In one 
the lungs were much congested, both adherent firmly to the 
walls of the chest by old adhesions. In one they are said to 
have been healthy, rather bloodless. In one they were slightly 
congested, of a violet colour posteriorly, and in one healthy, 
except that they were slightly congested posteriorly. 

c. The heart. — Among the instances in which the appearances 
presented by this organ are recorded, in one it is said to have 
been small and pale; a deposition of fat externally; valves 
healthy ; pericardium contained two ounces of fluid ; no trace 
of inflammation of this membrane. In one it was healthy, but 
flabby; the ventricles empty. In one pale, very flabby; the 
right ventricle containing a large colourless clot ; the left con- 
taining some grumous blood. In one the heart was rather 



420 PATHOLOGY OE DISEASES 

pale, large, and flabby ; half an ounce of fluid in the pericar- 
dium. In one the heart is described a3 healthy. In one 
rather small, healthy ; some fluid blood in the ventricles. In 
one it was flabby ; a large quantity of serum was found in the 
• pericardium, and a deposit of fat on the surface of the heart 
itself. In one it is described as flabby, a large discoloured clot 
in the right ventricle ; dark fluid blood in the left ventricle. 
In one it was pale and flabby. 

d. The stomach. — Among the cases where the state of this 
viscus is recorded, we learn that in one there was slight redness 
of its mucous coats, and it contained a yellow/bilious fluid. In 
two it was healthy. In one rather reddened, but not from acute 
nor inflammatory action. In one it showed points and linear 
patches of a deep violaceous colour, and contained fluid much 
resembling bile in the gall-bladder. 

E. The large intestine. — In one instance there were ulcers 
throughout the whole extent of this intestine, varying in size 
from a small pea to an inch in diameter, of every variety, and 
in every stage; many of' them with thickened margins; 
although some were deep, none perforated the gut. In one the 
large intestine was adherent so firmly at the caecum and sig- 
moid flexure, that it could not be separated without tearing; 
the whole intestine, internally and externally, was of a dark 
colour ; sloughy ulcers in the caput caecum, also in the sigmoid 
flexure and rectum. In one there existed slight adhesions of 
the large intestine to the neighbouring structures ; caecum and 
ascending colon showing a number of unhealthy sloughing 
ulcers; the remainder of the intestine of a dark colour, but 
not showing so many ulcers. In one the intestine was 
described as being one mass of disease throughout. In the 
caecum and rectum the ulcers were very large, and the intestine 
much thickened. In one there was a very large deposit of 
white substance, great thickening of the gut, and masses of 
ulceration. In one the intestine was diseased throughout, espe- 
cially about the caecum and anus, where there was much thick- 
ening and ulceration. The remainder of the intestine had not 
so much ulceration, but was of a dull reddish plum colour. In 
one the intestine was described as presenting a mass of disease 
throughout, and as containing three large perforations; great 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 421 

thickening of its coats by a deposit of a white substance 
externally ; ulcers ragged and irregular, apparently in a chronic 
stage. In one it contained grumous bloody matter ; its whole 
surface was inflamed and of a dark colour ; the colon was con- 
siderably thickened ; ulceration not so extensive as is usual in 
these cases; ulcers clear and well defined. And in one the 
intestine was thickened by interstitial deposit, and presented 
large patches of ulceration. 

f. The small intestine. — In one case it showed traces of disease 
throughout its whole course; Peyer's patches and solitary 
glands were inflamed and enlarged. In one it is recorded that 
Peyer's glands were enlarged ; that there was slight congestion 
in places, but that otherwise the gut was healthy. In one 
Peyer's patches are described as being distinct, but no conges- 
tion or inflammation of the intestine. In two cases the intes- 
tine is said to have been healthy. In one Peyer's patches, for 
about two feet from the ileo-colic valve were reddened, as was 
also " occasionally " the mucous membrane. In one the small 
intestine is described as healthy to within a few inches of the 
ileo-caecal valve. In one it contained a large quantity of milky, 
white mucus ; and in one it is stated that Peyer's patches were 
enlarged, thickened, more prominent than natural. 

g. The liver. — Regarding the state of this viscus we learn 
from the records that in one instance it was enlarged ; paler than 
natural; whitish patches on the surface, softer than the sur- 
rounding structure, and giving a greasy appearance. In one 
it was large, pale, not congested; the surface showing some 
yellow patches entering slightly into the substance ; and in the 
substance was a slight variation of colour, caused by a similar 
deposition. In one the viscus is said to have been light-coloured. 
In one rather large, pale in colour. In one enlarged and pale 
from a whitish deposit; streaks of a white colour, which on 
section were soft, and had more deposit than other portions. 
In one the liver extended to a breadth of three inches below the 
ribs and pit of the stomach. It was studded, especially near 
its surface, with small abscesses. In one the organ was much 
enlarged, adherent anteriorly, and generally pale. It moreover 
contained four abscesses, in each of which there were about ten 
ounces of pus, of a most offensive odour. Streaks of white 



422 PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES 

deposit in the substance were also observable in a state of 
softening. In one the liver was enlarged; a bright-coloured, 
diffused deposit throughout its substance ; the gall-bladder full of 
dark bile. In one it is described as "enlarged and globular" (?) 
of a pale colour, the result of a deposition of white matter, 
obliterating entirely the usual lobular appearance. 

h. The kidneys. — In one instance they are described as paler 
than natural ; the cortical substance increased in thickness 
(half an inch) ; the capsule easily separated. In one, tolerably 
healthy, the cortical substance pale, from infiltration of a light- 
coloured deposit. In one they are said to have been healthy, 
but light coloured. In one large, " pale and white ;" cortical 
substance much increased in thickness. In one they were 
rather dark-coloured; a calculus was found in the right, 
otherwise they were healthy. In one they were very large, 
pale, with a whitish deposit, like that in the liver. In one, 
rather large, a light-coloured deposit of the same description in 
their substance ; and in one they were slightly congested, 
cortical substance much thickened, its substance pale. 

i. The spleen. — This organ was in one instance smaller than 
natural, and of firmer texture. In one adherent in part by old 
adhesions, natural in size, hard and gritty when cut. In one 
it was rather small, firm, and fleshy. In one "remarkably 
small." In one slightly enlarged. In one of natural size, over- 
firm, studded with white spots. In one it was described as 
rather firm ; and in one as enlarged, soft. 

21. Dvsenteria chronica. — A record of post-mortem appear- 
ances has been preserved in fifteen fatal cases of this disease. 
The following is an abstract of the appearances described, viz. : 

b. The lungs. — The state of these organs is noted in eleven 
cases ; of these we learn that in one the right lung was slightly 
congested; the right pleura inflamed and adherent. In one 
the posterior part of the lungs was of a violet colour, partly con- 
solidated and easily broken down. In three healthy. In one 
the left lung was adherent at the apex ; tubercular in its sub- 
stance ; in a state of softening, with miliary tubercle throughout 
the remainder of the lung ; the right congested. In one both 
were healthy anteriorly, posteriorly congested, and containing 
small pneumonic patches. In one healthy, a little darkish in 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 423 

colour. In one the upper part of the right lung was consolidated, 
from tubercular adhesions of the pleura ; tubercle in the upper 
lobe of the left lung, but isolated. In one the posterior part 
of the left lung was of a claret colour, containing much * 
serum ; the pleural cavity of the right side containing fluid ; the 
lung at the apex adherent, partly collapsed. In one the left 
lung was consolidated posteriorly : patches of tubercle scattered 
through it; the right firmly adherent, chalky deposit with 
tubercle found in its apex. 

c. The heart. — Of the eleven cases in which the state of this 
organ was recorded ; in one it is described as flabby. In one 
rather flabby ; right ventricle distended by a firm clot. In one 
healthy. In one the pericardium contained ten ounces of 
fluid; heart enlarged and fatty; valves healthy. In one the 
organ was smaller than usual. In one it is simply said to have 
been " small." In one fatty and atrophied. In one small, 
atrophied, nearly empty. In one small, atrophied, flabby. In 
one flabby ; ventricles empty. In one pale and atrophied, with 
a deposit of fat externally. 

d. The stomach. — A very imperfect record of the state of this 
viscus is unfortunately preserved, all that we learn in regard to 
it, being that in one instance its veins were congested, and in 
two it was healthy. 

e. The large intestine. — In one case the state of this intestine 
was described as " friable." In one as slightly adherent ; the 
coats friable, not thickened ; some small, irregular ulcers. In 
one there was ulceration in different stages in the caecum and 
transverse colon ; the remainder of the gut thickened and con- 
tracted ; the mucous membrane thickened and diseased looking, 
as if "raw" on its surface. In one the colon was diseased 
throughout, with small and irregular-shaped ulcers. In one 
there was general redness and inflammatory state of the mucous 
membrane, which was irregularly raised into " islands." In 
one, ulcers of old standing were found in the commencement of 
the large intestine. In one this intestine is recorded as having 
been in a highly diseased condition, the mucous membrane near 
the csecum almost destroyed by ulceration. In one the gut 
was rather "friable," contracted except at caput csecum; no 
ulceration, but mucous membrane rough, thickened, and of a 



424 PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES 

dull colour. In one there were patches of ulceration and in- 
flammation. In one the intestine was distended to about the 
centre of the transverse colon, from which point it was rather 
" contracted ; no congestion ; the mucous membrane generally 
healthy. In one it was excessively ulcerated from the caecum 
to the rectum. In one the mucous membrane of the ascending 
and transverse colon were of a pale colour, that of the de- 
scending colon became dark in colour, with reddish spots and 
blue patches, which contained small ulcers. In one there were 
large patches covered by a black deposit ; or rather the mucous 
membrane was changed in colour, and presented several ulcers 
with defined edges. 

f. The small intestine. — In one instance we are informed by 
the records that this intestine was " friable." Peyer's patches 
visible near the ileo-caecal valve. In one a few papulae were ap- 
parent about six feet from the pylorus. In one a portion of the 
ileum was bound down by adhesions ; the intestines healthy 
throughout. In one the small intestine was reported healthy, 
except the lower part of the ileum, which was slightly red, and 
contained one small ulcer. In one the record simply states 
that " the lower part of the ileum was of a purplish colour." In 
one Peyer's glands were vascular and prominent. In one the 
lower three feet of the ileum were highly diseased (ulcerated), 
and about a quart of serum in the cavity of the peritoneum. 
In one the intestine was healthy, except about seven inches of 
the lower part of the ileum, which was red and inflamed. In 
one there were large patches of inflammation, and others of 
ulceration. In one the intestine was somewhat pinkish in 
colour; papulae on the mucous surface prominent. In one 
there were found some small irregular ulcers towards the termin- 
ation of the ileum. In one the intestine was externally of an 
ashy colour, two slight patches of red about three feet from the 
ileo-caecal valve ; also a small ulcer. In one the record states 
that Peyer's patches were inflamed, with softening. 

g. The liver. — In thirteen cases in which the condition of 
this organ has been recorded, we find it to have been as follows, 
viz. : — In one slightly enlarged and cirrhosed. In one there was 
a large abscess in the upper part of the right lobe. In one it 
was rather enlarged, gritty in cutting, presented a granular 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 425 

appearance. In two places, dense white tissue surrounded the 
ducts, and the gall-bladder was full of grumous bile. In 
one the liver is recorded as somewhat enlarged, and having a 
granular appearence, from a deposit of yellow matter around a 
dark, liver-like speck. In one the liver was adherent, enlarged, 
of a dark colour, much congested. In one enlarged, the nut- 
meg appearance well marked. In one healthy. In one it is 
simply stated to have been smaller than usual. In one enlarged, 
with a nutmeg appearance. In one not enlarged, firm, fleshy. 
In one enlarged, otherwise healthy. In one enlarged, pale, 
and granular ; and in one slightly enlarged, fatty. 

h. The kidneys. — The condition of these organs where re- 
corded was as follow, viz. : — In one they were somewhat en- 
larged, pale, granular. In one healthy. In one healthy, but 
small. In one the cortical portion was rather narrow ; other- 
wise healthy. In one the cortical portion is said to have been 
very much increased in thickness, and to have been pale in 
colour. In one they were enlarged, over- firm, gritty to the 
knife, somewhat granular. In one they were normal. In one 
the cortical portion was very narrow, the left kidney enlarged, 
and in one they are described as very pale in colour ; the cortical 
portion half an inch in thickness. 

i. The spleen. — As regards the state of this organ, we learn 
that in the eight cases where information is available, it was as 
follows, viz. : — In two cases it is described as being " natural." 
In one not enlarged, firm, and fleshy. In one of natural size, 
adherent to the pancreas. In one " healthy." In one small 
and fleshy. In one small, healthy ; and in one it was half as 
large again as natural, of a dark colour. 

In order to draw a comparison between the post-mortem ap- 
pearances observable in the bodies of persons who have died of 
dysentery in Bengal, and of fatal cases of that disease as it 
occurred at Tein-tsin, the following table is given. In re- 
ference to it, it is only necessary to state that in as far as it 
concerns India, the information has been obtained from 
Martin's work on ' Tropical Climates,' pages 527 — 529 ; as re- 
gards Tein-tsin, from the Necrological Register, kept in the 
General Hospital, there. 



426 



PATHOLOGY OP DISEASES 



Liver contained "1 

abscess in cases / 

Liver enlarged in . . . 

Liver gorged and \ 

turgid J 

Liver small in 

Liver pale in , 

Liver granular in . . , 
Liver softened in 
Liver indurated in. . , 
Liver contained 1 
cicatrices in J 

Intestines. 

Large intestines " 
ulcerated in / 

Large intestines ' 
perforated in ... / 

Deo - csecal valve " 
ulcerated and de- 
stroyed in 



DlSEMTEKT OT BENGAL. 



Acute. 



g s d 



21 
40 

4 

7 
26 
22 
12 

5 



160 
8 

3 



%•* 



1312 

2500 

2-50 

4-37 

16-25 

1375 

7-50 

312 

1-87 



10000 
5-00 

1-87 



Chronic. 



£ v § 



8 
11 



50 
1 






10-90 
909 



14-54 
20-00 

1-85 
7-27 



1-85 

90-90 
1-85 



Dysente&y at Tein-tsin. 



Acute. 



.9 

"> a. 

■PJ 

h So 






22-22 

88-88 



77-77 
11-11 



100-00 
1111 



Chronic. 



.a 



|=1 

> V G 
at 3 



7-69 

53-84 

7-69 

7-69 
7-69 

38-46 
7-69 

15-38 



69-22 



Not noted. 



22. Chronic indigestion. — One case appears in the necro- 
logical register under this head. The following were the 
appearances noted. 

b. Lungs. — Healthy, c. Heart. — Healthy. 

d. The stomach was here and there slightly reddened ; firm 
and like rugae. 

e. Large intestine. — Was reddened throughout; mucous 
membranes thickened and ulcerated ; " apparently chronic." 

f. Small intestine. — Mesenteric glands enlarged ; small intes- 
tine much congested ; ileum vascular throughout, especially the 
patches of glands. 

g. The liver. — Enlarged, granular, and of a yellowish colour. 
h. The kidneys were " of a pale colour." 

i. The spleen. — Natural in size; slightly adherent to the 
stomach. 

23. Phlegmon. — One fatal case from this cause is recorded. 
In it the appearances were as under noted, viz. : — 



AT TEIN-TSIN. 427 

b. The lungs. — The right adherent at the apex ; hoth lungs 
otherwise healthy. 

c. The heart. — Enlarged ; ventricles hypertrophied. 

d. Stomach ; e. Large intestine ; r, Small intestine — all 
healthy, g. Liver. — Enlarged ; some appearance of nutmeg de- 
generation ; no deposition of pus. 

h. Kidneys; i, Spleen — hoth healthy. 

A note to the record of this case states that " pus was found 
between the astragalus and os calcis. The posterior part of the 
latter denuded of periosteum. Soft tissues around it had a 
sloughy appearance. The foot and leg discoloured ; an opening 
on each side of the ankle-joint; two on the leg." 



CHAPTER XII. 

HOSPITALS IN CHINA. 

A hospital for sick Chinese — Some remarks on diseases. — Hydrophobia — Tetanus 
— Our prisoners and those of the Chinese— Hospitals and Missions. 

Early in January, a hospital was opened for the treatment 
of sick Chinese. It was considered that much good was likely 
to arise from an establishment of this nature, not only in the 
benefits conferred directly by it upon those suffering from bodily 
sickness or from external injuries, but in its more distant and 
remote effects** It was considered that the natives would be 
brought through this hospital to see that although our force 
was here by right of military possession, yet now that actual 
warfare had ceased, we were solicitous to confer upon them some 
of the benefits of European science ; and it was also believed 
that by intercourse with those of us who took an interest in the 
institution, they might be brought to entertain more favorable 
opinions of us than they have up to the present time been 
taught by their mandarins and high officials to do. The pro- 
priety of establishing this hospital was first suggested by the 
writer of these pages ; but beyond this he had little, if anything, 
to do with the very great success that attended it, than had any 
of the others who took a direct interest in it. No sooner was 
the suggestion made in regard to the formation of the hospital, 
than it was energetically taken up by several officers of the 
force. A considerable sum of money was speedily raised, and 
one of the regimental medical officers having agreed to take 
professional charge, the establishment was very soon in full 
operation. 

Its reputation extended far and wide with a rapidity that was 
remarkable. Large numbers of men, not only from the city, but 



HOSPITAX TOR SICK CHINESE. 429 

from considerable distances around, flocked to it for treatment 
on account of various diseases of the eyes, to which, as already 
observed, great numbers are subject. It was not long before 
women also began to come in large numbers, and it was speedily 
apparent that the benefits conferred by British surgery upon 
the applicants were fully appreciated by them. From the very 
first, the native magistrates took no actual notice of it. They 
were probably unwilling, for reasons of their own, to show direct 
opposition to it just at present ; and so great were the benefits 
obtained by very many of the applicants, that they would pro- 
bably not have allowed themselves to be deterred from continuing 
their own attendance at it, or recommending it to their friends 
and acquaintances, unless under direct coercion. Some very 
remarkable characteristics of the people of the north of China 
became revealed during my connexion with this hospital, and 
some other particulars also appeared which may not be deemed 
undeserving of notice in a volume such as this. 

Surgery was evidently the branch of the profession which was 
most appreciated by our patients, and in which they placed the 
greatest confidence. The science of medicine, as practised by 
Europeans, they considered far inferior to the system followed 
by their own practitioners. According to them, all the ills that 
flesh is heir to owe their origin to one of these causes ; namely, 
to the power of "the dragon," or to the "Yin, and the Yan" — 
these terms representing according to the doctrine of the fol- 
lowers of " reason," the male and female principles of Creation. 
Their treatment is in accordance with these extraordinary 
doctrines, charms, incantations, and the violent local remedies 
elsewhere described constitute the chief remedies in use by 
them ; and accordingly our system of medicine, which recognises 
none of these, is, in their estimation, founded upon altogether 
false principles. But they are not so very bigoted as to believe 
that any amount of incantation will set a broken limb, or any 
charm be so effectual in the removal of a diseased mass from 
the body or limbs as is a scalpel in the hands of a British 
surgeon. 

The manner in which they bear the pain of an operation is 
perfectly astounding. It was customary to administer chloro- 
form to some who were about to undergo some of the more 



430 HOSPITAL TOR SICK CHINESE. 

extensive operations, and the wonderful effects of this most 
wonderful agent at once attracted the attention and admiration 
of all who witnessed them ; while the accounts of it became, after 
having been retailed by two or three persons in succession, so 
transcendingly wonderful as to outdo, if that were in their 
opinion possible, the power of the dragon itself. 

A large proportion of those upon whom operations were per- 
formed had no chloroform given to them, and these, unless when 
the operation was more than usually protracted, neither cried 
nor winced ; some did not even clench their hands or teeth, but 
lay upon the table perfectly motionless, while their muscles were 
being cut by the knife, and their bones divided by saw, forceps, 
or gouge. 

That this may be in some degree attributable to the circum- 
stance of the sensibility of the nervous system being less acute in 
the Chinese than in the European is quite probable. That this is 
so, is mere matter of speculation ; but were it an actual fact it 
would be insufficient to account for the great degree to which 
indifference of pain is observable among them ; a good deal is, 
therefore, no doubt due to moral training. From their earliest 
youth the Chinese are taught indifference to bodily suffering, or 
to life itself. Personal cruelty is instilled into their nature from 
their infancy; and so effectually, that I have seen by-standers and 
relations of a subject of operation smiling and joking as its details 
were being proceeded with, and I have seen a person just removed 
from the operating table, and placed for the time being upon a 
bed in the immediate vicinity, smile at, and appear to enjoy the 
agonies of his successor, as the knife was cutting its way through, 
and the blood trickling from his quivering flesh. 

And yet, notwithstanding these characteristics, the Chinese 
are far from devoid of gratitude. Some have expressed them- 
selves as deeply indebted to the foreign surgeons for having 
restored them in health to those dependent upon them for sup- 
port; neither are they wanting in kindness and attention to 
each other during sickness. Brothers have been seen perform- 
ing offices to one another, when prostrated by sickness, such as I 
must say I have never seen in what are called civilised countries. 
If therefore there are very many objectionable points in the 
character of the Chinaman, even he has his redeeming ones. 



HOSPITAL TOE SICK CHINESE. 431 

Shortly after this hospital had been established, the fact 
became very apparent that the male patients had for some time 
been behaving with great rudeness towards the inmates of the 
opposite sex, and this to so great a degree, that a great number 
of the latter had left, while some who remained were in tears, 
and busily engaged in preparations to make their exit also. The 
fact now transpired that the men are at a loss to comprehend 
the motives which induce us to apportion to the women the best 
room in the hospital as a ward. They did not scruple to inform 
us that they wanted the room in which the former were accom- 
modated j and quietly intimated that " any place was good 
enough for them," i. e., the women, adding, as if in derision — 
" they're only women." We had before this met with much to 
convince us that the female sex hold among the Chinese a most 
degraded position. Here was an additional confirmation of the 
discreditable fact. 

Those of our patients who had been operated upon, considered 
that they therefore had a kind of prescriptive right to consider 
themselves as of or belonging to the hospital. In the afternoons 
and early evenings, a number of these, bringing their friends 
along with them, were wont to assemble in the court-yard of the 
hospital, over which a screen of matting had been placed, the 
better to protect them from the glare and heat of the sun. 

Under this canopy a table, some chairs, stools, and forms 
were placed by the caretaker of the hospital ; each visitor pro- 
duced the tiny pipe, which is the Chinaman's inseparable com- 
panion ; a number of small teacups were placed upon the table, 
the large teakettle, which is ever ready, was passed round, and 
thus, smoking mild tobacco, and drinking still milder tea, these 
men would spend many an hour discussing such subjects as were 
most interesting to them ; and let us fondly hope they did not 
speak in such terms of hatred to the " barbarian " as they had 
been accustomed until lately to do. 

Upon the whole, this establishment was a great " success." 
The numbers of natives who had derived benefit from it might 
be reckoned by thousands, and all these, with a very few excep- 
tions, had expressed themselves as most grateful for the benefits 
bestowed upon them by the institution. 

As a matter of course, some opportunities occurred of seeing 



432 HOSPITAL TOB SICK CHINESE. 

the foot of a Chinese woman that had heen deformed by the system 
of pressure, to which by long custom they are subjected, and a 
more unpleasant object to look at it is not easy to conceive. 
The fair proportions of a foot, according to our ideas, are com- 
pletely destroyed. It looks what it is, a hideous deformed mass. 
The four smaller toes are violently pressed under the sole, the 
natural arch of the foot, artificially raised, so that the chief mass 
of the foot is thrown into the position usually occupied by the 
instep and ankle. The person is thus forced to walk upon no 
other support than the point of the heel, and tip of the great 
toe. The leg is in many instances wasted, but certainly not so 
in all ; the " ankle," in its English sense, is " nowhere ;" and to 
our ideas, the " golden lily"— signifying thereby, the artificially 
cramped foot — is not only hideous in itself, but gives to its fair 
wearers the character of gait we might expect to find in a satyr. 
It would be out of place here to describe at length cases that 
came under notice in this hospital. One case may, however, 
it is believed be given, as it not only illustrates a very frightful 
malady which fortunately is of but rare occurrence, but it also 
illustrates a danger which ought to be had in mind by fanciers 
of the hideous herd of curs called " Pekin dogs," that are likely 
to become fashionable pets in England. 

Towards the latter end of the month of August, a strong 
Chinaman was brought to hospital suffering from hydrophobia. 
He was one of three who had been bitten by a small Pekin dog 
two months ago. The other two men died from hydrophobia 
five days after the accident. He was only seized with symptoms 
of the disease the day before admission, his first indication of 
the frightful malady having been a degree of difficulty in swal- 
lowing, which he experienced on attempting in the early morning 
to take a draught of water. The marks of the dog's teeth, al- 
though now completely healed up, are still apparent upon the 
thumb ; neither pain nor uneasiness was complained of in it. 
During the forenoon he was seized with most severe tetanic 
spasms at the pit of the stomach ; the sight, or even the very 
thought of water would thenceforward bring these spasms on, 
and the faintest current of air across him would throw him into 
convulsions. The expression of his face was painfully anxious ; 
the eyes were staring wild ; yet at this time his intellect was 



HOSPITAL FOB SICK CHINESE. 433 

unimpaired. By evening the disease had advanced to a degree 
that was terrible to observe. He had shortly before started 
away from the hospital, running madly down the street. During 
his wild career, he had bitten on the hand two coolies who 
had attempted to oppose him, and then, as if overcome by ex- 
citement, had fallen down convulsed. While lying upon the 
ground he was securely bound by cords, and having been so, 
was brought back to hospital, where, when about 10 o'clock 
p.m. he was next seen, he still lay firmly bound. An expression 
of maniacal excitement was on the face, the corners of the 
mouth were becoming clogged with mucus ; his lower jaw 
moved upwards and downwards as if it were in the act of biting; 
at intervals of a few seconds or minutes he exclaimed in Chinese, 
" flee, flee," and instantly afterwards losing self-control, violent 
spasms succeeded, during the continuance of which he abused 
vociferously imaginary enemies, tried to clutch with his mouth 
at a small pillow that had been placed under his head as he lay 
upon the flags in the open courtyard, for all feared to lay hold 
of him with a view of carrying him into a ward. Seeing the 
fearful agony which he suffered, it was suggested that a piece of 
ice put into his mouth might be grateful to him. The sug- 
gestion was made in Chinese, and the very mention of the word 
seemed to bring on a convulsion even more violent than any 
that had occurred. By the force of the muscular spasm, and 
notwithstanding that his hands were firmly bound together 
behind his back, and his heels to them, he was thrown over and 
over several times until he literally rolled against the wall ; his 
progress was thus arrested, but he repeatedly beat his head with 
violence against it, until after a little this fearful spasm seemed 
to subside. The intervals between these spasms were evidently 
becoming shorter and shorter, their violence greater and greater ; 
in the brief intervals the mind was still clear, but the face now 
retained its expression of maniacal excitement. 

On the succeeding morning the violence of the spasms had 
much decreased, consciousness was failing, his breathing was 
spasmodic, and performed with evident difficulty; his jaws were 
firmly held together, as if under the power of tetanus, and during 
the forenoon he sank, death taking place as if from exhaustion 
of the vital powers. 

28 



434 



TART ATI PRISONERS. 



One other case deserves to be recorded, namely one of trau- 
matic tetanus in which death did not occur. A powerful native, 
about forty years of age, sustained a compound comminuted 
fracture of the great toe and the corresponding metatarsal bone, • 
the wheel of a native cart that was heavily laden having gone 
over it. Amputation of the injured toe was performed, and the 
fragments of bone carefully removed. Shortly afterwards, 
tetanus of a severe nature set in, the attacks being at first con- 
fined to the injured side, but afterwards implicating both. 

Dr. Lamprey, who had medical charge of the hospital, ad- 
ministered and tried one after the other all the ordinary remedies 
in such cases, but all with the usual want of success. The 
paroxysms had continued several days, and the powers of the 
patient were evidently becoming exhausted. He was then 
placed under chloroform ; the wound opened afresh, a search 
instituted for spiculae ; one being found, it was removed, and on 
the patient recovering from the anaesthesia, he was induced to 
smoke opium, although he at first entertained the greatest 
horror of the drug, having never indulged in it. After a little, 
the usual effect was produced. He became under the influence 
of the narcotic, and remained unconscious for a time, as opium 
smokers do ; on partial restoration of consciousness, the attacks 
returned ; again the fumes of opium were administered, and so 
on during a period which, to the best of my recollection — for I 
have mislaid my notes — was about twenty days. The interesting 
part of the whole is, that the violence of the paroxysms gradually 
decreased until they ceased to recur ; the peculiar tension of 
the muscles of the face, jaws, and neck, however, continued even 
for some time longer, and so great had become the attachment 
of the man to the opium pipe, that considerable difficulty and 
resolution were needed before he was able to break himself of 
the habit. 

Among the many who were treated in this hospital for natives 
were some Tartar soldiers who, having been more or less severely 
wounded at some of the actions during the campaign, had been 
brought on with the force, at the instance of Sir Hope Grant, 
K.C.B. They had all been so seriously injured by bullets that 
they must necessarily have died had it not been for the great 
care they received from the English surgeons during a period 



TARTAR PRISONERS. 435 

of not less than six months. They were permitted to have 
every comfort in the general hospital that was allowed to our 
own sick, and afterwards, when transferred to that for the treatr 
ment of sick natives, all the privileges and comforts they had 
previously enjoyed were continued to them. They had ample 
hedding, warm clothing, rations to eat, such as were given to 
the soldiers; extras, especially wine and beer, were given to 
them with a liberal hand, and as no caste prejudices stood 
between them and their enjoyment, they soon obtained as great 
a relish for " Bass" and " Allsop" as if they had been natural 
born Saxons. At last they recovered so far from their injuries 
as to be considered in a fit state to be restored to their families. 
It was announced to them that this was the case, but the in- 
timation was not received with the delight that might have been 
expected ; they evidently relished the regimen they received at 
the hands of the barbarians more than they did the anticipation 
of once again having to " rough it" in Tartary and Mongolia. 
About the middle of April, however, they were despatched to 
Pekin. A liberal sum of money was raised by subscription, 
and divided among them, and it was intended that these men 
should be handed over to the native authorities with some 
degree of formality, in order that they might have an oppor- 
tunity of contrasting our manner of treating prisoners taken 
during war with that adopted by their own people towards our 
unfortunate fellow-countrymen who fell into their hands. 

As regards the Tartar, soldiers, however, it speedily became 
apparent that the Chinese authorities thought very differently 
from what those of England would have done under similar 
circumstances. They refused to receive the men, or to have 
anything to do with them ; the men had fallen in battle, they 
said, and therefore had by them been considered to be dead ; 
officially dead, therefore, they were considered to be ; and the 
Chinese system of " red tape " had probably no precedent for 
dead men coming to life again, and being retaken upon their 
" returns." 

Let us now briefly contrast the treatment which these 
prisoners received at our hands with that by the Chinese autho- 
rities of some of our troops who fell into their hands ; and let 
me transcribe for this purpose some notes taken by me when 



436 CHINESE CRUELTY TO PRISONERS. 

the impressions made by inspecting the effects of the latter 
were fresh and vivid. In the month of January, while visiting 
the hospital of the Seikh troops, I had an opportunity of examin- 
ing the nature of the injuries sustained by two out of three of 
these men, who, having been bound by cords, and thrown into 
prison, are still unfit for the performance of their duty as 
soldiers. 

I personally examined the wrists and ankles of both. On both 
these parts, but more especially upon the wrists, were large 
cicatrices ; those upon the wristB of one of the men were 
at least two inches broad, and even above this frightful mark, 
was a second scar, although of considerably smaller dimensions ; 
the use of the hand was in consequence very seriously impaired. 

I questioned these men regarding the cruel treatment to 
which they had been subjected during their captivity. For the 
first eight days after their capture, neither food nor drink was, 
according to their own account, given to them. For the first 
four days their sufferings were intense ; the Chinese having 
bound them immediately after their capture, dropped water 
upon the cords around their wrists in order to tighten them 
still more. After the fourth day the acuteness of the sufferings 
produced by these cords diminished, but maggots having become 
developed in the sores that had now formed, these loathsome 
creatures began to creep all over their person. The particular 
manner in which they were secured was this : their hands 
were, in the first instance, crossed behind their backs, and in 
this position tightly bound with cords ; their legs were then 
bent backward at the the knees ; their ankles then secured to 
their wrists ; they were then thrown upon their faces, and thus 
left. 

After the eighth day food was regularly given to them, and 
placed in their mouths by means of chopsticks ; but they state 
that so early as the fourth day, some of the British who were 
with them subjected to these tortures, became first delirious, 
then unconscious, and finally were by death released from their 
terrible sufferings. 

About the same time, having visited the French hospital, I 
was permitted to examine one of the soldiers there whose 
injuries, inflicted while he was a prisoner of the Chinese, were 



CHINESE CRUELTY TO PRISONERS. 437 

of a nature precisely similar to those observed in the Seikhs ; 
and the account given by him of the tortures to which he was 
subjected, tallied in all respects with that given by our own 
black troops, as now related. 

As a matter of history connected with the miserable fate of 
our countrymen who, during the late campaign, fell into the 
hands of the Chinese, the following account is transcribed from 
the medical report of the regiment of Fane's Horse. According 
to this report, " nine were all who returned of the number 
taken by treachery on the 18th of September; one European 
officer, the adjutant, and eight men, having died from ill treat- 
ment and starvation." 

The narrative of the men who escaped is full of horrible 
details'of barbarous treatment. It seems that on the second 
day of their capture, the prisoners had their hands bound by 
cords behind their backs, and these attached to their feet, which 
had likewise been bound ; they were thus huddled four or five 
together into carts capable -of containing conveniently but two, 
and these driven at a rapid pace over very rough roads through 
hills during the whole of the night. On arrival in the morning 
at some of the Chinese fortified forts, the prisoners were thrown, 
bound as they were, into small, filthy rooms, and then had 
heavy chains placed upon their necks. 

For the first few days, little or no food was given to them . 
Scalding hot water was offered to them as drink, and cold water 
poured upon the cords around their wrists to tighten them. 
They were left amidst all the filth that accumulated around 

them. 

The tightened ends of the limbs soon mortified, and worms 
fast generating in myriads crawled about their bodies without 
the prisoners having the power to get rid of them, or hindering 
them from entering their mouths, nose, ears, &c, and on their 
requesting assistance from their attendants, asking for food or 
drink, they were maltreated by kicks and blows. 

Here I have given the account by one of the sufferers him- 
self • 1 have given the official account of the sufferings of one 
portion of the prisoners, and leave them to produce their own 
impressions upon the reader. 

Among the " distinguished visitors " to this hospital was the 



438 HOSPITALS AND MISSIONS. 

Roman Catholic Bishop of Pekin, whose personal history is one 
of great interest. The Roman Catholic cathedral, which has 
existed at that city during upwards of 200 years, was, hy orders 
of the Chinese government, closed about twenty-seven years 
ago, since which time persecution has been enforced there 
against Christians. The bishop has, notwithstanding the dan- 
gers by which he was surrounded, remained in the capital 
receiving protection from his own proselytes ; and on the city 
being occupied by the allies, he had the great satisfaction of 
reopening, -in person and with great solemnity, the cathedral 
that had during so long a time been closed. The treaty now 
allows freedom of opinion in matters of religion to all nations. 

The worthy old man has been summoned to Paris, whither he 
is now travelling; and has so long worn the dress of the 
Chinese, and spoken their language, that he looks now like one 
of themselves. His features of course indicate to the careful 
observer their western character ; and the golden chain around 
his neck, from which is suspended a crucifix, indicates the sacred 
nature of his vocation. 

In concluding this brief chapter, it may not be altogether out 
of place, if I add one or two remarks in regard to hospitals in 
connection with mission schemes. It is almost needless for me 
to state in this place, that the one established by us had no con- 
nection with any religious sect or denomination. It mattered 
not to us what was the particular belief or superstition of our 
patients. It was sufficient to us that they were sick, or suffering 
from some bodily injury. Some missionaries did, I believe, 
find their way into the establishment, and it is for us to hope 
that their visits were not unattended by success. From what I 
did observe, however, at this hospital, and learned from .some of 
our countrymen on the spot, who were able to converse in the 
native language, I am convinced that the establishment of hos- 
pitals for the treatment of sick in China, as a means of convert- 
ing the natives of that country to Christianity is not calculated 
to be successful. 

By means of our surgery, as by the introduction of any of our 
other sciences, we pave the way for the introduction of our phi- 
losophy and religion ; but to endeavour to bring about the con- 
version of a native while he is helpless, prostrated by disease or 



HOSPITALS AND MISSIONS. 439 

accident, for the treatment of which alone he considers that he 
was brought to hospital, looks in his eyes and in those of his 
countrymen, very much like taking an advantage of him. I am 
fully aware how delicate is the nature of the question upon which 
I now touch. Every man has a right to hold his own opinions 
upon it, as upon all others ; and while I express mine, those of 
my readers who differ from me are no doubt quite justified in 
doing so. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

NAGASAKI. 

Remarks on Nagasaki, in regard to its eligibility as a Sanitarium for our troops 
employed in China. 

No view that ever I remember to have seen was at the time 
of witnessing it so delightful, or has left upon my mind so 
pleasant a recollection as that obtained from the deck of her 
Majesty's gunboat, " Slaney," with her head down stream, and 
steam at full power, as we took through binoculars a last fond 
look at that most filthy of filthy Chinese cities, Tein-tsin. 

The morning of our departure (10th October) was in every 
way propitious; the atmosphere cool enough to be agreeable, 
and the sky sufficiently cloudy to permit us to keep our eyes 
open without risk of being dazzled. The temperature in the 
open air had, during the previous night, descended to 45° Fahr. 
It was at 8 a.m. 55°, the wet bulb of the thermometer 
indicating at the same time 49° ; thus the initiated in matters 
meteorological will understand that the morning was not only 
" balmy" but bracing. 

To start " homeward bound" from a hateful place is a luxury 
too great to be of frequent occurrence in the career of many 
people either in the public service or out of it. Places that 
merit such an epithet seldom, alas ! permit the sojourner in 
them to take his departure in a state of health such as to render 
him capable of enjoying anything — even the act of leaving; the 
more, therefore, ought the event to be appreciated and enjoyed 
by those who have had the rare good fortune to bring away 
with them an even tolerably unimpaired constitution. 



NAGASAKI. 441 

This was happily the case with the majority of the party on 
board, of which I formed one ; yet a strange dread seemed to 
take possession of us that something or other might happen to 
oblige us to return to the place which had already begun to 
become indistinct in the distance : telegraphs we knew there 
were none : all was peace at the capital, or if not, report had 
declared that the call there was " Peace, peace." No smoke or 
flame shot up into the air from Tein-tsin to indicate that the 
city had suddenly become a blaze ; there was, in fact, nothing 
to justify the dread we all experienced. There it was, neverthe- 
less ; the fact was, our luck was almost too good to be at once 
realised : we had no little difficulty in getting ourselves fully to 
understand that we were really and unmistakeably off. 

As if to tamper with our fears, the "Slaney" insisted once 01 
twice in running straight into and becoming for a time embeddec 
in the soft, muddy banks at the more tortuous parts of thai 
peculiarly tortuous river, the Peiho. This was not the fault of 
the "Slaney ;" the river was narrow, the stream always strong, 
and the tide running down literally like a sluice. The detention 
on these occasions was only for a few minutes ; but during these 
few minutes a cold thrill came over us, as we thought of the bare 
possibility that we might become fairly grounded, and have to 
go back agaiu by land to Tein-tsin. 

But no such horrible consummation awaited us. On the 
contrary, our passage down the river was most propitious, and 
at a not very late hour the same evening we found ourselves on 
board H.M.S. "Vulcan," which vessel lay at anchor off the 
now famous Taku forts. 

A few days were allowed to pass before the "Vulcan" was 
quite ready to commence her journey. At last, on the morning 
of the 14th, steam was got up, the screw was in motion, the 
anchor raised, and our voyage fairly begun. I got up to see the 
vessel start, and take a look at the neighbourhood of a place I 
have characterised as the most hated of all in which it has been 
my lot to serve. 

Much to the pleasure of the party on board the "Vulcan," 
the stock of coals in possession was declared too small to take the 
vessel on to Hong Kong ; it therefore became necessary to put 
in at one of the nearest ports of Japan, in order to replenish our 



442 NAGASAKI. 

stock of fuel ; for among the many valuable mineral productions 
of Japan, coal of excellent quality is not the least important. 
Nagasaki was the most convenient port for us to touch at, and 
towards Nagasaki was the "Vulcan" steered. 

The weather with which we were favored was in every way 
charming, the temperature such that we were able to enjoy 
being on deck during the greater part of the day ; not that there 
was much for us to look at, for during our passage across to 
Japan no vessel save our own was visible j trade has not yet 
dotted the ocean in these regions with ships, as is the case over 
the greater part of the world, neither did any necessity exist for 
a large naval fleet to scour these waters. Thus, as we sped along, 
there was in reality very little to attract our attention ; yet all 
was not barren. 

On the 17th of the month, when about midway between Fou 
Chansoo, on the coast of China, and the point of the Corea, 
noted on charts as Basil's Bay, we were not a little surprised to 
find the vessel passing through lines of what was evidently a 
species of gulf weed. In general appearance it was but slightly 
different from Sargossa weed ; like it, it occurred in lines which 
stretched at intervals along the surface of the sea in a direction 
nearly north and south. These lines were not continuous ; they 
were frequently interrupted, and the intervals between the 
different ones were much greater than what is the case in the 
neighbourhood of the western islands. 

The paucity of birds, either on the coast or inland in China, 
has already been remarked upon. From the time that we left 
the Gulf of Pecheli, until we reached Japan, except on one 
occasion, we saw none of the feathered tribes ; this occasion 
happened on the 19th, when we were off the island of Quelpart: 
a brisk gale had shortly before set in, the force of which had no 
doubt swept some of the land birds to greater or smaller distance 
from the shore : one of these, a kite, crossed our course ; it had 
in all probability been blown away, either from Japan or the 
southern part of the Corea, and from the point at which we saw 
the creature, not a less distance than three hundred miles lay 
between it and the nearest point of land in the direction in which 
it was proceeding ; that is, the neighbourhood of the mouth of 
the Yangtse Kiang. 



NAGASAKI. 443 

Continuing our progress, we passed in succession within sight 
of the rocks called Maek Zema and the "Asses' Ears;" for be it 
observed, there are asses' ears in the neighbourhood of Japan, 
as well as near Hong Kong. During the 22nd we passed close 
to the Pallas rocks, and early in the afternoon of the same date 
were abreast of Cape Gotto. The land ahead did not become 
visible until late in the evening; the night was fortunately 
clear ; thus Captain Strode was able to " make the harbour " 
without waiting for daylight. Continuing, therefore, to steam 
onwards, we entered one of the most exquisite inlets to be found 
throughout the world, and shortly after midnight anchored off 
the Town of Nagasaki, at a distance of not more than a mile 
and a half from the landing-place. The town was distinctly 
visible in the bright moonlight, which was everywhere reflected 
from the light-grey roofs of the houses. A long straight line 
of lights along the shore, and so close to the water as to be 
reflected from its surface, indicated the position of the foreign 
settlement ; for although this port has been but very recently 
opened, many of the principal mercantile establishments in 
China have either established branch houses here, or are em- 
ployed in so doing. 

Around us on every side a succession of hills of various sizes 
reared their conical summits, some to a height of 800, others to 
1400 feet ; the harbour was, in fact, completely land-locked ; 
its smooth, glass-like surface literally glistened under the 
almost cloudless sky, and would have reminded us of a highland 
lake, were it not for the circumstance that it was dotted by 
several vessels of different sizes. 

We were all aware that our stay must be very limited. Deter- 
mined, therefore, to make the most of our time, we were on the 
move early in the morning, that is, we were on deck with the 
"first dawn of day ; a heavy fog at that hour hung thick upon 
the harbour, rendering it impossible for us to see further than 
a very few yards on either side of where we lay at anchor. 
Gradually the morning became more and more clear ; then we 
could see that the rays of the early sun were struggling to 
penetrate the curtain of vapour in which we were enveloped, 
and, after a httle, as it became dissipated by the increasing 
warmth, one portion after another of it disappeared, revealing, 



444 NAGASAKI. 

as it dissolved, some successive pieces of scenery, each more 
beautiful than another, until, as the whole cleared off, a pan- 
orama was seen to stretch around us, so magnificent, so exquisite, 
as far to surpass anything we had ever before beheld. It was, 
indeed, difficult to say whether the scene was most beautiful as 
viewed in the pale moonlight, as when we first beheld it, or now, 
as revealed by the gradually dispelled mist. Altogether, 
whether as seen by night or by day, it seemed to us as if in 
natural loveliness it could scarcely be equalled, but certainly 
nowhere surpassed. We had heard so much about the peculiar 
loveliness of the harbour of Nagasaki, that we were prepared to 
be lost in admiration of it, but it most assuredly had not 
entered into our minds to conceive the remarkable succession 
of beauties that now everywhere riveted our attention. 

For the sake of continuity in my brief narrative, I may now 
conveniently record my impressions of the approach to the 
harbour as seen in daylight, for, much to my regret, as well as 
that of all on board, the operation of taking in coals was per- 
formed with an alacrity to us most inconvenient. 

The approach is by an arm of the sea, which penetrates the 
south-western extremity of the island of Kin Sin to an extent 
of upwards of six miles. In its course it becomes more and 
more narrow, until at one point its entire breadth is not more 
than half a mile. From this point it takes a sudden bend, 
beginning to increase in width, until at a little distance it 
expands so as to form the beautiful and completely land-locked 
harbour that has just been faintly described. The extent of 
this sheet of water may be said to be about two miles in each 
direction. Its safety for shipping cannot be otherwise than 
perfect ; for the mountain ranges by which at an inconsiderable 
distance it is surrounded completely protect it from the effects 
of the numerous terrific hurricanes or typhoons by which the 
neighbouring seas are at certain seasons visited. 

On either side the whole length of the approach to this 
harbour is like it, bounded by a succession of hills, separated 
from each other, and split up by numerous narrow and deep 
valleys. The hills rise to various heights, from 500 to 800 
feet or upwards ; their abruptly sloping sides are formed by art 
into terraces, and these are green with cultivation. Clumps of 



NAGASAKI. 445 

forest trees occur at intervals ; on projecting ledges, on pinnacles 
of rock, in fact, on the most beautiful and romantic spots, 
villages or single houses are built, the material of which they 
consist being wood, their roofs made to slope towards either side, 
and formed by well-cut and regularly placed shingles. 

Upon all the most commanding points, well built and power- 
fully armed batteries are so placed as to sweep, if need be, any 
vessels that would attempt to enter. The majority of these 
guns are carefully protected by sheds of shingle built over them. 
It was an easy matter to see that they are of large calibre ; but 
we could not help remarking the strange anomaly that, not- 
withstanding the care evidently bestowed upon the erection of 
the batteries, upon their armament, and upon the preservation 
of their guns, no artillerymen could be detected, nor troops of 
any kind in their vicinity. That these batteries would prove 
most destructive, if properly worked, to vessels exposed to them 
was self-evident. It needed not, however, the eye of a com- 
batant military officer to perceive that, in the event of it ever 
becoming necessary for our troops to effect the possession of 
this portion of the Japan Empire, there would be little difficulty 
in landing and advancing in such a manner as to capture from 
the rear one battery after another, and finally to command 
Nagasaki from some of the mountain summits by which it is 
surrounded. 

On the north side of the entrance to the harbour, the preci- 
pitous island of Pappenberg rises as it were from the water. 
Two of its sides are formed by precipitous rocks ; the face of 
the cliflB in some parts two to three hundred feet in height, in 
others probably one half that amount. The height of the 
island itself is apparently eight to nine hundred feet ; its 
general form is conical, the summit culminates to a point, and, 
together with the sides, is covered partly by forest trees of large 
size, and partly by dense brushwood. A few houses of natives, 
such as those already alluded to, are built along the base and 
on the sides of the island, and we are informed that no foreigner 
is permitted to ascend it. 

A melancholy interest attaches to this island. From the 
summit of the rocks that form its sides, tied hand and foot, 
were thrown, nearly two hundred years ago, the Roman 



446 NAGASAKI. 

Catholic population, and thus Christianity extirpated from 
Japan. It was a fearful fate. Having heen removed'£to the 
island, they were, it is said, kept there for a short time, and 
then, when the ebb tide had left bare many of the rocks at the 
base — they were cast headlong from tbe cliff, and, as they 
reached the bottom, were dashed to pieces. 

And now I will endeavour to convey some idea of the view 
obtained in broad daylight from our anchorage, placed as we 
were close to the very centre of the harbour. On the side of 
the harbour, directly opposite to the town of Nagasaki, a series 
of water-worn rocks rose to a considerable height. Following 
with the eye the coast-line, hill and valley succeeded each other. 
The recesses that separated and divided the mountain masses 
were variously occupied, some by villages, others by single 
houses, some by cultivation, and one or two of the most pic- 
turesque, by burial-grounds, for here, as in China, the people 
evidently choose such places with reference to their beauties of 
scenery. Here too, as we had already observed at Cheefoo, 
the graveyards are readily distinguished from a considerable 
distance by the upright stones and pillars that mark the resting 
place of individual dead. At the bottom of one of the valleys 
were two objects that spoke of the industry and ingenuity of 
the west, rather than the exclusiveness of the east ; of these 
one was a large coal dep6t, where that mineral production was 
collected and supplied to vessels requiring it ; the other was a 
steam factory, built upon the ordinary plan so familiar to us at 
home ; and adjoining it was a building yard for vessels of small 
size. Beyond these, and still near the shore, a succession of 
low wooden houses, of square form and one storey in height, all 
of a slate blue colour appeared among clusters of trees in 
various nooks and crannies, whose occurrence had doubtless 
been increased in frequency by the volcanic operations which in 
bygone times gave to the mountains here their distinctive look, 
and which still happen with a frequency unequalled in any 
other part of the world. 

Terraces, rising as it were one above the other, and separated 
by hedges of brushwood, occupied the sloping sides of the less 
precipitous hills ; on the sides of others, evidently too barren for 
the purposes of cultivation, rocks and boulders, a few forest trees 



NAGASAKI. 447 

or sedgy-looking herbage, were alone seen. On our right was 
Desima, that is the town which has of late obtained the name of 
Nagasaki, from its position at the inland extremity of a " long 
cape," of which that in the Japanese tongue is the appellation. 
This town, which contains a population of seventy thousand, 
occupies an open space between the mountain blocks that rise 
on the eastern side of the harbour. The site from the shore to 
the mountain face slopes gently towards the former. There the 
principal streets occur, but at intervals up to some distance on 
the adjoining hills, buildings of different kinds have been erected. 
From the anchorage an excellent view of the whole is obtained, 
and the striking effect produced is quite in keeping with all that 
has been already said in regard to the beauty of the neighbour- 
hood generally. 

At the southern part of the town is the new foreign settle- 
ment ; and here, with the energy peculiar to British, buildings 
were being erected, an esplanade prepared, roads being made, 
hollows filled up, and projecting ledges of rock blown to 
pieces, in order that sites might be made for houses intended to 
be built. 

Before proceeding to the town, I visited the steam factory on 
the opposite side of the harbour. Having landed at a well-built 
pier close to it, from a native boat, I walked, unmolested or unin- 
terrupted by any person, direct into the building. There steam 
machinery, such as we see in our dock-yards at home, but on a 
less considerable scale, was in full operation. Japanese work- 
men, under the superintendence of Dutch overseers, were busily 
engaged in manufacturing various pieces of mechanism suited to 
steam-engines and ship architecture. A small steamer, still on 
the stocks, was under the process of having steam-engines placed 
in her ; and these, I was informed had been all manufactured on 
the spot. Great, however, as was my surprise at this, it was 
considerably increased, when I learnt that among the steam- 
vessels in harbour was one, named the " Scotland," if I mistake 
not, that was manned and worked by Japanese alone. 

Among other articles that were being made were axles, cranks, 
toothed wheels ; and as I walked through the factory escorted by 
one of the overseers, who, by the way, was most civil, he pointed 
out to me an object which he informed me was the model of a 



448 NAGASAKI. 

steam boiler which they had begun to forge for a large-sized 
vessel. 

The " timbers " of a second vessel were upon the " stocks " 
in the adjoining yard; but what seemed somewhat strange was 
the fact that no " slips " could anywhere be seen. How, then, 
are the vessels to be launched ? Most probably broadside on, as 
I believe our own Great Eastern was. 

I could not but be interested with my visit to an establish- 
ment of such a kind, and at such a place. In one portion of it 
were a series of smiths 5 forges, and there undressed to the waist, 
and with skins not darker than those of our own countrymen, 
were a number of Japanese hard at work, hammering and weld- 
ing huge pieces of iron as they were placed incandescent upon 
their anvils. 

Here, notwithstanding the reputed exclusiveness of the 
Japanese, I needed no introduction, nor did I go dressed in 
uniform. Civility on entering the door was returned by great 
civility by those within. If I was interested by what I saw, the 
workmen were evidently so also at seeing me look at and admire 
their handicrafts, and it was pressure of time alone that pre- 
vented me from prolonging my stay in what may be looked upon 
as one of the most remarkable establishments I had seen since 
leaving England. 

The principal landing-place to tbe town is at Desima, the 
small settlement to which the Dutch have hitherto been 
restricted being so called. This settlement is completely cut off 
from the Japanese portion of the town by a creek that surrounds 
it, and across which there is only one bridge. So particular 
were the native authorities to maintain perfect seclusion of the 
only foreigners who were permitted to reside in their vicinity, 
that if perchance a death or a birth was expected to happen 
among any of their own people who might temporarily have 
taken up their residence among the Dutch, the persons were 
hurried across the bridge with all possible speed, so that the 
interesting event might " come off " on the other ground than 
that occupied by a despised and hated race. 

Now, the buildings and streets of Desima are perfectly 
European in appearance. Here the principal shops, containing 
Japanese manufactures and ornaments, are situated, and her 



NAGASAKI. 449 

the enterprising visitor generally happens to part with a con- 
siderable amount of coin of the realm — that is, of the Japanese 
realm, for none other is received by the tradesmen, and to 
obtain it in substitution for dollars or sterling money is no easy 
matter. Unless at a ruinous loss by exchange, it is only to be 
done through the custom-house, where a per-centage is charged 
by the government officials, and it is said, plated copper itze- 
bues are sometimes slily mixed with those of the more costly 
metal. 

"We soon found shopping in Desima to be a very different 
matter from shopping anywhere else that we had ever been. 
Vendors in most places usually display some anxiety to allure 
purchasers ; not so here ; a shopkeeper treats an intending pur- 
chaser with the greatest nonchalance. Perhaps he does not even 
rise or move from the mat-covered dais, upon which as a rule 
they sit. Perhaps, indeed, no salesman is in attendance. He 
may have gone out to see a friend, or may have gone into the 
country ; he has left no substitute. You feel there are a score of 
things at his particular stall or shop you would wish to purchase ; 
nobody, however, knows what is their price — no one is author- 
ised to sell them. You have only a short time to be on shore ; 
your ship sails early in the morning, and, consequently, your 
most envied Japan " curio " must be left behind, to fall into the 
possession of some one more fortunate than you. 

There is another peculiarity, however, by which the shop- 
keepers of this part of Japan are distinguished from their 
fraternity in many places ; this is, their honesty. You as a 
stranger having effected a purchase in their shops, may safely 
leave your property with them, and obtain it when, at the end 
of the day's excursion, you are returning to your vessel. More- 
over, if you happen to forget any article in a shop, you will be 
reminded of it by the shopkeeper. This at least was my own 
experience. 

The native town is spread over a great extent of ground. This 
is caused by the circumstance that none of the dwelling-houses 
seem to consist of more than a ground-floor and upper story. 
The streets are wide, and well paved ; at intervals they are inter- 
rupted by creeks, some being occasioned by the streams that 
pour down from the neighbouring mountains ; others are in the 



450 NAGASAKI. 

form of canals communicating with the harbour, and these are 
densely covered by boats and other small craft. 

Across these are excellent stone -arched bridges, and they 
form some of the principal emporiums for the sale of small arti- 
cles, from oranges and radishes to ornaments of great beauty 
and ingenuity ; but at the same time, of other specimens of art 
so objectionable in the estimation of those who have had the 
advantage of education according to the poorer taste of the west, 
that they cannot be casually looked at without producing a 
feeling of disgust. 

In what seems to be the principal street of the native town, 
almost every house in it is fitted up for the purposes of trade in 
some form or other. Here there are drapers' shops, silk 
merchants' shops, bakers' shops, clothiers', goldsmiths', book- 
sellers', old curiosity shops, modern curiosity shops ; in fact, all 
those that are usually found in large towns elsewhere. There 
was one description of shop wanting, however, and it would be 
well were our town authorities in England to take an example 
from the Japanese in this one respect, if in none other. There 
were no butchers' stalls in the principal thoroughfare to offend 
either the sight or smell of the passengers. Shops of this de- 
scription were situated in the less frequented parts of the town. 

The general plan upon which the houses were built presented 
scarcely any variety. They consisted in the first place of a 
nearly square " shell." The ground floor was divided by a 
partition into one large apartment, which faced towards the 
street, and a corresponding one which opened into a back yard. 
In the latter, the kitchen or cooking room and various smaller 
apartments were formed by means of cross partitions, and at one 
end was a passage by means of which access was readily ob- 
tained to the premises in the rear. The front room was that in 
which the articles for sale were usually displayed. Here upon 
shelves and upon stands, made somewhat after the manner of 
flower-stands usually found in English conservatories, various 
articles of merchandise, some of which were for the purpose of 
usefulness, others of mere ornament, were displayed, and all 
arranged with great artistic taste for effect. The upper story 
was usually divided into a greater number of small apartments, 
some of which were used aa " show rooms," others were the 



NAGASAKI. 451 

private apartments belonging to the family. A narrow, and to 
our notions somewhat awkward, straight stair communicated 
with the ground floor ; it in all cases consisted of highly scented 
pine wood, and was beautifully clean. The majority of these 
houses are somewhat raised by a basement of mason work ; their 
walls and roofs, however, are in almost all formed of deals, so 
that the first impression we receive on entering the town is 
somewhat strange, as we look upon a succession of streets, the 
houses of which are really little more than wooden huts. Timber 
is evidently very abundant in the island ; and in a climate like 
that of Kin Sin, where great extremes of temperature do not 
occur, the necessity for houses of more substantial materials does 
not seem to exist. A stranger would, on entering the town, 
naturally think that fires must be here of every-day occurrence, 
and fearfully destructive. Such, however, it appears is not the 
case ; on the contrary, they are extremely rare, and, from the 
great abundance of water throughout the town, are speedily got 
under. It must be remembered, however, that here grates and 
fire-places such as we are accustomed to, are not known. The 
operation of cooking is far less complicated than with us, and 
when artificial warmth is desired in any of the private apart- 
ments, a chauffer containing a few pieces of burning charcoal, 
placed on the middle of the floor, is all that is ever used. 

Chairs and stools, although not actually dispensed with, are 
not much used here. The floors in most instances are deemed 
sufficient for the purposes of these, as well as for couch and bed. 
Carpets are not used, but, in their stead, a material which to 
elegance adds the advantage of great cleanliness and comfort. 

The actual flooring consists of deal boards from the scented 
pine-wood of the country, all being well fitted and neatly 
finished. In the private apartments of houses, and sometimes 
also in the public rooms, the floors are not left bare. They are 
covered by beautifully neat pieces of smooth and fine matting, 
these being stretched upon a framework made of tolerably thick 
bundles of elastic reeds, firmly secured side by side, and cut 
into regular shapes according to the size of the room. These, 
when placed, fit to one another with great precision, give to the 
room an appearance of tidiness that must be seen to be fully 
realised, and as we walk upon them, convey a feeling of springi- 



452 NAGASAKI. 

ness to the foot such as the most costly Turkey carpets could 
not produce. Nor is it less pleasant to sit upon them ; they act 
as cushions ; and as in every room, odd-looking contrivances of 
reed, matting, or hamhoo, are to be found, which we were in- 
formed were used as pillows, a Japanese may at any time trans- 
form the floor of his house into a bed. 

In the early morning the frames of matting are generally 
removed, well cleaned, and placed outside the door to be aired. 
The floors are carefully washed, and then allowed to dry. This 
operation does not usually occupy much time ; the mats are 
then replaced, and thus the houses made to have a look of 
cleanliness that might be the envy of the most tidy of English 
matrons. Here as in India, men and women before entering 
a room deposit their shoes at the door ; all the more respectable 
classes wear neatly made, and always clean stockings, which 
have this peculiarity that they have a separate division for the 
big toe, the more readily to give support to their sandal-like 
shoes, which are secured upon them by means of ornamented 
cords or " stays" made so as to unite the sole, with a cross 
support which stretches over the instep. It thus becomes an 
easy matter to slip their feet from these " shoes/' so that 
scrapers, rugs, and door-mats are here unnecessary. 

It was not alone the apartments of the houses that were 
pictures of neatness ; the back yards of all were in these respects 
perfect patterns. Here was always to be found a miniature 
garden, surrounded by a carefully trimmed hedge, although the 
entire extent was restricted to a few yards. Ornamental flower 
plots interspersed with the more elegant shrubs ; artificial minia- 
ture rock scenery, with pagodas, temples, and other buildings, 
in bronze or stone, were common ornaments, dwarfed shrubs of 
various sorts growing from some fragments of these diminutive 
mountain cliffs, in a manner most wonderful to us, who failed to 
discover a particle of soil from which either nourishment or 
support could be obtained. 

In another part was artificial lake scenery ; an island being in 
these instances an invariable feature in the centre, although 
the whole might be included in an extent of less than two yards. 
On the island were placed plants peculiar to corresponding 
positions on the natural scale ; in one or two instances a miniature 



NAGASAKI. 453 

bridge connected this with the " shore ;" and from the summit 
of the island rose a jet d'eau, which fell back in spray upon, 
preserving fresh and healthy, the plants underneath. Gold and 
silver fish were evidently great favorites : numbers of these 
little creatures swarm about the little tanks ; in others there was 
a description of animal far less attractive in appearance, yet 
interesting in its habits. This was the peculiar kind of sala- 
mander some years ago sent home to this country by Dr. or 
Colonel Siebold — for by both these titles is that gentleman known 
at Nagasaki, and figured in the ' Illustrated London News.' 
Ugly and repulsive as the creature is, it is evidently an especial 
favorite here, although in its habits there was no especial 
characteristic apparent, except a marked dislike to be interfered 
with or handled. 

Most unfortunately the time of my visit to this most won- 
derful and interesting of all places was extremely limited. 
Resolved to see as much as possible, I dispensed with all unne- 
cessary ceremony, and with memorandum book in hand, rushed 
recklessly from house to house, up stairs, down stairs, through 
back premises, and among the " show rooms," in a manner that 
cannot possibly be comprehended by him who only knows the 
aboriginal Briton as that animal is to be met with under the 
cold, rigid conventionalism of Saxon land. What, it will be 
asked, were you not knocked down, apprehended, given over to 
the police ? My good sir, or madam, as the case may be, the 
ways of the Japanese are not as your ways would probably be 
under similar circumstances. They are a cheerful, jolly, good- 
humoured people, such as I have never elsewhere met with ; 
they took me for neither a thief nor a burglar, but for what I 
was, a foreigner whose time was restricted, and who in as good- 
humoured a way as he possibly could, was, with no sinister 
intention whatever, hunting for information in regard to the 
place and people. 

On several occasions, by my sudden appearance in the 
kitchen, I disconcerted for a moment the fair denizens of that 
part of the establishment. It was only for a moment, however ; 
but then, instead of having abuse and bad language hurled at 
me, as would probably be the case had the fair ones been 
" Christians," I was saluted on all sides by smiles and titters. 
It was evidently looked upon by the occupants as a good joke 



454 NAGASAKI. 

to be thus disconcerted; and as I continued my further ex- 
amination, the retinue by which I was attended usually increased. 
To communicate by speech was utterly impossible ; a few ideas 
were, however, exchanged by pantomime; and it soon became 
evident, that prudishness is not among the faults or virtues of 
the " weaker vessels" of Nagasaki. 

In one of the houses that I entered in the unceremonious 
manner just related, I observed off one of the public rooms in 
which articles of trade were exposed, an extremely neat and 
elegantly furnished apartment. The door was open ; in fact, I 
am not sure that any of the houses here have doors with hinges 
and locks like ours ; at least, I have not met with any. Entering 
this little boudoir, the doorway being at one end I did not at 
first see that I was intruding upon two of the ladies of the 
family, who however got up, as I entered, from the mat upon 
which they were sitting. They had evidently been about 
to commence dinner, which meal was ready laid out before them. 

The table was neatly lacquered — not more than six to eight 
inches high from the floor, and scarcely two feet square; a 
series of bowls of the ordinary form, but highly ornamented with 
paintings ; a few similarly ornamented minute cups for "sakee,"* 
and some chop-sticks, constituted the entire "service." The 
bowls contained in neatly arranged piles the articles for the 
intended repast, among some of which I recognised preserved 
fruits, water-lily root, beet root, rice, and fish, all divided into 
small morsels, and arranged with apparent reference to harmo- 
nious blending of colours. 

What would the ladies of some western countries that could 
be named have done under similar circumstances ? "Would they 
have screamed for paterfamilias, or, in the absence of that 
revered worthy, have rung the bell for " John," that he might 
forthwith eject "the horrid man?" 

The Japanese representative of the former was down stairs, 
but the ladies were evidently more inclined to practise hos- 

* " Sakee " in Japanese, is evidently a generic name for " liquor" in general ; 
thus, on dining, as I had the pleasure of doing with the consul, I found that, 
according to individual tastes of the guests, the native servants were requested 
by our hospitable entertainer to help them to " sherry -sakee," "beer-sakee" 
"champagne-sakee," &c, just as in India they would be invited to take " sherry - 
shrab," " beer-shrab," " Simpkin-shrab," and so on. 



NAGASAKI. 455 

pitality, and have " a little bit of fun/' than to throw themselves 
into hysterics, make a scene, and finally expel poor me neck 
and crop from the premises. Little persuasion was necessary 
to induce me to squat down upon the soft mat, dispose of my 
" understandings" in any way most convenient, and, in fact, 
form one of this family dinner-party. It certainly is not usual 
with Englishmen to be waited upon and pressed to eat at table 
by ladies, and these ladies young, pretty, well dressed, and scru- 
pulously tidy — yet in such a delightful situation I now found 
myself to be. Each vied with the other in pressing upon my 
notice what they no doubt deemed to be the greatest delicacies. 
Unfortunately for me, however, there were neither knives nor 
forks upon the table — only chop -sticks. With these I endea- 
voured to grasp a tempting morsel of lily root, but alas ! alas ! 
my art failed me when in sorest need, the chop-sticks twisted 
themselves by some extraordinary means completely out of 
my fingers, and the lily-root, instead of being quietly depo- 
sited in my mouJ;h as intended, made a " cannon" straight off 
one of my fair entertainers on to the floor. Thus ended my 
attempts at making a Japanese dinner. My awkwardness 
afforded great amusement, and with much laughing and giggling, 
and bowing, and shaking hands, for we speedily advanced even to 
that degree of intimacy, we parted. 

One short paragraph about the tea of Japan, before I pass on 
to the consideration of other matters. The description of leaf 
used in private families here is in general appearance very 
similar to green tea y its infusion is as pale as the brightest 
descriptions of sherry, but its aroma extremely fragrant, leaving 
upon the palate a peculiar delicate flavour for some time after it 
has been drunk. To the uninitiated this peculiar flavour is 
perhaps too delicate ; but I can vouch for the fact that the 
palate speedily appreciates it so highly, that even China tea 
tastes coarse. I doubt not, therefore, that before long Japan 
tea will become a great favorite in England. 
' A curious Japanese institution is the bath. Much has lately 
been said, and a good deal written, in regard to it. To one of 
these places we accordingly bent our steps, and found admission 
easy, for the door of the only apartment of which the establish- 
ment consisted was open to the street. Entering, we were at 
once introduced to the mysteries of the place. In the centre of 



456 NAGASAKI. 

a large, empty -looking apartment, the floor of which was formed 
of split bamboos, placed side by side, so as to readily permit 
water to go through between them, a stout, rather young, but 
not particularly handsome woman, squatted upon the floor. Her 
costume was none other than what, according to a well-known 
conundrum, constituted Eve's wedding garment, and close to 
her, in similar costume, was her child, who appeared to be 
probably two years of age. It was evident that both had but just 
come out of the compartment of the bath which stood at one 
side of the room, and was now empty. Several men, apparently 
belonging to the establishment, stood about the room, carelessly 
smoking their neat, small pipes, and indulging in what may have 
been gossip, or may have been politics. They took no particular 
notice of the woman, nor she of them. She was intent upon 
drying herself and her infant ; but it must be confessed, that no 
sooner did she obtain a glimpse of myself and companion, than 
she quickly threw her clothes over her person. We were in- 
formed that of late — that is, since the ports were opened to 
foreigners — numbers of people of all classes from on board ship 
have rushed to establishments such as this, and have behaved 
with such rudeness that the women now endeavour to flee from 
them if possible. 

In a second compartment of the same bath, from which she 
had just come, a man was busily engaged scrubbing himself. 
The water he used was so warm that a steam arose from it, and 
from its frothy look, soap appeared also to be used. I observed 
that what we had heard of men and women bathing together 
here, is only true with certain limitations. It is no doubt bad 
enough, according to our ideas, that they undress in the presence 
of each other, and enter the same " bath ;" but the fact must 
be stated that this bath consists of a large, deep, broad trough, 
across which partitions are placed, so as to divide it into two or 
more compartments, and thus the bathers are partially separated 
from each other while performing their ablutions. 

The streets were crowded by people of all classes, ages, and of 
both sexes. All seemed of much fairer complexion than that of 
the natives of North China but with the distinctive features 
which at once separate them from the people of that country. 
The lower part of the face is, as it were, more drawn forward 
than the Chinese ; the nose longer, and more prominent ; and the 



NAGASAKI. 457 

breadth of the face apparently not so great. These impressions 
are, however, only those that struck me from casually looking at 
them, and are not given as scientifically correct. 

As a class the people, both men and women, are decidedly 
small in stature, but well made, and apparently of great activity. 
The majority of the males were armed, some with two swords, 
others with only one. We had been told sad tales in reference 
to the readiness with which the people make use of their 
weapons, and had at first been led to believe that our excursions 
on shore were by no means devoid of danger. In our progress 
along the streets, however, we were agreeably surprised to find 
that not only was civility shown to us by all whom we met, but 
that cheerfulness and extreme politeness between acquaintances 
among the natives themselves when they accidentally met, were 
carried to a degree that might with great advantage be intro- 
duced into towns considerably nearer home. Happiness was 
evident in the expression of all whom we met. They had evi- 
dently abundance to eat, abundance of clothes to wear, and, 
notwithstanding the uncertain tenure which people here are 
sometimes said to have of their own heads, none of those whom 
we met indicated, by their demeanour or expression, that they 
then entertained any particular doubts upon this subject. 

The absolute want of wheeled carriages on the streets struck 
us as remarkable. A few horses we did see ; but according to 
our ideas they were poor and wretched in appearance. In size 
they were small, not unlike Highland ponies ; like them, too, they 
were shaggy, with long hair. The saddles upon them were of a 
somewhat peculiar shape, being very high, after the manner of 
those of Tartary. These horses are not shod as ours are ; the 
rough and rocky nature of the roads would speedily destroy their 
hoofs unless protected by some means. Accordingly, a sole-piece 
is made of reed or grass, and secured upon the feet by attached 
strings. These prevent the horses from sliding upon the rocky 
paths that communicate with the interior ; but, as might be 
expected, "shoes" of so perishable a description have very 
frequently to be changed. 

Extending our walk to some little distance along one of the 
narrow roads that wind along the face of the hill that rises 
immediately in rear of the town, we followed for a little way a 
mountain stream that came rushing down a bed which it had in 



458 NAGASAKI. 

many places evidently excavated for itself. Much to our 
surprise, we soon came to a mill, with the water- wheel moved hy 
the water of the stream, just as at home. And yet, there was 
after all nothing in this to cause surprise. People here must 
have eaten ground grain probably as long as have those of our 
own country, and this want must have in both places dictated 
the readiest means of supplying it. The fact is, however, we 
often experience surprise when in foreign countries we do not 
meet with contrivances which at home we had been taught to 
look upon as indispensable, and then, when we do find similar 
contrivances to those with which we had been previously familiar, 
we experience wonder also. 

Situated upon sites along this path, well chosen with reference 
to scenic effect, were several Buddhist temples and grave-yards. 
The former of these were evidently extremely well kept ; their 
furniture was costly in kind, and showed that much art and 
taste had been bestowed upon its manufacture. Both the archi- 
tecture of these temples and the manner in which they were 
fitted up showed that they were much better cared for, and 
altogether upon a style far superior to what we had been accus- 
tomed to see in China. What struck us as somewhat strange, 
however, was the circumstance that the two or three that were 
visited by us were shut. The doors were locked and barred ; 
the only way by which we could obtain a glimpse of the interior 
being through the open trellis work that in some places formed 
the only front the dwellings had. In general style they were 
somewhat similar to those that have been elsewhere mentioned 
as having been seen at Cheefoo, and, like those at that place, were 
built of stone and mortar. It would appear, indeed, that 
Buddhism is almost the only form of religious belief professed by 
the Japanese, if it be not the only one ; but if we could judge 
by the appearance of the approaches to the temples, they were 
not much worn by worshippers. And neither priests nor devotees 
crossed our path while we remained on shore, at least none who 
wore a distinctive style of dress, as is often the case with eccle- 
siastics in other parts of the world. 

In some of the grave-yards we were not a little surprised to 
find a number of young women busily occupied playing at ball, 
some of the open spaces around the upright grave-stones, such as 
have been already alluded to, having been used for this purpose. 



NAGASAKI. 459 

The climate, at the time of my visit, namely, towards the 
latter end of October, was remarkably agreeable, the temperature 
so moderate that, without inconvenience, we were able to walk 
about during the whole day, without the necessity for any pro- 
tection from the rays of the sun. It does not appear that any 
extended series of meteorological observations have been in- 
stituted at Nagasaki; from various sources, however, I learn 
that the maximum summer heat does not exceed 88° Fahr. in 
the shade, and the cold does not descend below that sufficient 
for the formation of hoar frost. The atmosphere contains a 
moderate amount of moisture, but, so far as can be learned, the 
climate does not merit the character of a particularly moist one. 

A copy of the 'Nagasaki Shipping List and Advertiser' 
having fallen into my hands, I transcribe therefrom the only 
series of observations on the climate that it has been my fortune 
to meet with. These were taken in the month of July, 1861, 
the thermometer being placed in a verandah having a westerly 
exposure, and consequently showing a higher range than it 
would have done had it faced the north, as is usually the 
case. 



Date. 


8 A.M. 


Noon. 


8 P.M. 


Wind and sky. 


July 1 


80 


83 


80 


South-west, cloudy 


„ 2 


8.2 


84 


80 


South-west — 


» 3 


80 


87 


82 


Calm, clear. 


n 4 


80 


87 


80 


South-west, clear. 


» 5 


83 


87 


80 


Cloudy and rain. 


„ 6 


80 


83 


81 


Calm, rain. 


„ 7 


81 


84 


83 


South-west, cloudy 


„ 8 


78 


85 


83 


— 


» 9 


82 


85 


83 


— 



These few observations are very imperfect, and have evidently 
been made by a person unaccustomed to such matters. They 
are in one respect valuable, however, in showing that in what is 
usually the hottest month throughout the year, the temperature 
here is really moderate. 

We learn that there are no such extremes of climate ex- 
perienced at Nagasaki as there are on the adjoining coast of 
China, and we are informed that this arises from a cause of an 
analogous nature to that which gives to the British Isles their 



460 NAGASAKI. 

moderate summer heats, and comparatively mild winters. An 
off-shoot of the great equatorial oceanic current having passed 
upwards along the channel which separates Formoza from the 
main-land of China continues its course thence in a north-easterly 
direction to Nagasaki, and then from here onwards. Thus, it is 
to the island of Kin Sin much what the Gulf Stream is to the 
south of England. Japan is, in fact, in geographical position 
and its climate, much in the same relation to the eastern great 
continent what the British Isles are to the westeru, and it seems 
to me that this circumstance will sooner or later attract that 
importance which it deserves in reference to a station for ships 
of war and troops. 

A very few words must suffice regarding some of the natural 
productions of the place ; the remarks which follow being merely 
those that have occurred from a cursory and very hasty walk 
through the town and some parts of the country immediately 
adjoining it. 

Among the birds were to be noticed, so soon as daylight had 
fairly set in, numbers of rooks and kites starting off on their search 
after food. The latter, as they do in India, hovered throughout 
the day upon the rigging of our armed vessels in the harbour, 
sweeping down to pick up by means of the claw, garbage of 
different kinds that had been thrown into the water. No sooner 
do vessels come to anchor, than they are surrounded by native 
boats of various sizes, but all excellently built ; these are more 
or less loaded with various kinds of supplies, of which the most 
common seem to be fish of different species, eggs, and pork. 
Bread, in the form of small, tempting-looking loaves was also, as 
might be supposed, brought off in great quantities ; of vegetables 
and fruits the most common were leeks, sweet potatoes, and 
carrots. The fruits pitsimmon and pears ; the latter hard and in- 
sipid, as we had found those of the north of China to be. 

In the market were exposed for sale beef and mutton, the 
former abundant, and of excellent quality; the latter scarce. 
Sheep do not appear to thrive here ; yet with care there is every 
reason to believe that they might be reared. Pork and poultry 
of all kinds are very abundant ; game in great variety is met with 
exposed for sale in the market, and fish of a great many kinds in 
absolute profusion. It is right to observe, however, in reference 

4-n 4-l>/> fiol, 4l,„4 J4- io v^4- „1. „..-.,„ c,„f„ i~ :„J..l 1 1„ _■„ il 



NAGASAKI. 461 

at table; perhaps, indeed, the new arrival had better eschew 
them altogether for some little time. Some of our party in- 
dulged freely in them, when they first went on shore, but re- 
ceived such a lesson as in all likelihood will prevent them from 
a like imprudence in future. 

Aviaries were evidently great favorites. The side of one 
entire street was almost completely devoted to birds of different 
kinds, among which were fantailed pigeons, and a beautiful 
species of dove with a red bill, bantam fowls of the smallest 
size I have ever seen, golden and silver pheasants, Java spar- 
rows, avre-de-vats, and the familiar yellow canary. 

Of fruits, in addition to those already mentioned, there were 
tomatoes, oranges, cumquats, and shaddocks. The loquat also 
was exposed for sale, and this usually delicious fruit looked per- 
haps the most tempting of the whole. Chestnuts there also 
were in abundance, and they the largest and finest I had ever 
seen, and pomegranates, although in no great quantity, were also 
to be met with at fruiterers' stalls. 

During a short walk in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
town, I met with many plants that were familiar to me ; many 
others, however, I regret to say, were perfect strangers. The 
" fresh green sward " was for the most part formed by various 
species of cyperaceae, intermixed with common mat-grass, from 
which the mats used in the houses are made. The faces of 
rocks and of dark shady recesses gave attachment to many ferns 
of elegant shapes, and creepers of various kinds hung from such 
places in festoons, or twisted up the stems and along the 
branches of the magnificent forest trees, that occurred in great 
numbers. Time did not permit me to classify the plants I 
knew, as I came upon one after another. Their names were noted 
down almost in the order in which they came under notice ; 
consequently their enumeration now will not bear the criticism 
of a scientific botanist; I will therefore give some of their 
names under the form of a foot-note,* merely remarking in this 
place, that among other beautiful and ornamental trees I met 
with here was the much valued camellia, from which, as it grew 

* Cycas, sedum j oxalis, viz., the yellow and tuberous species ; fir, nelum- 
brium, a small species of brinjal; the tobacco plant, turnips, radishes, sweet 
potatoes, buxus, saxifrage, laurel, oleander, creeping fig ; polygonum, both wild 
and cultivated rumex, lycium, melons, sunflower. 



462 NAGASAKI. 

upon the wild mountain face, I had the great pleasure to pluck 
some of its fully expanded flowers. Wherever a well had been 
excavated, its sides were thickly lined by ferns and mosses — 
willows grew in the more moist situations; oaks formed the 
principal tree in the forests, and in the neighbourhood of tem- 
ples, the maiden hair-tree (Salisburia adiantifolia) was always 
the greatest ornament of its class. Fields of the edible arum 
were not uncommon, and trees of the Vyospyrus kaki, or pit- 
simmon, were to be met with in almost every enclosure, its yel- 
lowish red-coloured fruit hanging temptingly from the branches. 
Not a few plants of hydrangea, in full flower, grew upon the 
more rocky places, and hedges of cryptomera surrounded some 
fields of small millet, the full-grown and magnificent trees of 
the same description of pine towering here and there far above 
the other kinds that cover and ornament different valleys and 
portions of the mountain sides. 

In addition to millet, rice is very abundantly cultivated here- 
about, upon terraces such as have been alluded to already, and 
these two descriptions of grain form the principal food of the 
people. It might be believed that the cultivation of rice must 
necessarily render the places adjoining very obnoxious to health. 
This does not, however, appear to be the case here. On the 
contrary, Nagasaki, so far as I could learn, enjoys a high repu- 
tation among the natives themselves for its salubrity. 

I am reluctant to take leave of this most exquisitely beautiful 
and interesting place without alluding once more to the greater 
civilisation of its people than what was to be met with among 
the Chinese, at least those in the north and near the capital. 
It may, indeed, be well said that one of the best tests of the 
degree of civilisation attained by either a single person or a 
community, is shown in their manner of treating a woman. 
The more barbarous the people, the less do they associate with 
their women. 

Now, in Japan ; at least if we can judge from what I observed 
at Nagasaki, families seem to have about as much intercourse 
among each other, as is the case with ourselves. Wives, instead 
of being secluded, or kept separate from the males of a family, 
mix with them, and take upon them the duties of the household 
much after the manner of our own women in England ; and I 



NAGASAKI. 4G3 

perhaps frivolity often shown by even matrons in Japan, there is 
among them less actual harm than might be found in some 
societies where more outward decorum is observed. 

The civility of the people has already been remarked upon ; 
indeed, I have never seen so great a degree of civility displayed 
towards strangers and foreigners as that shown by the more 
respectable classes of Nagasaki towards us. From various 
sources we learned that they and the inhabitants generally of 
Kin Sin are well disposed towards the British, and entertaining 
as they do the belief that before long, one or other of the great 
powers will assume possession of the island, they go so far as 
to express their hope that this power may be Britain. 

In the course of my notes on China, I had occasion more 
than once to remark how very desirable would be a sanatarium 
somewhere in Japan, to which invalids from our stations in the 
former might be sent. My cursory examination of Nagasaki 
convinced me that here is really the best possible situation for 
such an establishment. The place itself possesses in an eminent 
degree all the ordinary indications of being a healthy one. 
Building materials are abundant, and cheap labour is procurable 
to any extent. I have good reason to know that a site for a 
sanatarium could readily be purchased or rented from the local 
government ; and, as already observed, the people seem to be 
well disposed towards us. 

An inspection of a map will show that Nagasaki is most con- 
veniently situated in regard to our various stations and settle- 
ments upon the coast of China. So convenient is it that invalids 
might be transported thither from Hong Kong in a little shorter 
time than five days, from Shanghaie in three, and from the 
Gulf of Pecheli in about four; thus, sick men would in this 
brief period be enabled to exchange the frightful climate of these 
places during the most unhealthy season for a climate as near as 
possible similar to that of one of the most favoured parts of 
England ; and no person can fully comprehend how vast a 
blessing this would prove to men prostrated by sickness and 
pining to death in such pestiferous places as these are, unless 
he himself has witnessed the sufferings and abject despair of 
unfortunate men, who, for want of such an asylum, die poisoned 
by climatorial causes from which they could not be removed. 
I do therefore trust that before another year has elapsed, such an 



464 NAGASAKI. 

establishment as I now advocate will be in full operation at 
Nagasaki. There is no difficulty about the matter ; let govern- 
ment but give the order and full authority, and I will take upon 
myself to carry out the details. 

But this is not the only respect in which Nagasaki claims the 
attention of the authorities. The one to which I am about to 
allude does not certainly come within the province of a medical 
officer ; but he does not necessarily walk about having his eyes 
in his pockets, any more than generals or admirals, and a geo- 
graphical chart may convey to him as valuable information as 
to any person else. 

Tew people need now to be told that Russia has lately ob- 
tained an immense addition to her territories towards the mouth 
of the Amoor. In consequence, however, of the great severity 
of the winter in that latitude, egress for vessels to the ocean is 
not then obtainable ; were that power to obtain possession of 
the Corea, docks and building yards would speedily spring up 
there. It seems that from certain parts of that promontory 
vessels might proceed to sea at any period of the year. It, 
therefore, needs not the gift of prophecy to forsee that in the 
event of such a contingency happening, many of our settlements 
in the east, and even nearer home, would be more or less at the 
mercy of the Muscovite. 

Shortly prior to my visit at Nagasaki, the discovery was 
made that two islands situated in the Straits of Corea had 
already been taken possession of quietly by the navy of Russia, 
and that, upon one pretence or another, the fact was clear, there 
was no disposition upon the part of the possessors to abandon 
their prize. As matters now stand, England has in reality no 
military possession or naval station of sufficient importance in 
this direction to enable her successfully to oppose the encroach- 
ments of any naval power. Nagasaki possesses a harbour that 
cannot be excelled; the approaches, if defended by British 
artillerymen might bid defiance to the most powerful armaments 
on shipboard ; and the natives of the island seem to look for- 
ward with hope and anxiety to the day when Kin Sin shall 
form an integral part of the British empire.